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Another of Eden's personal friends seems to have been Richard Chancellor. At fol. 284, we find that celebrated mariner giving an account of the ingenuity of the Russians in the construction of their buildings; and at fol. 298, a further account of that people. He tells Eden (ib.) of an ambassador whom he saw there from the “province of Sibier," who gave him some curious information about the 6 Great Chan." He met also with the Ambassador of the Kinge of Persia, called the Great Sophie," who was not only civil, but very useful to him.

But it is time to turn to the more immediate object of this chapter—the birth-place of Cabot.

In order to comprehend the full value of the information supplied by Eden, it may be well to show, in the first place, how the matter has been treated by others.

* Sebastian Cabote is, by many of our writers, affirmed to be an Englishman, born at Bristol, but the Italians as positively claim him for their countryman, and say he was born at Venice, which, to speak impartially, I believe to be the truth, for he says himself, that when his father was invited over to England, he brought him with him, though he was then very young" (Harris's Collection of Voyages, vol. ii. p. 191). These expressions are copied, verbatim, by Pinkerton (Collection of Voyages and Travels, vol. xii. p. 160). In the history of Navigation, prefixed to Churchill's Collection of Voyages (vol. i. p. 39), said to have been drawn up by Locke, and found in his works (vol. x. Lond. ed. of 1823, p. 428), reference is made to “Sebastian Cabot, a Venetian, but residing in England." Purchas says of him (vol. iii. Pilgrims, p. 901), “ He was an Englishman by breeding, borne a Venetian, but spending most part of his life in England, and English employments.” Even when he states (vol. iii. p. 807), that on the “ Effigies" of Sebastian Cabot hung up in the Royal Gallery, that personage is called an Englishman, he adds—" for his English breeding, condition, affection and advancement, termed an Englishman," and referring, on ano.

ther occasion to the same document, says, He was born at Venice, and serving Henry VII., Henry VIII., and Edward VI., was accounted English. Galpano says, he was born at Bristol.” By Galpano, he means the Portuguese writer Galvano, or Galvam, in whose work, translated by Hakluyt, that statement is made (p. 66), as it is also by Herrera (Dec. i lib. ix. cap. 13), whom Purchas himself quotes (vol. iv. p. 177 to that point.

In defiance of the contemporary “Efigies," and of these foreign authorities, most modern writers, Hume, Forster, Charlevoid, &c. have been led astray. The Quarterly Review (vol. xvi. p. 154, note) informs us that Henry VII. engaged is the Cabots of Venice in the discovery of Newfoundland;" and Mr Barrow, in his “Chronological History of Voyages, &c.” (p. 36–7), speaks of the credit due to England, for having “ so wisely and honourably enrolled this deserving foreigner in the list of her citizens."

Now it will scarcely be credited, that we have in Eden, a positive statement on the subject, from the lips of Sebastian Cabot himself. The following marginal note will be found at fol. 255/6SEBASTIAN CABOTE TOULD ME that he was borne in Brystowe, and that at üii. yeare ould he was carried with his father to Venice, and so returned agayne into Eng. land with his father after certayne years, whereby he was thought to have been born in Venice.” Thus, then, was the question conclusively settled 275 years ago! It is needless to repeat what has been already said, in another place, as to the slight credit due to the report of the conversation relied on by Harris, Pinkerton, and the rest, for there is, in fact, no discrepance to be reconciled. Cabot there states the circum. stances which more immediately preceded the commission from Henry VII.; and the occasion did not lead to any detail of his own earlier history. Should Sir Edward Parry be recalled to embark on a new voyage of discovery, he might very naturally advert, hereafter, to the period of his return, and would scarcely deem it necessary to add that he had been in the country before. For the future, then, it is to be hoped that no perverse efforts will be made to obscure the claim of England to this Great Seaman. He owed to her his birth, and the language and associations of childhood. He returned thither while yet a boy (“ pene infans" is the expression of Peter Martyr), and grew up there to manhood, when he was commissioned to go in quest of new regions, wherein he set up the banner" of England. Under this banner, he was the first European who reached the shores of the American Continent. He ended, as he had begun, his career in the service of his native country, infusing into her Marine a spirit of lofty enterprise a high moral tone-a system of mild, but inflexible discipline, of which the results were, not long after, so conspicuously displayed. Finally, he is seen to open new sources of commerce, of which the influence may be distinctly traced on her present greatness and prosperity. Surely it is as absurd as it is unnatural, to deny to such a man the claim which he seems to have anxiously preferred, and which has been placed on record under his direct sanction.



BEFORE proceeding to a close examination of the documents which establish the real history of these voyages, it may be well to advert to the reckless manner in which facts have been made to yield to any hypothesis which a short-sighted view has suggested as indispensable.

The following passage is found in Harris' Voyages (ed. of 1744—8, vof. ii. p. 190), and in Pinkerton's Collection (vol. xii. p. 158).

“But the year before that patent was granted, viz. in 1494, John Cabot, with his son Sebastian, had sailed from Bristol upon discovery, and had actually seen the Continent of Newfoundland, to which they gave the name of Prime Vista, or first seen. And on the 24th June, in the same year, he went ashore on an Island which, because it was discovered on that day, he called St John's., and of this Island he reported, very truly, that the soil was barren, that it yielded little, and that the people wear bearskin clothes, and were armed with bows, arrows, pikes, darts, wooden clubs, and slings ; but that the coast abounded with fish, and upon this report of his, the before-mentioned patent (of 5th March 1495) was granted."

Mr Barrow also says (p. 32),

“There is no possible way of reconciling the various accounts collected by Hakluyt, and which amount to no less a number than six, but by supposing John Cabot to have made one voyage, at least, previous to the date of the patent, and some time between that and the date of the return of Columbus, either in 1494

or 1495."

It must by this time be apparent, that the hypothesis thus started, is not only uncalled for, but would contradict every authentic account which has come down to us.

It is altogether irreconcilable with that very document which stands foremost of the 6 six," on the pages of Hakluyt -the extract from the map cut by Clement Adams, and hung up in the Privy Gallery-for it is there declared expressly,

that at five o'clock in the morning, of the 24th June, 1497, was discovered that land, which no man before that time had attempted to approach (“ quam nullus prius adire ausus fuit”). What possible motive can be imagined, on the part of Cabot, for disguising the fact of a discovery made so long before? The supposition is as absurd, as it is gratuitous. How, again, does it agree with the statement of Sebastian Cabot, that on the voyage made under the royal authority, he was surprised by the sight of land, “not thinking to find any other land than that of Cathay?” This is one of the six” accounts which it is proposed to reconcile by assuming a discovery of the same region three years before !

The first patent bears date the 5th March, in the eleventh year of the reign of Henry VII. It is found in Rymer (Fædera, vol. xii. p. 595), who correctly refers it to 5th March, 1496, the computation of this monarch's reign being from August, 1485. Hakluyt states it to be of 1495 (vol. iii. p. 5), looking, as we may infer, not to the Historical, but to the Legal or Civil year, which commenced, prior to 1752, on the 25th March.

The patent is in favour of John Cabot and his three sons, Lewis, Sebastian, and Sancius; and authorises them, their heirs, or deputies, to " sail to all parts, countries, and seas of the East, of the West, and of the North, under our banners and ensigns, with five ships of what burthen or quantity soever they be, and as many mariners or men as they will have with them in the said ships, upon their own proper costs and charges, to seek out, discover, and find whatsoever isles, countries, regions, or provinces of the heathen and infidels, whatsoever they be, and in what part of the world soever they be, which before this time have been unknown to all Christians." It is plain, that a previous discovery, so far from being assigned as the ground for the patent, as Harris, Pinkerton, &c. assert, is negatived by its very terms. The patent would be inapplicable to any region previously visited by either of the Cabots, and confer no right. Assuming, what is obvi- .

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