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lution of this league, nearly a century elapsed before any general association of the colonies was formed. But still these, as well as other colonies, continued to give occasional evidences of the great necessity they felt for, and the high importance with which they regarded a union. Now and then a Congress of governors and commissioners was held, to adopt more effectual measures for their mutual protection against their savage enemies. One of this character was held at Albany, in the year 1722, but another of higher importance was convened there in 1754, consisting of delegates from seven colonies, and called at the instance of the English administration, to consult as to the best means of defending America in the event of a war with France. This Congress published some important doctrines, which, operating with a happy effect on the minds of the colonists, served to direct them in the paths of national glory, and urge them onward to the blessed attainment of our present high station. Another Congress was assembled in 1765 at New York, which, by the bill of rights they adopted, declared the power of taxation to reside solely in their own colonial legislatures, the maintaining of which doctrine was one of the prime causes that led to our revolution. Again, in the fall of the year 1774, the colonies, still urged on by the monstrous claims of the British Parliament and the despotic usurpations of power by George the III., united in sending delegates to Philadelphia, "with authority and discretion to meet and consult together for the common welfare." Eleven of the colonies were represented in this Congress, and by men illustrious for talent, integrity, and patriotism, and whose memories are yet, and ever will be, embalmed by the heartfelt gratitude of their countrymen. They boldly declared wbat they deemed their inalienable rights, and warned the colonists against the violation of them, which was then being attempted by their unnatural mother. Henceforth, the union was continued by successive conventions of Congress. In May, 1775, a Congress was again assembled at the same place, and vested with full powers to concert, agree upon, direct, order, and prosecute such measures as they should most approve, to obtain redress of grievances. Having published a declaration of the causes, which impelled them to resolute resistance, and gradually assuming to themselves the powers of States, on the Fourth day of July, 1776, they gave to the world that glorious instrument which marked the dawning of a brighter era, and the birth day of a happy nation, truly free and independent. Previous to this Congress had begun to prepare articles of confederation, but so discordant were the views and interests of the different states, that they were unable sufficiently to reconcile them, until November 15th, 1777, when; urged by necessity, and animated by a spirit of mutual concession, they adopted the following as the only plan likely to receive a general assent:

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION.

TO ALL TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS SHALL COME, We, the undersigned delegates of the states affixed to our names,

send greeting WHEREAS the delegates of the United States of America in Congress assembļed did, on the fifteenth day of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy-seven, and in the second year of the independence of America, agree to certain articles of confederation and perpetual union between the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, in the words following, viz.

Articles of Confederation and perpetual union between the states of

New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.

ARTICLE I. The style of this confederacy shall be “The United States of America."

Art. II. Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States in Congress assembled.

Art. III. The said states hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defence, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare; binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretence whatever.

ART. IV. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different states in this union, the free inhabitants of each of these states, paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from justice excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several states; and the people of each state shall have free ingress and egress to and from any other state, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions and restrictions as the inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that such restrictions shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any state, to any other state of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided also that no imposition, duties, or restriction shall be laid by any state, on the property of the United States, or either of them.

If any person guilty of, or charged with treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor in any state, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall, upon demand of the government or executive power of the state from which he fled, be delivered up to the state having jurisdiction of his offence.

Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these states to the records, acts and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other state.

ART. V. For the more convenient management of the general interests of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed, in such manner as the Legislature of each state shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November, in every year ; with a power reserved to each state, to recall its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others in their stead, for the remainder of the year.

No state shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor by more than seven members; and no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States, for which he, or another for his benefit, receives any salary, fees, or emolument of any kind.

Each state shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the states, and while they act as members of the committee of the states.

In determining questions in the United States, in Congress assembled, each state shall have one vote.

Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any court, or place out of Congress, and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests and imprisonments, during the time of their going to, and from, and attendance on Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of

the peace.

ART. VI. No state, without the consent of the United States in congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance, or treaty with any king, prince, or state ; nor shall any person

holding any office of profit or trust under the United States, or any of them, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever from any king, prince, or foreign state; nor shall the United States in Congress assembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.

No two or more states shall enter into any treaty, confederation, or alliance whatever between them, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how long it shall continue.

No state shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the United States in Congress assembled, with any king, prince, or state, in purşuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress, to the courts of France and Spain.

No vessels of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any state, except such number only, as shall be deemed necessary by the United States in Congress assembled, for the defence of each state, or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any state, in time of peace, except such number only, as in the judge ment of the United States in Congress assembled, shall be deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defence of such state ; but every state shall always keep up a well-regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accoutred, and shall pro vide and constantly have ready for use, in public stores, a due number of field-pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition, and camp equipage.

No state shall engage in any war without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, unless such state be actually invaded by enemies, or shall have received certain advice of a resolution being formed by some nation of Indians to invade such state, and the danger is so imminent as not to admit of a delay, till the United States in Congress assembled can be consulted ; nor shall any state grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the United States in Congress assembled, and then only against the kingdom or state, and the subjects thereof, against which war has been so declared, and under such regulations as shall be estab

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