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District Clerk's Office. L. S.

BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the twenty fifth day of October, A. D.

1824, in the forty ninth year of the independence of the United States of America, EPAPHRAS Hoyt, of the said district hath deposited in this office the title of a book, the right wereof he claims as author, in the words following, to wil :

** Antiquarian Researches: comprising a History of the Indian Wars in the country bordering Connecticnt river, and parts adjacent, and other interesting events, from the first landing of the Pilgrims, to the conquest of Canada by the English in 1760; with notices of Indian depredations in the neighboring country, and of the first planting and progress of settlements in New England, New York and Canada. By E. Hoyt, Esq."

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, intitled " An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned ;” and also to an act, intitled " an act supplementary to an act intitled an act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and .etching historical and other prints."

Clerk of the District of Massachusetts.


Among the objects that attract the attention of the inquisitive in all countries, as they advance in arts, science, and literature, and consequently civilization, few are sought with more avidity than those relating to their early history; and this avidity seems to increase in direct proportion to the antiquity of a country. Whether this arises from a sort of puerility introduced by a false refinement, or from improvement in intellect, will not here be discussed. But, be this as it may, it will not be denied that a majority of mankind are gratified, on viewing fields where conflicting forces have commingled in bloody strife, and in contemplating, in their leisure hours, the dangers and sufferings of departed heroes. Nor will it be doubted, that a writer (Dr. Johnson, if I mistake not) expressed the genuine sentiment of humanity, when he said, “ 'Far be from me or my friends, such frigid philosophy, as may conduct us indifferent and unmoved, over any ground that has been dignified by wisdom, bravery or virtue. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plains of Marathon, or whose piety would not grow warmer among the ruins of lona."

Partaking of this sentiment, which seems to be growing among the inquisitive in our own country, and particularly of a zeal for looking over the military operations, in which our forefathers evinced the most persevering resolution, in their various wars with the Indians and French, the author of the following work was induced to examine, with critical care, the history of those arduous times, for minute details of the numerous events. In this examination it was found, that they were scattered through many historical works, some of which were voluminous, others very brief, and in none were to be found notices of the whole of the interesting transactions. So far as relates to the country on Connecticut river, within the limits of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, many were found to be omitted, of which the author possesses authentic documents.

Unwilling that these should go down to the vale of oblivion,” he undertook the task of collecting and arranging materials for a work, in which these omissions should be supplied, and the whole of the most interesting transactions, concatenated in a volume of moderate size; and after much research, laborious beyond anticipation, and visiting the sites of many battles, to acquire such topographical information, as would enable him to describe with some degree of military precision, the volume, here offered to the public, was completed.

It would be difficult to cite the whole of the documents, from which the materials for the work have been drawn, for they are considerably numerous; and as the author has been sometime in collecting them, hardly within his recollection. For much original matter, he is indebted to a collection of valuable manuscripts, found among the descendants of the late colonel Israel Williams of Hatfield, who, after the death of colonel John Stoddard of Northampton, was intrusted with the command of the forces, employed on the western frontiers of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, and to whom the early settlers, in that section of country, were much indebted for long and able services. Some facts have also been ob-. tained from letters and journals, of other gentlemen in the same quarter of the country; and others from oral relations of people, whose silvered locks and wrinkled Visages, added double interest to the many hardships, dangers and ex. ploits in which they shared, in " olden times.”

Among the early American works, which have been consulted for facts, areHubbard's Narrative of the Indian Wars, and his History of New England--Dr. Prince's Chronological History of New England - Morton's New England Me morial-Church's History of Philip's War-Dr. Mather's Magnalia-Rev. John Williams' Redeemed Captive--Colden's History of the Five Nations--Smith's of New York--Hutchinson's of Massachusetts--Forster's Collection of Northern Voyages ; besides the Histories of the several New England States, by more recent writers. But none have afforded more aid, than the American Annals of Dr. Holmes, which contain a mass of materials, selected from the best historical and other works. The valuable Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, have also furnished fich important matter, relating to the settlement of the country, as well as to subsequent events. For the perusal of several rare works, the author, with great pleasure, acknowledges bis indebtedness to the Athenæum in Boston ; an institution which reflects the highest honor on its proprietors, not only from its liberal regulations, but from its valuable collection of books.

In noticing the first settlement of towns, some pains have been taken to insert their Indian names. But isere a difficulty has occurred, from the difference in their orthography, as given by different writers; and in some instances, perhaps from a culpable inattention of himself and his printer, they are given with some variation. --Another difficulty has been met, in the different manner of dating at different periods. Before the new style was adopted in England, in 1752, it was common to begin the year on the 25th of March; but for some years prior, as well as after, the dates from January to the 25th of March were expressed in the fractional form, thus, 1703-4--1752-3, &c.; and as this was not always attended to by the writers of the times, anachronisms, may have been committed. In general the early dates, in this work, will require the addition of twelve days, to fit them to the present reckoning.

In most cases where documents have been found ample, minute details have been attempted, while in others where they were less so, they are more condensed ; and from this circumstance, it will be observed, that the military operations on the Connecticat are generally more full than those in other parts of New England, and that some of minor importance, in the eastern quarter, are omitted. Perhaps to some, the particular details of many events, may appear as tediously minute, and the insertion of the names of the sufferers, as supererogatory. The author is of a different opinion ; he believes that among the numerous posterity of the sufferers, these will not be considered as uninteresting parts of the work. The operations of the armies in New York, in the war of 1755, are necessarily condensed, and the exploits of the partisan corps under majors Putnam and Rogers, but partially noticed. A minute History of these Campaigns, which the author has nearly completed, may hereafter be offered to the public.

To the critical reader, great defects will doubtless appear in the style of the work; for the author lays no claims to skill in literary composition. Indeed in looking it over in print, he finds many places susceptible of amendemnts. For these defects, the following is offered as an apology. The work does not aspire to the dignity of a regular History, but to researches into the antiquities of our country ; and as a complete History of New England is still a desideratum, an accumulation of facts, however unskilfully given, will not be considered as unimportant. If then, the work shall add any of importance to the present stock, and afford entertainwent to those who feel an interest in the recital of the hardships and exploits of our forefathers, and at the same time aid the future historian in his researches, the author will rest satisfied ;-for he deems it of more importance, that facts should accumulate, than that he should be thought even a passable writer.

Deerfeld, December 1824.

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First patent of Massachusetts—Another company prepare for a voy-

age to North America—Arrival of John Endicott and company at Sa-

lem-Plantation at Charlestown-Form of government-Other arrivals

at Salem-Company reinoves to Charlestown—Town laid out--Arrival

of a company at Massachusetts bay under governor Winthrop—Settle-

ment of various towns-Peninsula of Shawmut explored-Winthrop

removes to the peninsula-First court of assistants--Shawmut named

Boston-First general court at that plcee-Fortified place selected at

the New Town-Accession of emigrants--Court of elections held at Bos-

ton-New regulations for government-First public tax-Neighboring

Indians hostile-Measures for defence_Tax for fortifying the New

Town-Amity restored with the Indians-Settlement of other towns-

Review of the incidents connected with the first settlement of the coun-

try. Page 28.


Country on the Connecticut attracts the notice of the planters-Invi-
tation of an Indian chief to settle on the river—Plymouth people explore
the country-Beauty of the river, and fertility of the soil-Fish and game

- Impediments to emigration to the river-Project for erecting a trad-
ing house_Vessel sails for the river-Anticipated by the Dutch-Trad-
ing house erected at Windsor-Dutch claim the country, and threaten
hostilities—Pequots threaten war-Harmony restored-A company from
Massachusetts emigrates to the river-Planting of Weathersfield, Hart-
ford, and Windsor-Sufferings of the adventurers-Fort built at Say-
brook-Attempt of the Dutch to seize it-First grant of Connecticut-
Second company of emigrants to the river-Settlement of Springfield-

Association for a temporary government-Roger Williams plants at

I'rovidence- Progress of settlements in Massachusetts, Plymouth, and

Connecticut--Pequots again hostile---Destroy a trading bark--Endicott's

expedition—Various attacks on the English-Expedition from Connect-

icut against the Pequots under Capt. Mason-Massachusetts and Plym-

outh join in the war- Mason lands in Narraganset bay--His march into

the Pequot

untry-Storms a fort--Destruction of the Indians--March

to Pequot harbor, and return to Connecticut--Operations of Massachu-

setts and Plymouth forces--Pequots flee westward--Pursued by the

English, and defeated at the great swamp--Their country conquered.

Page 37.


Distresses of Connecticut people—New Haven explored, and settled

by Mr. Davenport and company--Towns on the Connecticut, agree on

a form of government--Religious intolerance drives a company to Rhode

Island—l'rogress of settlements in various parts-Union of the colonies

--Towns in New England--War between Uncas and Miantonimoh-

Battle between the Dutch and Indians-New London and Stonington

settled-Exploit of lieutenant Leffingwell-Norwich conveyed by Uncas

-Militia of Massachusetts-Code of Laws-First execution for witch-

craft-Laws against the quakers—Their persecutions-Liberal conduct

of Rhofle Island-Remarks-Sumptuary laws-Dutch war-Hostility

of the Narragansets-Forces sent into their country, under major Wil-

Jard—Indians flee, and Willard returns-Vascillating conduct of other

tribes--- Tranquility restored. Page 53.


Explorations of the country---Excursion to the White mountains--

Country above Springfield examined--Purchases of lands of the natives

--Boundary line of Connecticut and Massachusetts---Original titles of

towns on the Connecticut--Settlement of Northampton, Hadley, Hatfield,

Deerfield and Northfield---War between the New England and Mohawk

Indians--Decisive defeat of the former---Arrival of colonels Whalley and

Goffe at Boston-Flee to New Haven--Their adventures in that quarter

---Removal to Hadley, and residence with Mr. Russell--Death of Whal-

ley-Departure of Goffe from Hadley---Col. John Dixwell--Sentiments

of Dr. Stiles respecting the exiles. Page 71.


Progress of settlements from the landing of the pilgrims---Philip, sa-

chem of the Wampanoags---His projects and delusive conduct---Resolves

on war with the English--Strength of the English colonies at this period

---Condition of the Indians of New England - The Pequots, Narragan-

setts, Pokanokets, Massachusetts, Pawtuckets, and other tribes---Their

weapons---Canoes--Food-Devices for taking game and fish--Celerity in

travelling-Apparel-Snow shoes--Night Camps--- Praying Indians---

Where seated. Page 85.


War with Philip, 1075. Allied tribes--Procure fire arms of baron
Castine--Notice of this officer---Conjectures respecting his designs--
Gloomy prospects of the colonists--Commencement of hostilities at
Swanzey-Massachusetts and Plymouth send forces to that quarter--
Penetrate to Mount Hope--March into the Narraganset country--Con-
clude a treaty with the sachems---Operations of the forces under Church

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