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excavation. Upon these boughs, wrapped in their skins, or blankets, they passed the coldest nights, without suffering any inconvenience. In many cases they dispensed with their fires, and lay upon the snow with no covering except their furred robes, and not unfrequently in the morning, found themselves covered with a new supply, fallen in the night, and in this manner it is said they reposed very comfortably.

At the commencement of Philip’s war, a number of the Indians in Massachusetts and Plymouth, had ostensibly embraced the Christian religion; and some had been taught, by missionaries, to read and write. These had obtained the name of praying Indians, and were seated at the following places : Natick, Punkepaos, (Stough ton,) Hassanamesit, (Grafton,) Ökommakamesit, (Marlborough,) Wamesit, (Tewksbury,) Nashobah, (Littleton,) and Magunkaquos, (Hopkinton.) In the Nipmuck country, were the following lodges of praying Indians : Manchage, (Oxford) Chabanakongkomun, (Dudley) Maanexit, (northeast part of Woodstock,) Quantisset, (south east part of Woodstock,) Wabaquissit, (south west corner of Woodstock,) Pakachoog, (part of Worcester) Wacumtung, (Uxbridge.)

The whole number of souls in these lodges, were reckoned at about eleven hundred. In Plymouth, at this time, there were about four hundred and ninety seven praying Indians, and several of the neighboring islands also contained a considerable number of these people. * Fortunately for the English, nearly the whole of these people were kept in a state of neutrality during the war with Philip, through the influence of the visiting missionaries.


The discovery of the projects of Philip, by Sausaman, as has been related in the preceding chapter, was most unfortunate for the chief. He intended that the whole of his allies should have taken the field at once, and made a simultaneous attack on the English settlements. The tribes engaged, besides his Wompanoags, were the Nipmucks, those on Connecticut river above Windsor, and those about Plymouth; the Narrágansets had engaged to furnish a large force; but as they were not fully prepared for the war, they still held out friendly pretences, and attempted to disguise their hostile preparations.

* Gookin's Historical Collections, inserted in Vol, i. of the Massachusetts Hisa torical Collections. See also Holmes, Vol. i. p. 418.

Unfortunately for the English, many of the Indians had at this time furnished themselves with fire arms, but they had but a scanty supply of ammunition. The sale of these articles, though strictly forbidden, was clandestinely carried on, and furs obtained in exchange. Probably some were procured from the Dutch and French colonists; but it is supposed that the greatest supply was obtained from baron Castine, a Frenchman, who had seated himself on the Penobscot, and opened a trade with the natives. He was a nobleman of distinction, a colonel in the king's body guards, and a man of intrigue and enterprise; and had formed an alliance with the savages in that part of the country, in order, it is supposed, to break up the English settlements at Massachusetts, Plymouth, and other parts of New England. To promote his designs, he married, and had living with him at one time, six Indian wives, besides several Roman Catholic priests, at his palace on the east side of the Penobscot, in the present town of Castine. By the aid of these priests, and the efforts of his own genius, he acquired great influence over the natives, and not only furnished, but taught them the use of fire arms. He commenced bis projects through the Penobscot tribe, about the year 1661, and such was his success, that at the commencement of Philip's war, the knowledge of gun powder and fire arms, was universally extended among the savages in the northern part of New England.

The baron was considered as the most dangerous enemỳ the English had met with ; and they, at various times, attempted to capture him; but, though his fortress was taken and plundered, he escaped to the wilderness. He lived to the year 1697, and then left a number of sons, relations by blood, to the Penobscot tribe. *

Whether the baron was sent out by the French gov. * Sullivan's account of the Penobscots.

Historical Collections, Vol. ix. p. 218.

ernment, to unite the tribes against the English, for the purpose of regaining possession of the country they had named Acadie, from which they had been driven by captain Argal, in 1613, or whether he and Philip acted in concert, is not certainly known; both, however are probable.

The circumstances of the English colonists, on the discovery of Philip's designs, were critical. They had to contend with a force united under a chief, bold, daring, and enterprising, who was determined to extirpate his enemy or fall in the attempt. A force so powerful, they had never seen combined against them, and the issue of the struggle could not be foreseen. A gloom was spread over the settlements, and they had no alternative but to breast the storm, or abandon the country.

The bloody scene opened in the colony of Plymouth, June 24th, 1675, not far from mount Hope. Having sent their wives and children, to the Narragansets for safety, a party of the Wampanoags advanced to Swanzey, then Mattapoiset, where they menaced the people, and proceeded to rifle their houses, and even to kill the cattle. An Indian was shot—the party then rushed forward and slew eight or nine of the inhabitants. Intelligence of the affair immediately spread over Plymouth and Massachusetts colonies, and a company of horse under captain Thomas Prentice, and two of infantry under captains Daniel Henchman and Samuel Mosely, from Massachusetts, marched, and formed a junction on the 28th of June, at Swanzey, with the Plymouth forces under captain Cudworth. Several skirmishes soon succeeded, in which a few were killed on both sides. Philip, about this time left mount Hope, and abandoned his country to the English.

Soon after, major Thomas Savage arrived at Swanzey with supplies of provisions, and a reinforcement of men, and took the command of the Massachusetts forces at that place. The next day, the whole body marched for mount Hope, traversing abandoned cornfields, and deserted lodges, and at length reached that place, but the enemy had fled. Prentice's drageons reconnoitring a few miles distant, discovered and engaged a small party of the enemy, on a plain, and killed four or five, two of whom were

Philip's principal men. Finding the enemy had fled from mount Hope, Savage returned with his force to Swanzey.

After several days of fruitless search for the enemy, orders were received from Boston, directing the army to march into the Narraganset country and renew the treaty with the sachems who were supposed to be hostile, and in case of refusal, to force them to terms. Part of the troops accordingly proceeded on the expedition, and after two or three days spent in negociation, the sachems agreed on terms, by which they bound themselves to oppose Philip as far as was in their power, and to continue in friendship with the English, by whom they were offered a handsome reward for the delivery of Philip, dead or alive. The treaty was signed by commissioners from Massachusetts and Connecticut, and four Indians acting as counsellors and attorneys to six principal sachems.

During these operations, lieutenant Benjamin Church, with a small party, penetrating the country about Pocasset neck, found the enemy, and engaged their small detached parties. Not long after, Church and Captain Fuller, with fifty men, penetrated the same quarter, in search of the enemy. Separating their force, they marched in different directions; Fuller took a position on the shore of Rhode Island bay, where being attacked by superior numbers, he was in danger of being destroyed, but at length was brought off by a Rhode Island sloop. Church in the mean time, penetrated Pocasset neck, and meeting a large body of the enemy, was compelled to fall back to the bay, where he was vigorously attacked, and maintained a contest several hours, with great resolution, against a force of treble his number; at length he was brought off by a sloop under captain Golding.

Church soon after joined a body of English forces, and again penetrated Pocasset, and renewed his skirmishes with the enemy, in one of which he killed fourteen or fifteen. The main body of the English, not long after, arrived at the plače, on which Philip retired into the recesses of swamps, followed by his enemy, and several skirmishes took place. Night approaching, the English fell back; and the next day, leaving captain Henchman and one hundred infantry with the Plymouth forces, to watch the movements of the enemy, the main body returned to Boston.

The neck of land on which Philip was now penned up was about seven miles in length, a great part covered by a thick and almost impenetrable swamp, and an attack was exceedingly difficult and dangerous; the English therefore resolved to starve him out, and for this purpose they began a fort, and kept a vigilant eye upon his movements. Philip was not inattentive to the plan of his enemy, and he readily perceived that an attempt to maintain his position would be destruction. Ready in resources, he contrived means to relieve himself; seizing the advantage which the darkness of night presented, he constructed rafts of timber-crossed the arm of the sea extending up towards Taunton river, and eluding his enemy, crossed and fled towards the Nipmucks, who stood ready to receive him. About one hundred women and children left on the neck, were taken by the English.*

Philip's escape was discovered the next morning, by some people at Rehoboth, by the trail he had made through the woods, and a party from that place, joined by some Mohegan Indians, commenced a pursuit, and coming up with him in the night, attacked and took about thirty of his men. Captain Henchman with a small force, proceeded by water to Providence, near which he struck Philip's trail, and also commenced a pursuit, but did not come up until the attack of the Rehoboth party

He however, the next day, with the Mohegans, continued the pursuit, and pressed on until his

provisions were nearly expended, but was not able to come up with the wily chief. The Mohegans soon returned to their country, and Henchman led his troops to Boston.

Not long after the escape of Philip from Pocasset, a party of his allies made an attack on Mendon, and killed five or six people at their labor in the field. Captain Prentice's dragoons were immediately despatched to the place, but they were not able to come in contact with the enemy. About the same time depredations were committed at Middleborough and Dartmouth, in Plymouth colony.

The flames of war about this time began to rage among * dccording to some aecounts, Philip forded the arn at ebb tiue.

was over.

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