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1764, by governor Hutchinson, who obtained it from manuscripts found among the papers of the Mather family of Boston; by whom they are supposed to have been procured from the descendants of Mr Russel. Its developement during the lives of the actors in the scene, would have exposed them to imminent danger, and perhaps have cost them their lives. Among the papers procured by Hutchinson, was a journal kept by Goffe, from the time he left England, to the year 1667; this and other papers relating to the judges, are supposed to have been destroyed at the time the governor's house was rifled by the mob in Boston in 1765.

Of the motives and conduct of the enemies of king Charles, 1st, different opinions are entertained by different men, some justifying while others condemn the whole proceedings. Those who hold to the doctrine that “kings can do no wrong," will embrace the latter. President Stiles, at the close of his History of the judges, attempts a vindication of their conduct, and considers them as friends of true liberty. In summing up his observations, he says “ The intrepid judges of Charles, 1st, will hereafter go down to posterity with increasing renown, among the Jepthas, the Baracks, the Gideons, and the Washingtons, and others raised up by providence for great and momentous occasions : whose memories, with those of all the other successful and unsuccessful, but intrepid and patriotic defenders of real liberty, will be selected in history, and contemplated with equal, impartial and merited justice; and whose names and achievments, and sufferings will be transmitted with honor, renown and glory, through all the ages of liberty and man.'


While the settlements on the lower part of Connecticut river, had been retarded by the various wars with the powerful Indians, in the southeast quarter of New England, those in Massachusetts, met with no serious embarassments. In the course of about fifty years from the first landing of the pilgrims, they had extended more than one hundred miles to the west, and about the same distance


Connecticnt river. But the period was now approaching, when all the frontier plantations were to feel the vengeance of Indian resentment; and to meet with an effectual bar to further progress into the interior.

Metacom, by the English named Philip, the sachem of the Wampanoags, a courageous warrior, residing at Mount Hope, now Bristol, in Rhode Island, a son of the famous Massassoit, who had so long been the faithful friend of the English, endowed with a foresight, not common to the natives, had for sometime beheld the rapid progress of the English settlements, which he perceived must eventuate in the total loss of his territory, and in the extinction of the natives. This warrior therefore, determined to make a grand effort against the impending ruin; and for several years made secret exertions to unite the numerous tribes, with a view of extirpating the English from New England.

To cover his designs, he held out pretences of friendship, and in 1662, he visited the English at Plymouth, and solicited a continuance of amity; promising for himself and successors, to continue subjects of the king of England. In 1671, pretending that some damage had been done to his planting grounds, he threatened immediate war; but on a formal inquiry into the complaint, by the English at Plymouth, he acknowledged that his provocations were groundless, and subscribed an instrument of submission.

By these illusive means, he allayed the suspicions of the English, and in the mean time secretly ripened his plans, for a simultaneous attack by all his allies. At length Philip's plans were divulged to the English, by Sausaman, a friendly Indian, who, for this act, was soon after murdered by some of Philip's Indians. Three of the perpetrators, one a counsellor of the chief, were seized ---tried before a court 'at Plymouth-condemned and executed. At the trial, an Indian testified that he saw the murder of Sausaman, who was fishing through the ice of a pond, knocked down by three Indians belonging to the Wompanoags, and plunged under the ice. The body being taken out of the pond, exhibited the wound upon the head. Philip was charged with aiding in the murder; and as he made no efforts to exculpate himself, it was believed by the English, that he was guilty. His deceptive measures were no longer held out, and he resolved on immediate war.

Before we enter upon the details of the bloody struggle which ensued, it is important to notice the strength of the English in New England, and the condition of the Indian tribes in the vicinity of the settlements.

From the first planting of Massachusetts, up to the year 1637, according to Dr. fiolmes, the number of ships, employed in transporting emigrants to New England, was estimated at two hundred and ninety eight, and the number of men, women and children brought over, was twenty one thousand two hundred; other accounts make the number much less. In 1640, in consequence of'a change of affairs in England, emigration to New England, nearly subsided, and for several succeeding years, the number in the colonies rather decreased, by the return of many of the settlers to their native country.

In 1673, the whole number of inhabitants, in New England, was estimated at one hundred and twenty thousand, of whom about sixteen thousand were able to bear arms; Boston at this time contained fifteen hundred families. The militia of Connecticut, amounted to two thousand and seventy; one quarter of which were mounted dragoons. In Massachusetts, in 1675, were twelve troops of cavalry, each consisting of sixty men, exclusive of officers; all mounted and armed with swords, carbines and pistols——shielded by a kind of cuirass, and dressed in buff coats. In time of peace, the officers had an allowance from government, for expences on training days; in actual service, the monthly pay of a captain was £6; that of the foot, £4; and the privates, one shilling per day. Bold, hardy and enterprising, though little versed in regular warfare, the troops were

well qualified for military service in the woods; and with the advantages derived from their fire arms, they did not decline a contest with superior numerical forces. Cannon were of little service, excepting in the defence of the few temporary fortifications, erected at the most exposed places. And indeed they were seldom used in the field; for it was difficult, if not impossible, to transport them with the requisite celerity, through trackless forests and morasses; over hills, mountains and rivers, particularly when incumbered, as the men were, with their provisions upon their backs.

The Indians at this time, though much reduced below their former numbers, presented a formidable force extending over a large tract of country; but generally seated in collected lodges, on the banks of rivers, or borders of small lakes. Originally they were divided into five principal nations, viz. The Pequots, Narragansets, Pawkunna wkuts, Massachusetts and Pawtuckets. According to Gookin, who wrote “ Historical Sketches” of these nations in 1674, their numbers and situation were as follows.

1. The Pequots were seated in the southerly part of New England, within the present bounds of Connecticut; about forty years ago, they were a warlike people, and their sachem held dominion over several petty sagamores; as those of Long island, the Mohegans, Quinipiacks, and some of the Nipmucks about Quinaboag. The principal sachem resided at, or about Pequot harbor, and once could raise four thousand warriors; but at this time reduced to about three hundret fighting men, subject to the English, by whom they were conquered in 1638.

2 The Narragansets spread over the principal part of the territory, now comprehended by the state of Rhode Island, including the islands in the bay. Their south west bounds was four or five miles east of Paucatuk river, joining on the country of the Pequots; their sachem had under his control, part of the Indians of Long island, those of Block island, Cawesit, the Nianticks, and part of the Nipmucks; and their numbers were formidable. They were once able to raise about five thousand warriors. Roger Williams says their country was so populous, that the traveller would meet with a dozen Indian towns, in twenty miles; and in 1674, the whole number did not exceed one thousand. The principal seat of the sachem, was on Conanicut island, but he occasionally resided on the main about the bay. The country of the Narragansets was peculiarly adapted to the Indian mode of life; the waters afforded great facilities for canoe navigation ; and, as the lands were generally fertile, and fish plenty, the natives were exempted from those wants, which were common to those of less favored regions, and they enjoyed a degree of happiness little short of civilized life.

3. The Pawkunawkuts, or Pokanokets, sometimes. called Wampanoags. The territory of this nation extended over the principal part of the colony of Plymouth, bounding west on the Narragansets, and north on the Massachusetts. The tribes tributary to these people, were those upon the islands of Nantucket and Capewick -the Nawsetts, Sawkattuckets, absquassets, Matakees, part of the Nipmucks, and several other tribes. This nation was potent in former times, and according to the most authentic accounts, could raise three thousand warriors. When the English landed at Plymouth, the chief sachem was Masassoit whose seat was at Pokanoket, at, or near Mount Hupe, in Bristol, afterwards the residence of his son, the famous Philip.

A few years prior to the arrival of the English, great numbers of this nation were swept off by a fatal sickness, said to be epidemical. Gookin states that the Indians informed him, that those who had the disease were of the color of a yellow garment” and it was so destructive, that many lodges were almost depopulated. Two gentlemen of Plymouth, who made a visit to Masassoit at Pokanoket, in 1621, traversing the country on Taunton river, found fine fields formerly planted with corn, and excellent open tracts that were entirely destitute of inhabitants; and in many places, the skulls and other bones of those who had died of the disease, were seen in great quantities, scattered over the surface. *

4. The Massachusetts nation: These were scattered about the bay of that name, and their territory spread from the Pokanokets, on the south, to the Pawtuckets on the north, and their chief sachem held dominion over the Wechagaskas, Neponsetts, Punkapaogs, Nonantums, Nashaways, part of the Nipmucks, and the Pocumtucks at Deerfield, on Connecticut river. In former times this nation could arm about three thousand men; but suffering a great loss by the fatal sickness, so destructive to the

* Was this the fatal disease now denominated yellow fever?-If so, was it imported from the West Indies by the trading ships ; or did it originate in the coudtry?

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