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nary degree, or whose estates have been considerable, though now decayed."*
The attention of the New England colonies was now called to a more important subject. A war having commenced between England and Holland in 1652, apprehensions were entertained that hostilities would open between the colonies of the two nations in America. But though a threatening attitude was for some time held out by the Dutch of New Netherlands, and forces were raised by the four New England colonies, the threatened storm subsided without a conflict. The Narragansets, at this time under the sachem Ninnigret, indicated a disposition to join the Dutch, in case of hostilities; and actually held a conference with them at Manhattan, in the winter of 1652, and for some time after refused to treat with the English for a continuation of peace. Under these threatening appearances the commissioners of the colonies met, and resolved to raise two hundred and fifty infantry, and forty cavalry, for the purpose of bringing the Narragansets to terms. Massachusetts was opposed to the measure, and at first declined aiding in the project. But at length, they raised their quota of men, and major Simon Willard, of that colony, in the month of October, led a force into the Narraganset country. Ninnigret with his people, fled to a swamp, about fifteen miles distant; Willard declined a pursuit, and after seizing about one hundred Pequots, who had resided with the Narragansets, since the conquest of their country, returned with his forces. The commissioners in favor of the expedition were dissatisfied with the conduct of major Willard, and charged him with having neglected a fair opportunity of chastising the Indians, by the destruction of their lodges and fields of corn. By many people in Connecticut and New Haven, it was believed that the commander was secretly instructed by the government of Massachusetts, to avoid depredations on the property of the Indians, and thereby prevent a war, which the latter province considered as unnecessary, and inexpedient. Be this as it may, no imputation appears to have been cast upon major Willard by Massachusetts, and his firmness as an officer was not doubted. * Massachusetts Laws, quoted by Holmes, Vol. i.
After the fruitless expedition under Willard, Ninnigret, who had been at war with the Montauket Indians, on Long Island, continued his depredations on these people and reduced them to great distress. As these Indians were in alliance with the colonies, measures were taken to aid them against Ninnigret. An armed vessel was stationed off Montauk, to watch his movements, and forces prepared at Saybrook and New London, to move on short notice, should the hostile chief again attempt to to invade the island. Hostilities however continued some time, and the tribes in various directions exhibited a conduct singularly vascillating. In 1657, some mischief was done at Farmington, in which the Norwootuck and Pocomtuck Indians, were supposed to be accomplices. The Mohegans, under Uncas, also partook of the hostile spirit, and an assault was made by them, upon the Podunk Indians, at Windsor. At length the Long island Indians turned against their friends on the island, and major Mason was ordered with a force for the protection of the English in that quarter.
Before the war terminated, Uncas found himself involved with the Narragansets, by whom he was so pressed, that the English on the Connecticut, found it necessary to send troops to his aid. The Narragansets in several other instances threatened and even plundered the inhabitants of Connecticut.*
The war at length terminating, the Englishi were once more left to pursue the arts of peace. Remote parts of the country, were explored for plantations, which soon extended to the north and west. The White mountains in New Hampshire, had been visited by one Darby Field, with a party from Piscataqua, in 1642, conducted by a few Indians; and with the adjacent country, described in a romantic style. The summit of the mountain was represented to be far above the clouds, and covered with snow throughout the year, presenting a plain of a days
* Trumbull's Connecticat, Vol. i. p. 231.
Journey over, and the .country around full of bills; clothed with handsome woods. On the plain, a rude heap of massy stones, were said to be piled, to the height of a mile, accessible only from stone to stone, by a kind of ascending stairs, on the top of wbich was another level of about the area of an acre, containing a pond of clear water. From this height, the adventurers beheld a great lake, from which ascended a vapour like a vast pillar drawn up by the sun beams, and forming a cloud.» Extraordinary minerals, indicating the precious metals, were seen, and otbers resembling chrystals, from which the mountains were named, the Chrystal hills. * Modern travellers are not alone chargeable with romances.
The country on the Connecticut, above Springfield, was about this time explored, and found to contain favourable positions for plantations. In many places extensive alluvial intervals were seen, bordering the river, and the adjacent lands were found to be of a good quality, covered with excellent timber, and filled with game. Springfield was the upper settlement, and had become a place of some note; and as the line between Connecticut and Massachusetts remained unsettled, it was doubtful to which province it belonged. The tract of country now covered by Suffield, West Springfield and Long Meadow, had been purchased of the natives, by Mr. Pynchon and company; and in 1642, the line between Connecticut and Massachusetts, was run by Nathaniel Woodward and Solomon Saffery, from a point three miles south of Charles river, terminating at the house of a Mr. Bissell, on Connecticut river, in Windsor; by which it was found that Enfield, Suffield and Woodstock, were within the limits of Massachusetts, and that province, in 1670, granted the lands at Suffield to major John Pynchon and others, as a committee to lay out and plant a township; and soon after it was settled and incorporated with town privileges. The same year Enfield, a township six miles square, was granted to several planters; and in 1681, settled by people from Massachusetts. West Springfield and Long Meadow, were set off from Springfield several years after.
* Belknap's New itampshire, 1, 19, where the tour is placed in 1632, which Dr. Holmes concludes is erroneous.
The boundary line between Massachusetts and Con mecticut, as marked by Woodward and Saffery, being unsatisfactory to Connecticut, in 1713, commissioners, fully empowered, from the two colonies, agreed on a new line, by which Enfield and Suffield were taken from Mas. sachusetts, and annexed to Connecticut. The whole tract cut off from the former province, was 107,793 acres, which was sold in 1716, for six hundred and eighty three pounds, and the money applied to the use of Yale College. *
The first planters at Windsor, Hartford and Weathersfield, had obtained the right of settling the lands from the legal owners, but they afterwards paid the lodians for the soil and took deeds, but the Indians generally reserved the right of hunting, cutting timber and planting corn on such tracts as they should choose. Windsor embraced a considerable tract of country on each side of the Connecticut; but the greatest quantity lay on the west side, where the first settlements were made; the place then called Poquannock, by the natives. East Windsor began to be settled in 1680, by families from Poquannock.
The lands at Hartford were purchased of Sequangen, the sachem of that place, in 1636, and like Windsor, lay on each side of the river. But the evidence of the purchase being imperfect, a new one was made in 1670. The Dutch fort and trading house, were situated at the confluence of Mill river with the Connecticut, and the land now retains the name of Trutch Point.
Owing to hostilities with the Indians in the southerly quarter of Connecticut, the settlement of the lands below Weathersfield, had been retarded, and, with the exception of Saybrook, no town planted prior to 1631. This year several people from Hartford and Weatherefie!!!, began a settlement at Mattabeseck, which was afterwards named Middletown, and accessions were soon made to the place, by people from several towns in Massachasetts, and emigrants from England, and the place soon rose inte notice.
In 1662, a tract of land was purchased of the natives, extending six miles on each side of Connecticut river,
* Trumbulls Connecticut, Vol. i. pp. 146, 147,
embracing the present towns of East and West Haddam; the Indian name of the purchase east of the river was Machemoodus. The first settlements were made on the west side of the river, and in 1668, the plantation was vested with town privileges, under the name of Haddam. Several other towns in this quarter of the country were planted about this time. Lyme received settlers in 1604; the eastern part was called Nehantick. Symsbury was settled in 1650 and made a town in 1670; its Indian name was Massacoe, and at first made a part of Wind
'The first settlements at Wallingford, were made about 1670. Derby, first called Paugasset, was made a town in 1675; and about the same time Pomperaug was planted by the name of Woodbury. The settlement of Glastenbury was of a more recent date, and it was not made a town until 1690.
In Massachusetts, no settlements had been made on Connecticut river above Springfield, prior to 1653; this year the general court of that province, granted liberty for the settlement of two towns on the extensive bottoms in that part of the country. The next year a number of people began a plantation at Nonotuck, which they named Northampton. The township was conveyed to John Pynchon, Esq. in trust for the settlers, by Wawhillowa, and six other Indians, styled the chief and proper owners, for one hundred fathoms of wampumpeag, ten coats, several small presents, and some agricultural labor, to be performed by the grantees. The tract included in the deed, extended from the falls, at South Hadley to what is now Hatfield, and westerly from the Connecticut, about nine miles, embracing nearly 5000 acres of rich alluvial bottom. Accessions of people were soon made; and in 1658, Mr. Matber, from Dorchester, was settled minister of the town, and brought with him several planters from that place. His salary was fixed at eighty pounds sterling, to be paid in wheat, at three shilling and six pence the bushel.*
About the time of the settlement of Northampton, a number of people from Weathersfield, Hartford and Windsor, proceeded up Connecticut river, and planted themselves at Hadley. Religious contentions which had
* Dwight's rarels, Letter 34.