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from a want of strength to extricate himself, remained until he perished. The circumstances of the people being made known at Plymouth, and learning from Masassoit that the neighboring Indians had resolved to destroy the place, Capt. Standish was dispatched with a party for their relief, and to seize one of the Indian chiefs. Proceeding by water, Standish landed in Massachusetts bay, among the natives, who suspecting his designs, insulted him, and threatened his life; four of the Indians, two of whom were chiefs, having entered a hut with Standish, and a few of his men, he resolved to put them to death ; at a signal, the door was suddenly closed, and with a knife wrested from one of the chiefs, Standish dispatched him, while his party promptly killed two others. Proceeding to another place, a skirmish ensued

one Indian was killed and others put to flight; and being joined by Weston's men, they killed two more of the savages. Standish then took the people on board, gave them provisions, and carried them to Plymouth. The Indians were so intimidated by this prompt punishment, that they fled into the woods and swamps, and made no further attempts to disturb the English for some time.

During the summer of 1622, the adventurers were so much distressed by a deficiency of food, that they were compelled to apply to the fishing vessels on the coast, and to the Indians for a supply. Voyages were made to the island of Monahegon for the same purpose, and a partial relief was obtained. The crops also promised some aid ; sixty acres of corn had been planted, and the gardens began to be productive.

The success of the Plymouth colony stimulated other adventurers to try their fortunes in New England. In July, 1623, a ship arrived at Plymouth, with supplies of necessary articles from England, and vessels trading on the coast frequently put into the port. Another company, sent out this year, by sir Fernando Gorges, and captain John Mason, commenced a settlement at Little harbor, on the west side of Piscataqua river, within the present limits of New Hampshire; and several of the adventurers proceeded up the river and planted at Cocheco, now Dover.

The next year, a company arrived from England and began a settlement at Cape Ann, and erected a fishing stage; and the same year Wessagusset was reoccupied, and received an accession of people from Weymouth in England. In November, Naumkeag, now Salem, was explored by the people of Cape Ann.

Plymouth at this time contained thirty two dwelling houses, and about one hundred and eighty inhabitants ; and such had been the health of the place, that none of the first planters had died for the three last years. Mr. Edward Winslow, who had been sent home on business for the colony, returned to Plymouth, and to the great joy of the people, brought with him a fine English bull and three heifers, the first neat stock that had been landed in New England. The same ship brought a supply of clothing and other necessary articles, with letters from Rev. John Robinson, stating the reasons for having delayed his passage to New England. One of the passengers in this ship, was Mr. John Lyfold, a minister of the Gospel, who had been induced by some of the Plymouth company in London, to embark for America. He was welcomed by the settlers, and at first admitted to the governor's council; suspicions however soon arose against his religious sentiments, as well as his moral character; and he lost the esteem of the people of Plymouth, and soon removed to Nantasket, where were a few settlers, and afterwards joined those at Cape Ann.

About this time, a plantation was begun at Mount Wollaston, now Quincy, near the present seat of the Hon. John Adams. The company was from England, consisting of a few persons of eminence, and about thirty servants. Capt. Wollaston, who was the principal character, soon left the place, and sailed with most of his servants, to Virginia.

The plantation at Plymouth continuing to flourish, ships were loaded with furs, and other articles of the country and sent to England; a trade about this time was opened with the Dutch at Manhattan, who sent articles of merchandize to Manomet,* from which they were received by the English, by an overland rout, thereby avoiding the dangerous passage around Cape Cod. In 1628, the English set up a trading house at Kennebec, where they had obtained a patent of lands, and a considerable trade was maintained with the natives.

* Manomet is a creek running through Sandwich, entering Buzzard's bay; the Indian town was situated on the creek, twenty miles south of Plymouth.

Prior to this time the planters at Plymouth, received an account of the death of their much esteemed pastor, Mr. John Robinson, at Leyden, March 1, 1625, in the fiftieth year of his age. His arrival at Plymouth had been expected for several years; but the difficulties attending the voyage, and the poverty of his congregation in Holland, are said to have prevented his removal.

Mr. Robinson was a man of no ordinary talents : his knowledge on many points, was far superior to that of most of the clergy of the dark age in which he lived, and extraordinary as it may appear, he seems to have justly appreciated the benefits which would result to religion from a liberal toleration. His charge to his people, on parting with them when they embarked for America, is a rare production for one of his profession in that age of bigotry and persecution, and evinced a highly enlightened mind.-Brethren,” said he, “ we are now quickly to part from one another, and whether I may live to see your faces on earth any more, the God of Heaven only knows; but whether the Lord hath appointed that or no, I charge you before God and his blessed angels, that you follow me no further than you have seen me follow the Lord Jesus Christ. If God reveal any thing to you by any other instrument of his, be as ready to receive it, as ever you were any truth by my ministry; for I am verily persuaded-1 am confident—the Lord has more truth yet to break forth out of his holy word. For my part, I cannot sufficiently bewail the condition of the reformed churches, who are come to a period in religion, and will go, at present, no farther than the instruments of reformation. The Lutherans cannot be drawn to go beyond what Luther saw ; whatever part of his will, God has revealed to Calvin, they will rather die than embrace it. And Calvinists, you see, stick fast where they were left by that great man of God, who saw not all things. This is a misery much to be lamented; for though they were burning and shining lights in their times, yet they penetrated not into the whole counsel of God; but were they now living, would be as willing to embrace further light, as that which they at first received. I beseech you to remember it, as an article of your Church covenant, that you be ready to receive, whatever truth shall be made known to you from the written word of God. Remember that, and every other article, of your sacred covenant. But I must herewithal exhort you to take heed what you receive as truth. Examine, consider and compare it with other scriptures of truth, before you receive it; for it is not possible the Christian world should come so lately out of such thick antichristian darkness, and that perfection of knowledge should break forth at once."

Had the wise counsels of this enlightened man been followed, persecution would not have been known among our early fathers, and their memories would have descended to posterity with fewer blemishes than we are compelled to acknowledge they were darkened.


The continued persecution of the non-conformists, in England, and the prosperous condition of the Plymouth adventurers, induced another company of Englishmen to seek an asylum for religious freedom in North America. On the thirteenth of March, 1628, “ the council for New England sold to sir Henry Roswell, sir John Young, and four other associates, in the vicinity of Dorchester, a patent for all that part of New England lying between three miles to the northward of Merrimac river, and three miles to the southward of Charles river; and in length, within the described breadth, from the Atlantic ocean to the South sea.” This patent was the foundation of the colony of Massachusetts. Unfortunately the limits were so indefinite, particularly on the north and south, that much perplexity was experienced in adjusting them in later times, and disputes continued for many years with the contiguous colonies.

Soon after obtaining their patent, the company chose a governor and deputy governor, with eighteen assistants, and sent out a number of people under the care of John Endicott, who arrived at Naumkeag, which they named Salem.* The place was then an uncultivated desart, and as it had been abandoned by the natives, the adventurers met with no interruption; but proving unhealthy, and several dying, part of the people by the consent of Endicott, removed and settled at a place called Mishawum, since Charlestown, where the natives were found to be numerous, and an English house had been built by Thomas Walford, a blacksmith, one of the early adventurers.

The company in England, in 1629, was incorporated by king Charles, by the name of “the Governor and company in the Massachusetts bay in New England, with power to elect forever, out of the freeman of said company, a Governor, deputy Governor and eighteen assistants, to be newly chosen on the last Wednesday in easter term, annually; and to make laws not repugnant to the laws of England.”

At a meeting held in London, April thirtieth, a form of government was settled for the colony. Thirteen persons resident in the colonial settlement, to have the sole management of the colony. At the same meeting John Endicott was elected governor, and Francis Higginson, and six others to be the council, with power to choose three others; and such planters as should live within the limits of the plantation, were empowered to elect two more, to make the number of the council twelve, one of whom was, by the governor and council, or the major part of them, to be chosen deputy to the governor for the time being. These persons were to continue in office one year, or until the court of the company in London should appoint others; and the governor, or in his absence, the deputy governor, might call courts at discretion.

People of note were found ready to emigrate to New England, but they were not satisfied with the form of government that had been adopted, which authorized the enacting of laws for them in England without their consent. To obviate this difficulty, it was decreed by the

* Dr. Cotton Mather, in the fertility of his imagination suggests that the Indian name of this place, which he calls Nahumkeick, was Hebrew: for, says he, nahum signifies comfort, and keik a haven, and our English not only found it a haven of comfort, but happened also to put a Hebrew name upon it'; for they called it Salem, for the peace they kad hoped in it.-- Magnalia Christ. Americana.

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