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and were employed in felling timber, for the erection of a common storehouse, which was raised on the twenty fifth, an: a small fort was commenced on the summit of the hill, on which the burying ground in Plymouth is now situated. The thirty first being Sunday, most of the people remained on board the ship, while others kept the day in the new building.

The people having divided into nineteen families, proceeded to the building of their village. This was laid out in two parallel lines, each family had its proportion of land set out for houses and gardens, and the rude buildings were erected with expedition. In grateful remembrance of the Christian friends they had parted with in Plymouth, in England, they gave their town that name, which it still retains. About the middle of January the storehouse unfortunately took fire in its thatched roof, and was consumed.

Though the adventurers had occasionally seen a few of the natives in the neighboring woods, discovered their distant fires, and been alarmed at their shouts, they had not been able to obtain an interview; and to prevent a surprise, guards were constantly kept on the alert. The rank of captain had been conferred on Miles Standish, and he was intrusted with the military command of the colony.

On the 16th of March, the English received a visit from one of the natives, who came boldly into Plymouth, calling out welcome Englishmen! His name was Samoset, a Sagamore, who had learned a little English from the fishing vessels that had been on the coast. He informed the adventurers that the place they occupied, was called by the Indians, Patuxet, and that all the people formerly inhabiting the place, died of an extraordinary sickness about four years since. Samoset was treated with great hospitality, and soon after made several other visits, in one of which he was accompanied by Squanto, one of the Indians, kidnapped by Hunt, as has been related. This native had escaped from Spain, got to England, where he learned to speak English, and afterwards returned to his native country, with captain Dermer in 1619. These Indians informed the adventurers, that Masaşsoit, the great chief of the neighboring Indians was approaching with a number of his people ; and in the course of an hour he was in sight, with sixty attendants, on the summit of a bill opposite to the town.

Whether the designs of the chief were hostile or pacific was for some time doubtful ; Squanto was dispatched to ascertain his intentions, and on return he informed that the chief was desirous of holding a parley, and proposed that the English should send one of their people to him. Mr. Winslow was immediately dispatched with some han: some presents and a pot of strong water to the chief, who gadly received them; and on being informed that the English were desirous of opening a trade, and of entering into a treaty of friendship with him; the chief directed his brother to take Mr. Winslow into custody, and with twenty unarmed Indians, he passed on towards the town. Capt. Standish, with another gentleman and six armed men, met him at a brok, and conducted him to the village, where governor Carver, attended by a drum and trumpet, and a few men, received him. After an exchange of salutations, refreshments were placed before the chief, of which he and his people freely partook. A league of friendship was then agreed on, by which he promised perpetual peace, and to aid the English, should they be attacked by any of the neighboring Indians. * The governor then conducted him over the brook, and Mr. Winslow having been released, the Indians departed well pleased with their interview.

By the treaty agreed on, the English were in some measure relieved of their alarms from an attack of the natives—yet deprived of many of the necessaries of life, they experienced great sufferings. During the year 1621, a mortal sickness prevailed, and swept off more than half their number; Mr. Carver who had been re-appointed governor for the second year, also died, but not of the prevailing disease; and William Bradford was elected to fill his place.

Early in the spring, Capt. Jones, who brought out the colony, returned with his ship to England, and communicated the state of the adventurers at Plymouth ; on which their friends in London dispatched a vessel under Capt. Cushman, which arrived at the settlement in November, with thirty four persons destined to remain in the colony. By this ship, a charter procured by some of the company in London, was received by the settlers. Soon after the departure of the first company from England in 1620, a new patent was granted by king James to the duke of Lenox and several associates, and their successors—styling them 66 The Council established at Plymouth, (England) in the County of Devon, for the planting, ruling, ordering and governing New England in America.” By this patent, that part of the American territory which lies between the fortieth and forty eighth degree of north latitude “ in breadth and in length, by all the breadth aforesaid throughout the main land, from sea to seawas given them in absolute property ;-the same authority and privileges, which had previously been given to the treasurer and company of Virginia, were now conferred on them, and they were equally impowered to exclude all from trading within the boundaries of their jurisdiction, and from fishing in the neighboring

* This league was faithfully observed by Masassoit for more than fifty years, and his people were generally faithful to the English.

The patent was the only civil basis of all the subsequent patents and plantations, which divided this coun



The first patent of Plymouth had been taken out in the name of John Pierce, in trust for the company of adventurers, but when he saw the promising state of the settlement, without their knowledge, but in their name, he procured another patent of larger extent, intending to keep it for his own benefit, and hold the adventurers as his tenants. In pursuance of his design, he made several abortive attempts to send a ship to New England. After severe losses Pierce gave up his project, and assigned his patent to the agents of the adventurers, for five hundred pounds.t

The title of the lands at Plymouth being now secured, the establishment began to flourish, and in the second year, twenty acres of Indian corn were raised, and a considerable quantity of peas and barley. Unaccustomed to the cultivation of the corn, much aid was received from Squanto, who instructed the people in the manner of planting, cultivating and gathering the crop. This In

* Holmes' Annals, Vol. i. p. 204. + Ibid. Vol. i. p. 227.

dian also rendered important services to the English in various other employments, and was a warm and faithful friend, notwithstanding the insidious treatment he had received from their countryman Hunt. Contrary to the vindictive habits of the Indians, he seems to have been disposed to render good for evil-a rare instance in a savage.

Though the natives had thus far proved friendly, and the disposition of the greater part promised a continuance of harmony, the dawnings of savage jealousy began al length to appear. One of the petty chiefs of the neighborhood attempted to alienate the affections of the subjects of Masassoit from the chief, and an attempt was made on the life of Squanto and another friendly Indian. To crush these machinations, captain Standish and fourteen men were dispatched to Namasket, since Middleborough, where the mischief had originated; Corbitant, the disaffected chief, and his followers, fled out of danger. This prompt application of military force struck such a terror into the neighboring Indians, that nine sachems came to Plymouth, and voluntarily subscribed submission to king James, promising to be his loyal subjects. Other sachems under the influence of Masassoit made similar submissions, and the English flattered themselves they should continue at peace with the natives.

At this time, a powerful nation of Indians residing about Narraganset bay, in the present state of Rhode Island, bordering on Masassoit's dominion, had heard of the settlement of the English at Plymouth, and began to exhibit a hostile disposition towards them; and learning that disease had swept off considerable numbers, they deemed it a favorable time to extirpate the remainder. Apprised of their danger, the English, early in 1622, prepared for their defence, by erecting palisades about their settlement, including the fort upon the hill, and added several flankers to the work; and the gates were kept closely locked at night, and the place carefully guarded.

The Narragansets still kept up their hostile menaces, and Canonicus, their chief, sent the English a bundle of arrows enclosed in a snake skin, which they were informed by Squanto, was a direct challenge to fight. The governor, taking the advice of his leading men, acted with firmness; he returned the skin filled with powder and ball, as a defiance. Whether the Narragansets were intimidated by the firmness of the English, or by the powerful alliance they had formed with the tribes in the neighborhood is uncertain, but the threatened attack was given up, and the English settlements remained without further interruption from the Narragansets.

In the spring of this year, two ships arrived at Plymouth, with a company of emigrants, sent out by Thomas Weston, a London merchant, who had aided the Plymouth adventurers, at the time they left Holland. The company was to settle a plantation on Massachusetts bay, for which Weston had obtained a patent. Many of the people being sick on their arrival, they continued at Plymouth through the summer. The others after examining the neighboring country, selected a place for a plantation at Wessagusset, since called Weymouth, to which the whole at length removed. The company soon expended their provisions, and were reduced to great distress; and finding it impossible to procure corn of the Indians by purchase, to save life, some of the people took it by force, which so exasperated the Indians, that they threatened to cut off the whole plantation, unless satisfaction was made, by putting to death the guilty persons. To appease the wrath of the Indians, it is said, an old decreptit man was selected for a sacrifice, and actually executed.* One person in his distress, attempting to gather clams from the flats, sunk into the mud, and

* This vicarious execution, gave rise to the following sarcasm in Butler's Hudibras, Part II, Canto 2. • Our brethren of New England use Complaining sorely of the breach Choice malefactors to excuse,

Of league held forth by brother patch, And hang the guiltless in their stead Against the articles in force Of whom the churches have less need; Between both churches, his and ours, As lately happened. In a town For which he crav'd the saints to render There liv'd a cobler, and but one, Into his hands or hang th' offender ; That out of doctrine could cut use, But they maturely having weigh’d, And mend men's lives as well as shoes. They had no more but him o' th trade This precious brother having slain, (A man that serv'd them in a double. In times of peace, an Indian,

Capacity, to teach and cobble,) (Not out of malice, but mere zeal, Reso'v'd to spare him; yet to do Because he was an Infidel,)

The Indian Hoghgan, Moghgan too, "The mighty Tottipottymoy

Impartial justice, in his stead did Sent to our elders an envoy;

Hang an old weaver that was bed rid." Hubbard admits the theft; but says the person executed was one of the party who stole the corn from the Indians.--History of New-England.

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