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they could put to sea; the ships however sailed, and arrived at Sagadahock. In consequence of the loss of their principal patrons, and their other sufferings during the winter, the adventurers were discouraged, and the whole returned to England in 1608, under the impression that the country was too cold to admit of English inhabitants.

This abandonment of the country, induced the French to believe that the English would not again attempt a settlement on the coast; and they soon extended their plantations westerly into various places claimed by the English. In 1808, de Ments fitted out three ships under Champlain, to make new settlements in Acadie, and on the river St. Lawrence in Canada. Having examined several places, Champlain sailed up the St. Lawrence, and selected a spot at the mouth of the little river St. Charles, where he erected barracks-cleared the ground, and began cultivation, and adopted for the place, the Indian name Quebec. Here he spent the winter with his people, and suffered much from the severity of the climate. The next summer, he explored the river Sorrel ---discovered lakes Champlain, and St. Sacrament, now called lake George ;-had a skirmish with the Iroquois Indians, and took many scalps; in the fall of the year he returned to France.

No attempts had been made by the Dutch, to colonize new countries in the west, prior to this period. Stimulated, however, by the enterprises of the other maritime nations, they now determined to acquire a title to the new countries, by right of discovery. In 1609, Henry Hudson, an Englishman, in their service, sailed from the Texel, with a design of penetrating to the East Indies, by stretching to the west. Meeting with the continent of America, he ranged along the coast, as far southerly as Chesapeake bay ; returning to the northward, he entered the bay between Long Island and the main land-discovered, and sailed up a large river, called by the natives, Manhattan, to which he gave his own name, nearly to the present city of Albany, and after trafficking with the natives, and examining the shores of the river, returned to England.* The next year the Dutch sent ships to the same river to open a trade with the natives of the country, and gave it the name of New Netherlands. Four years after a patent was granted to sundry merchants, for an exclusive trade on the Hudson by the states general, and a fort was built on the west side of the river, near Albany.

The French settlers in Acadie, though within the limits claimed by the English, had been permitted to enjoy the land they occupied, without interruption, and they flattered themselves that they had acquired a possession which would not be disputed. In 1613, Madame de Guercheville, a pious French lady, zealous for the conversion of the natives, having obtained from de Ments, à surrender of his patent, and a charter of Nova Scotia, from the king of France, sent out a ship, conveying two Jesuits, as missionaries. Saussaye, who commanded the expedition, after touching at Port Royal, and some other places, proceeded to Mount Desert, where the two Jesuits fixed their settlement, which they called St. Swiour, and set up the cross. About this time captain Samuel Argal of Virginia, arrived off the island, for the purpose of fishing. Learning that the French had a settlement on the island, he immediately attacked


Smith places the discovery in 1608.-Hist. New York.

it; the French made little resistance, one of the Jesuits was killed and most of the other people taken and carried to Virginia. The governor of that colony, now determined to sweep the French from the lands in Acadie, within the English limits. Three vessels, carrying fourteen guns and sixty soldiers, were put under the command of captain Argal, with orders to raze all the French posts and settlements, to the 46th degree of north latitude. Argal accordingly sailed, and arriving at Mount Desert, broke down the cross erected by the Jesuits, and took possession of St. Saviour, in the name of the king of England. He then proceeded to St. Croix, and having broken up several other plantations, sailed for the Dutch settlement, at Hudson's river, and compelled the governor to submit himself and colony to the English nation. Having without much resistance effected the principal objects of his expedition, Argal returned to Virginia.

In 1614, a new governor arrived from Holland, with a reinforcement of men-built a fort at Manhattan, where the city of New York is now situated, and asserted the right of the Dutch to the country; from which time it was held by them many years without interruption.

The same year, several gentlemen in England fitted out two vessels, with forty five men and boys, for North Virginia, under Capt. John Smith, who had been noted for his extraordinary exploits in the southern colony, and other parts of the world. Smith arrived at the island of Monahegon about the last of April; built seven boats, in one of which, he, with eight men, surveyed the coast from Penobscot to Cape Cod, traded largely with the natives in beaver and other furs, and returned to England richly laden. From his survey, he delineated a map of the the coast, and presented it to the king, who gave the country the name of New England.

When Smith sailed from New England, he left one of his ships to complete her lading, under Thomas Hunt, who committed a most perfidious act, long remembered by the natives ; and which rendered them hostile to future adventurers. Under pretence of trade, Hunt enticed twenty four of them on board his ship, confined them under hatches, and carried them to Malaga, where he sold them to the Spaniards for slaves. One of these was Squanto, who afterwards got to England and thence returned to his native country, and notwithstanding his cruel treatment, afforded much aid to the future settlers of Plymouth.

Not long after this perfidious transaction, an English ship under Capt. Hobson, arrived at the isle of Capawick, one of the Elizabeth cluster, on the coast of New England, for the purpose of establishing a plantation, and opening a trade with the natives. Two of Hunt's kidnapped Indians accompanied Hobson to the coast, one of whom soon after died on board the ship, the other, named Epenow, indignant; at the conduct of Hunt, resolved to revenge himself on the English. Some of his old friends visited Epenow, who was detained on board, and contrived with him, a plan for his liberation. Twenty canoes, at the appointed time, approached the ship under pretext of trading; when they were sufficiently near Epenow leaped overboard, and instantly a shower of arrows poured from the canoes into the ship; the Indians then pushed on, and, in spite of Hobson's musketry, drew Epenow from the water, and carried him safe to shore. Several of the Indians were killed; the master of the vessel and some others were wounded. Finding the Indians thus hostile, Hobson soon after sailed for England.

Several other attempts were soon after made to open a trade with the natives, and to occupy stations on the coast of New England ; but owing to their hostility, they all proved abortive. Ships however, still resorted to the coast, for the purpose of taking fish, and in this business they were generally very successful. At Newfoundland, prior to 1615, several thousand people from England, France and Portugal, had established themselves, and a regular government had been formed in 1610, under a patent granted to the earl of Northampton and forty associates, extending from 46 to 52 degrees north latitude. John Guy soon after sailed from England with thirty nine persons, and began a settlement for the proprietors at Conception bay. From this period the colony increased, and was the grand rendezvous of numerous vessels, which resorted to the coast for fishing

In 1619, Thomas Dermer arrived on the coast of New England, loaded a ship with furs and fish at Monahgean and dispatched it for Europe. Proceeding afterwards in a small bark to the southward, he first discovered the sound between Long Island and the coast of Connecticut, and the dangerous passage since called Hell-gate. Speaking of this passage


6 We found a most dangerous catwract amongst small rockie Ilans, occasioned by two unequal tydes, the one ebbing and flowing two hours before the other.” Probably the “ catwract” and sound were previously known to the Dutch at Manhattan. Dermer the next year visited Martha's. Vineyard, where he was suddenly attacked by Epenow, at the head of a party of Indians, and received fourteen wounds; soon after he sailed to Virginia, where he died. While on the coast Dermer redeemed from the Indians, two Frenchmen, the remainder of a crew, cast away on cape Cod in 1616—the others had been put to death.

The country to the southward, bordering on New Netherlands, had been visited by a Swedish merchant, who gave it a favorable representation. A number of gentlemen of that nation, with several Finns, through the recommendation of the king of Sweden associated for the settlement of a colony in that part of the country. In 1627, a company of these people landed at cape Henlopen, and sometime after, bought of the natives, the lands extending from that cape, to the falls of Delaware, of which they took peaceable possession. In 1630, they built a fort at Hoarkill within the capes ; but this was burnt down in 1645. From this time they claimed the country until they were extirpated by the Dutch in 1655.

In 1681, Pennsylvania was granted by Charles II. to William Penn, who commenced settlements the same year, and the next year the foundation of Philadelphia was laid.

Besides the voyages that have been mentioned, several others were made to North America by the maritime nations of Europe ; but as they were generally for the purpose of discovery in the regions about Hudson's bay, or for private emolument, unconnected with the settlement of New England, they are omitted ; that of the Pilgrims from England in 1620, will be given in connection with the first permanent settlement at Plymouth.






The settlements made by various European nations in Canada, Newfoundland, New Netherlands and Virginia, previous to the year 1620, attracted considerable notice in Europe, but New England still remained in possession of the natives, whose hostility, in consequence of the abuses they had received from the English ships that had visited the coast, rendered it dangerous to land on the territory. But the period had now arrived in which a permanent settlement was to be effected, and the country no longer to be known as a savage wild.

Religious persecution in England, had for some time been preparing the minds of a small company of people to encounter every hardship and danger, that they might enjoy religious freedom in some distant land. These were a congregation of English Puritans residing in Holland. The sect bearing this name, arose in England about the year 1550, on occasion of bishop Hooper's refusing to be consecrated in the popish habits. The archbishop of Canterbury, with other bishops and divines, having concluded an order of divine worship, an act confirming this liturgy passed both houses of Parliament, on the fifteenth of January 1649. But it was protested against by the bishops of London, Durham, Norwich, Carlisle, Hereford, Worcester, We-tminster and Chichester; the Parliament notwithstanding, persisted in enforcing the liturgy, and an act was passed subjecting such clergy as should refuse the service, or should officiate in any other manner, to forfeitures and imprisonment; and for the third offence to imprisonment for life. Whoever should write, or print against the book, was to be fined ten pounds for the first offence, twenty pounds for the second, and be imprisoned for life for the third. The council immediately appointed visitors to see that the liturgy was received throughout England. In January, 1563, the convocation of the English clergy met, and finished the thirty nine articles. Of the lower house, forty three present, were for throwing out the ceremonies, but thirty five were for retaining them; and these, with the help of proxies, carried their measure by one vote. The bishops now zealously urged the clergy to subscribe to the liturgy and ceremonies, as well as the articles of the established church; and all who refused were branded with the name of Puritans, from their rejecting what they deemed unscriptural ceremonies, and confining their churches entirely to scriptural rules, and apostolical purity, worship and doctrine. *

A most cruel persecution followed, and so violent was the zeal for uniformity, that popular preachers of this sect, though men of learning and purity, were suspended, deprived, imprisoned and ruined, for not using garments, or ceremonies, which even their adversaries acknowledged to be indifferent. Puritanism nevertheless, gained ground, not only among the lower sort of people, but also in the universities; and the established churches began to be neglected by many, and meetings for worship were held at other places, without adherence to the established forms.

To put a stop to these irregularities, an act was passed in 1593, for punishing all who refused to come to church, or were present at any conventicle, or unauthorised meeting. The punishment was imprisonment until the convicted agreed to conform, and made a declaration of his conformity; and if that was not done in three months, he was to quit the realm, or go into perpetual banishment. In case he did not depart within the time limited, or returned without license, he was to suffer death. Several underwent this punishment, in preference to purchasing an exemption from legal penalties, by doing what, in their opinion, was wrong. In April, 1693, Henry Barrow

* Neal's History of the Puritans, Vol. i.-Prince's New England ChronologyHolmes' American Annals, Vol. i. p. 95,

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