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JOURNAL

OF

THE FEDERAL CONVENTION.

On Monday, the 14th of May, A. D. 1787, and in the eleventh year of the independence of the United States of America, at the state house in the city of Philadel. phia, in virtue of appointments from their respective states, sundry deputies to the federal convention appeared; but a majority of the states not being reprè. sented, the members present adjourned, from day to day, until Friday, the 25th of the said month, when, in virtue of the said appointments, appeared from the states of

MASSACHUSETTS, The Honourable Rufus King, Esq. New YORK, The Honourable Robert Yates, and

Alexander Hamilton, Esqrs.
NEW JERSEY,

The Honourable David Brearly,
William Churchill Houston, and

William Patterson, Esqrs. PENNSYLVANIA, The Honourable Robert Morris,

Thomas Fitzsimons,
James Wilson, and
Gouverneur Morris, Esqrs.

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DELAWARE,

The Honourable George Read,
Richard Basset, and

Jacob Broom, Esqrs.
VIRGINIA, His Excellency G. Washington, Esq.

His Excellency E. Randolph, Esq.
The Honourable John Blair,
James Madison,
George Mason,
George Wythe, and

James M.Clurg, Esqrs.
North Carolina, The Honourable Alexander Martin,

William Richardson Davie,
Richard Dobbs Spaight, and

Hugh Williamson, Esqrs.
SOUTH CAROLINA, The Honourable John Rutledge,

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney,
Charles Pinckney, and

Pierce Butler, Esqrs.
GEORGIA, The Honourable William Few, Esq.

It was moved by the honourable Robert Morris, Esq. one of the deputies from Pennsylvania, that a president be elected by ballot, which was agreed to ; and thereupon he nominated, on the part of the said state,

His excellency George Washington, Esq.

The members then proceeded to ballot on behalf of their respective states ; and the ballots being taken, it appeared that the said George Washington was unani. mously elected ; and he was conducted to the chair by the honourable Robert Morris, and John Rutledge, Esqrs.

The president then proposed to the house that they should proceed to the election of a secretary ; and the ballot being taken, it appeared that

William Jackson, Esq. was elected.

The following credentials were produced and read. [See pp. 17-58.]

The house then appointed Nicholas Weaver, mes. senger, and Joseph Fry, doorkeeper.

On motion of Mr. C. Pinckney,

Ordered, That a committee be appointed to draw up rules to be observed as the standing orders of the convention; and to report the same to the house,

A committee, by ballot, was appointed of
Mr. Wythe, Mş. Hamilton, and Mr. C. Pinckney.

And then the house adjourned till Monday next, at 10 o'clock, A. M.

IN THE FEDERAL CONVENTION, MONDAY,

MAY 28, 1787.

The convention met agreeably to adjournment.

The honourable Nathaniel Gorham, and Caleb Strong, Esgrs. deputies from the state of Massachusetts; the honourable Oliver Ellsworth, Esq. a deputy from the state of Connecticut; the honourable Gunding Bedford, Esq. a deputy from the state of Delaware, and the honourable James M'Henry, Esq. a deputy from the state of Maryland-attended and took their seats.

The following credentials were produced and read. [See pp. 19, 20, 32, 34.]

His excellency Benjamin Franklin, Esq. and the honourable George Clymer, Thomas Mifflin, and Jared

Ingersoll, Esqrs. four of the deputies of the state of Pennsylvania, attended and took their seats.

Mr. Wythe reported from the committee, (to whom the drawing up rules proper, in their opinion, to be observed by the convention in their proceedings, as standing orders, was referred) that the committee had drawn up the rules accordingly, and had directed him to report them to the house. And he read the report in his place, and afterwards delivered it in at the secretary's table, where the said rules were once read throughout, and then a second time one by one ; and upon the question severally put thereupon, two of them were disagreed to; and the rest, with amendments to some of them, were agreed to by the house ; which rules, so agreed to, are as follow:

RULES

TO BE OBSERVED AS

THE STANDING ORDERS OF THE

CONVENTION.

A House, to do business, shall consist of the deputies of not less than seven states; and all questions shall be decided by the greater number of these which shall be fully represented. But a less number than seven may adjourn from day to day.

Immediately after the President shall have taken the chair, and the members their seats, the minutes of the preceding day shall be read by the Secretary.

Every member, risiog to speak, shall address the President; and, whilst he shall be speaking, none shall pass between them, or hold discourse with another, or read a book, pamphlet, or paper, printed or manuscript.

1. And of two members rising at the same time, the President shall name him who shall be first heard.

A member shall not speak oftener than twice, without special leave, upon the same question ; and not the second time, before every other, who had been silent, sball bave been heard, if he choose to speak upon the subject.

A motion made and seconded, shall be repeated, and, if written, as it shall be when any member shall so require, read aloud, by the Secretary, before it shall be debated ; and may be withdrawn at :any time be. fore the vote upon it shall have been declared. 1. Orders of the day shall be read next after the mi. putes ; and either discussed or postponed before any other business shall be introduced.

When a debate shall arise upon a question, no motion, other than to amend the question, to commit it, or to postpone the debate, shall be received.

A question, which is complicated, shall, at the request of any member, be divided, and put separately upon the propositions of which it is compounded. - The determination of a question, although fully debated, shall be postponed, if the deputies of any state desire it, until the next day.

A writing, which contains any matter brought on to be considered, shall be read once throughout, for informalion ; tben: by paragraphs, to be debated; and again, with the amendments, if any, made on the second reading ; and afterwards the question shall be put upon the whole, amended, or approved in its original form, as the case shall be. bio

That comanittees shall be appointed by ballot; and

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