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Sect. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union a republican form of goveroment, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestick violence.


The Congress, whenever lwo-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution ; or, on the application of the legisla. tures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress : Provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year 1808, shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article ; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the senate.


All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this constitution as under the confederation.

This constitution, and the laws of the United States hich shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all

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treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.

The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, sball be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution : but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or publick trust under the United States.


The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same.

Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of

the states present, the 17th day of September, in
the year of our Lord 1787, and of the indepen-
dence of the United States of America, the twelfth.
In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed
our names.

And deputy from Virginia.



John Langdon,
Nicholas Gilman.

Nathaniel Gorham,
Rufus King,


Richard Bassett,

. William Samuel Johnson, Jacob Broom. Roger Sherman.

MARYLAND NEW YORK, James M'Henry, Alexander Hamilton. Daniel of St. Thomas


Daniel Carroll.
William Livingston,
David Brearly,

William Patterson, John Blair,
Jonathan Dayton.

James Madison, jun.

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George Read,
Gunning Bedford, jun. William Few,
John Dickinson,

Abraham Baldwin.
WILLIAM Jackson, Secretary.



Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.


A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.


No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.


The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated ; and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.


No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war or publick danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witoess against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; por shall private property be taken for publick use without just compensation.


In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and publick trial, by, an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favour; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.

ARTICLE VII. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved ; and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

ABTICLE VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required, por excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

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