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in three months after its passage, or at any general election, when any other law, or any bill, or any amendment to the Constitution shall be submitted to be voted for or against.

Section 13. Every law which imposes, continues or Manner of revives a tax, shall distinctly state the tax and the ob- passing bills, ject to which it is to be applied; and it shall not be imposing a sufficient to refer to any other law to fix such tax or object.

Section 14. On the final passage, in either house of Ib. the Legislature, of every act which imposes, continues or revives a tax, or creates a debt or charge, or makes, continues or revives any appropriation of public or trust-money, or property, or releases, discharges, or commutes any claim or demand of the State, the question shall be taken by ayes and noes, which shall be duly entered on the journals

, and three-fifths of all the members elected to either house, shall, in all such cases, be necessary to constitute a quor!ım therein.


ARTICLE VIII. Section 1. Corporations may be formed under gene- Corporaral laws; but shall not be created by special act, except tions how for municipal purposes, and in cases wherein the judgment of the Legislature, the objects of the corporation cannot be attained under general laws. All general laws and special acts passed pursuant to this section, may be altered from time to time, or repealed.

Section 2. Dues from corporations shall be secured Debts of corby such individual liability of the corporators and porations. other means as may be prescribed by law.

Section 3. The term “corporations,” as used in this « Corporaarticle, shall be construed to include all associations tions' deand joint-stock companies having any of the powers or privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships. And all corporations shall have the right to sue and shall be subject to be sued in all courts in like cases as natural persons.






Charters for Section 4. The Legislature shall have no power to banking pass any act granting any special charter for banking purposes.

purposes; but corporations or associations may be

formed for such purposes under general laws. Specie pay

Section 5. The Legislature shall have no power to pass any law sanctioning in any manner, directly or indirectly, the suspension of specie payments, by any person, association or corporation issuing bank notes of

any description. Registry of Section 6. The Legislature shall provide by law for bills or notes. the registry of all bills or notes, issued or put in circu

lation as money, and shall require ample security for the redemption of the same in specie.

Section 7. The stock holders in every corporation responsibili- and joint-stock association for banking purposes, issuty of stock. ing bank notes or any kind of paper credits to circulate

as money, after the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and fifty, shall be individually responsible to the amount of their respective share or shares of stock in any such corporation or association, for all its debts and liabilities of every kind, contracted after the said first day of January, one thousand eight hun

dred and fifty. Insolvency Section 8. In case of the insolvency of any bank or of banks, banking association, the bill-holders thereof shall be preference.

entitled to preference in payment, over all other creditors of such bank or association.

Section 9. It shall be the duty of the Legislature to provide for the organization of cities and incorporated villages, and to restrict their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing money, contracting debts and loaning their credit, so as to prevent abuses in assessments, and in contracting debt by such municipal corporations.


ARTICLE IX. Section 1. The capital of the Common School Fund; School, Lite- the capital of the Literature Fund; and the capital of rature, and United

the United States Deposite Fund, shall be respectively States Deno- preserved inviolate. The revenues of the said Common School Fund shall be applied to the support of common schools; the revenues of the said Literature Fund shall be applied to the support of academies, and the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars of the revenues of the United States Deposite Fund shall each year be appropriated to and made a part of the capital of the said Common School Fund.

site Funds.


district attorneys.

Section 1. Sheriffs, clerks of counties, including the Sheriffs, register and clerk of the city and county of New York,

clerks of

counties, coroners and district attorneys, shall be chosen by the

register and electors of the respective counties, once in every three clerk of N. Y. years, and as often as vacancies shall happen. Sheriffs coroners and shall hold no other office, and be ineligible for the next three years after the termination of their offices. They may be required by law to renew their security, from timc to time; and in default of giving such new security, their offices shall be deemed vacant. But the county shall never be made responsible for the acts of the sheriff.

The Governor may remove any officer in this sec- Governor tion mentioned, within the term for which he shall may remove. have been elected; giving to such officer a copy of the charges against him, and an opportunity of being heard in his defence.

Section 2. All county officers whose election or ap- Officers how pointment is not provided for by this Constitution, shall chosen or be elected by the electors of the respective counties,

appointed. or appointed by the boards of supervisors, or other county authorities, as the Legislature shall direct. All city, town, and village officers, whose election or appointment is not provided for by this Constitution, shall be elected by the electors of such cities, towns and villages, or of some division thereof, or appointed by such authorities thereof as the Legislature shall designate for that purpose.

All other officers whose election or appointment is not provided for by this Constitution, and all other officers whose office may hereafter be


Duration of office.

created by law, shall be elected by the people, or ap-
pointed, as the Legislature may direct.

Section 3. When the duration of any office is not pro-
vided by this Constitution, it may be declared by law,
and if not so declared, such office shall be held during

the pleasure of the authority making the appointment. Time of elec- Section 4. The time of electing all officers named in tion. this article, shall be prescribed by law. Vacancies in Section 5. The Legislature shall provide for filling office, how

vacancies in office, and in case of elective officers, no filled.

person appointed to fill a vacancy shall hold his office
by virtue of such appointment, longer than the com-
mencement of the political year next succeeding the

first annual election after the happening of the vacancy. Political year.

Section 6. The political year and legislative term, shall begin on the first day of January; and the Legislature shall every year assemble on the first Tuesday in January, unless a different day shall be appointed

Section 7. Provision shall be made by law for the from office. removal for misconduct or malversation in office of all

officers (except judicial) whose powers and duties are
not local or legislative, and who shall be elected at
general elections, and also for supplying vacancies cre-

ated by such removal.
When office Section 8. The Legislature may declare the cases in

which any office shall be deemed vacant, where no pro-
vision is made for that purpose in this Constitution.

by law.


deemed vacant.



Section 1. The militia of this State shall, at all times hereafter, be armed and disciplined, and in readiness for service; but all such inhabitants of this State, of any religious denomination whatever, as from scruples of conscience may be averse to bearing arms, shall be excused therefrom, upon such conditions as shall be prescribed by law.

Section 2. Militia officers shall be chosen or appointed as follows: Captains, subalterns and non-commis

Manner of choosing or

1 cers.




sioned officers shall be chosen by the written votes of appointing the members of their respective companies. Field of- militia offificers of regiments and separate battalions, by the written votes of the commissioned officers of the respective regiments and separate battalions; brigadier-generals and brigade inspectors by the field officers of their respective brigades; major-generals, brigadier-generals and commanding officers of regiments or separate battalions, shall appoint the staff officers the spective divisions, brigades, regiments or separate battalions.

Section 3. The Governor shall nominate, and, with Officers to be the consent of the Senate, appoint all major-generals

, appointed boy and the commissary-general. The adjutant-general and other chiefs of staff departments, and the aids-de-camp of the commander-in-chief, shall be appointed by the Governor, and their commissions shall expire with the time for which the Governor shall have been elected. The Commissary-general shall hold his office for two Commissary years. He shall give security for the faithful execution General. of the duties of his office, in such manner and amount as shall be prescribed by law.

Section 4. The Legislature shall, by law, direct the Election of time and manner of electing militia officers, and of cer- militia offitifying their elections to the Governor.

Section 5. The commissioned officers of the militia Officers how shall be commissioned by the Governor; and no com

commissionmissioned officer shall be removed from office, unless by the Senate on the recommendation of the Governor, stating the grounds on which such removal is recommended, or by the decision of a court-martial, pursuant to law. The present officers of the militia shall hold their commissions subject to removal as before provided.

Section 6. In case the mode of election and appoint- Election of ment of militia officers hereby directed, shall not be militia offifound conducive to the improvement of the militia, the

abolished. Legislature may abolish the same, and provide by law for their appointment and removal, if two-thirds of the members present in each house shall concur therein.



cers may be

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