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himself master of any science whatever, may class the extracts or analyses of the works he reads in the following manner, so as to collect in distinct and separate but co-ordinate cells all that relates to the general divisions about to be enumerated. He may open a particular account for each of them, and afterwards adopt subdivisions suited to the particular object of his studies and his destination in society.
1. Definition of the Science, or concise Explanation
of its Object. It is proper, in the first place, to define the science and to state its object, and in the next, to sketch the luminous and productive facts which serve it for a basis and points of support ; to indicate the causes of the phænomena which it considers, the services which it has rendered, and those which it may still render, the principal means which it employs, the results which it proposes to obtain ; and thus to make the definition of it more accurate and complete.
2. History of the Science. Having settled the definition of the science, it is necessary to proceed to its origin, and to give a concise history of it; to trace the course it has
i followed, and the progress it has made, according
to a more or less rapid gradation ; to notice the persons who have advanced it, the point which it has attained, and the degrees of improvement of which it is susceptible.
3. Geography and Topography of the Sciences, and
of each Science in particular, considered within its peculiar Limits.
A third account will be appropriated to the determination of the principal divisions, subdivisions, and ramifications of a science, and their mutual relations. It will exhibit, if I may so express myself, a geographical and topographical map of the science, shewing the provinces, counties, and districts, composing its territory; and the bigh-roads, cross-roads, and canals, formed, or to be formed, in order to facilitate their mutual intercourse, and their reciprocal exchanges. 4. Legislation of the Sciences in general, and of
each Science in particular. The fourth operation may consist in recapitulating the principles, the general axioms, or the fundamental and practical truths and laws, deduced from the very nature of the science under review, and forming, in some measure, its code or legislation.
5. External, and, as it were, Commercial Relations
of one Science with the others. It will be useful to study separately, and to investigate with care, the more or less immediate relations of the particular science under consideration with the other sciences and the different social professions; to observe their mutual action and re-action; and lastly, to indicate the methods and resources presented by it to the arts, which are thus made its tributaries.
6. Logic of the Sciences, or Art of directing them;
Tactics of the Sciences, or Method to be pursued for promoting their Advancement; and Conquests to be made by those who cultivate them in the different Regions of the Intellectual World.
After these general considerations on the science which we are studying, we must endeavour to collect the positive applications of its processes; to indicate, on one hand, the principal disco. veries that are due to it, or fall within its sphere, their origin, connection, and progress; to point out, on the other, the abuses to be avoided, the obstacles to be overcome, the principal questions to be discussed, and the problems to be resolved; to bring together and to class methodically the doubtful facts to be elucidated, the phænomena to be verified and to be traced to their causes and effects; and to direct to these questions, in. teresting to humanity, which are frequently scattered through a great number of books, the attention, meditation, researches, and experiments of such persons of active and observant minds as cultivate the sciences.
7. Bibliography of the Sciences, and Methodical
Collection of the Productions of the Human Mind, relative to each of the Branches of Knowledge.
In the seventh place, those who would follow our method should form for their use, as they proceed in their studies, a bibliographical and chronological account of the most esteemed elementary works that have been published on the science to which they apply themselves, and of those which have extended its limits. They will take care to note down, in a series of observations adapted to this account, their particular opinion of such of these works as they may have read and studied, or the opinions of enlightened men whom they may have had occasion to consult.
8. Biography of Men of Science and Philosophers
who have contributed to the Advancement of the Arts and Sciences.
The eighth account will contain a concise notice of the life, character, peculiar merits, and works of all those, whether theoretical or practical men, who have advanced the science, or distinguished themselves in it. This catalogue will be made up by centuries, and a separate article in it will contain a list of persons still living who cultivate the science in question.
9. Analytical Table to facilitate References to the
particular Accounts above-mentioned, which may be made up into one Book or Journal.
At the end of each of the parts containing these different accounts, opened for the different views intended to be taken of the science, it will be adviseable to form an analytical index, on Locke’s plan, which has been described in the preceding
The habit of thus forming extracts or methodical analyses of the works written on a science, upon a plan uniform and fixed, but comprehensive and suitable for receiving all those modifications of detail, of which every science and ever branch