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The whole consists in these three things : to acquire at the same time a sound constitution, good moral habits, upright sentiments, and a correct mind, accustomed to think, and capable of discerning what is good and useful. These three elements of happiness belong to bim who devotes all his thoughts and all his moments to the pur. pose of acquiring and preserving them.
For these reasons we shall distinguish three different objects in education, and we shall consider, under these three points of view, the employment of life, and the aim which every wise man ought to
propose to himself.
V. OF THE TERM EDUCATION, IN ITS MOST LIMITED AND MOST
Education, in the most limited sense of the word, is but the apprenticeship of life, or the conduct of an individual during the first portion of his existence; for we exist a long time without living, and when we begin to live we are not capable either of guiding or governing ourselves. But real education, taking the terın in its most extensive sense--that education, whose precepts and benefits man can apply to himself, commences more especially at that period of life when reason receives its first expansion, when the soul essays, if I may be allowed the expression, its powers and its inclinations, when the mind acquires vigour and consistency, when the judgment becomes matured, when the heart still preserves its primitive purity; when, in short, the youth begins to be conscious of what he is, to reflect seriously on his destination, and to mark out for himself a plan of conduct founded on principles which he has thoroughly examined. This second education, so powerful, because it is free and voluntary, so valuable and so important, because the impressions which it leaves behind are more durable, and commonly fix our opinions and sentiments for the rest of our lives, may and ought to be continued till their latest moments. Solon said, that he could not be too old to learn.
The wise man, who wishes to be happy, never ceases, even at the most advanced age, to prosecute his education, improvement, and well-being. These three words here express the same idea. What, in fact, is wisdom but the science of virtue and happiness?
Till the latest period of life a man may, if he pleases, exert over himself the action and influence of his observations, experience, and reason; he may profit by the example and the advice of others, to correct, improve, and instruct himself; to tend toward happiness, or to approach it byt
the development and melioration of his physical, moral, and intellectual faculties.
VI. OP THE VALUE AND ECONOMY OF TIME, CONSIDERED AS AN INSTRUMENT BESTOWED ON MAN BY NATURE. UTILITY OF A METHOD WHICH WOULD ENABLE HIM TO DERIVE THE GREATEST POSSIBLE ADVANTAGE FROM IT.
We have distinguished the three faculties which constitute man, and compose the real elements of bis happiness. To keep them in an ever increasing state of energy and action, each individual has at hand, and at his disposal, a grand and universal instrument, furnished by Nature, namely, Time, an inestimable treasure, which few can duly appreciate, the greatest part of which they waste in frivolous, useless, or pernicious employments, while, by the most absurd of inconsistencies, they complain of the shortness of life, and yet strive themselves to abridge its duration. The time that we waste, observes a modern poet, might make us immortal : it might do more, it might make us happy.
Whoever is acquainted with the value of time, and understands the art of employing all his moments for his advantage and improvement in the three ways here pointed out, doubles his existence. By this alone he obtains a great superiority over the generality of mankind; he acquires a real and personal wealth, independent of fortune and circumstances.
The proper employment of time is a real science, which must be acquired by study, like other human attainments. Time, says Bacon, is one of those things, which, when lost, cannot be recovered. If then an easily practicable method can be contrived for obtaining all the advantage possible from this instrument, such a method will not be of less utility than the invention of watches and clocks has proved for determining the regular division of the different parts of the day and night.
Before this division of the days into hours, and of hours into equal, distinct, and separate intervals, many moments were lost for want of a standard to regulate the use of them, by an exact proportion and a strict economy in their various applications. But the pendulum produces only a mechanical division of time; the method of employing time must multiply what the pendulum divides. It enables us to find days in hours.
VII. FIRST CONDITION PROPOSED FOR REGULATING THE DUE
EMPLOYMENT OF TIME. PREVIOUS QUESTION WHICH IT IS NECESSARY TO ASK OURSELVES BEFORE WE THINK OR ACT: “ WHAT END WILL IT ANSWER ?”
Cui bono? “What end will it answer ?" is a previous and necessary question, which ought to
precede all we do and all we say, every procedure, and every kind of occupation. It is easier than may be supposed to contract this habit. Every man, in his particular art, acquires analogous habits without difficulty or effort, by the mere continuity of action. The orator, who has exercised his talent of extemporaneous declamation, capti. vates, charms, and hurries us along by the coherency, the energy, the rapidity of his address. The musician, who is a proficient in his art, runs over at once with a light and confident touch the cords or keys of an instrument; he calls forth from it hurried tones, the harmony of which enchants us. The practised hand of a painter blends, by a happy mixture, the yarious tints into a great number of colours, which seem obedient to his genius. A dancer forms regular and rapid steps, with precision although with velocity. We admire the ease, the agility, and the accuracy of his movements. Habit alone, and daily practice, produce these results, which excite our astonishment. Let us contrive to attain, by similar practice, by a habit easily acquired, the like precision, combined with the like promptitude, in our moral conduct. Let us accustom our minds to call forth on all occasions this brief reflexion-Cui bono? “ Of what benefit :” which ought to be to us a kind of