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Diluted Acetic Acid.
R Acetic Acid
1 measure. 7 measures.
These are two of the most simple cases that would occur; the numbers used representing the proportions of the ingredients, in one case by weight, and in the other by volume.
As another example, we may refer to the process for spirit of camphor, in which an ounce of camphor is dissolved in nine fluid ounces of rectified spirit. The formula would be written :Camphor
1 part. Rectified Spirit
9 measures. In this case, whatever weight might be used to represent one part, the nine measures would be nine water-measures of that weight. It 'is obvious, however, that the numbers here are not strictly proportional numbers, for the spirit and camphor do not bear the relation of nine to one either by weight or volume. The numbers might be more correctly represented as relational numbers. They indicate the relation of a weighed quantity to a measured quantity.
There are a considerable number of processes in the Pharmacopæia in which the ingredients do not bear a simple numerical relation to each other, and several of these, containing powerful medicines, are very important remedies. Thus we have liquor arsenicalis, liquor arsenici hydrochloricus, liquor atropiæ, liquor atropiæ sulphatis, liquor morphiæ acetatis, liquor morphiæ hydrochloratis, liquor sodæ arseniatis, and liquor strychnic, all containing 4 grains of the active ingredient in a flaid ounce of the solution, or 1 part in 109.375 measures.
In these the author proposes to obtain some of the advantages of the numerical simplicity of the decimal system by altering the proportions to 1 in 100. But if this be done, those who still prefer the use of the old weights will find it necessary in making these preparations to use measure-glasses specially graduated to grain measures.
The author fully describes the method of applying proportional numbers to the different classes of preparations in the Pharmacopoeia, and a number of examples are given in illustration.
At a subsequent meeting (April 3, 1872), Mr. C. H. Wood read a paper on the same subject, in which the plan proposed by Dr. Redwood was discussed. He employed the term fluid part to express proportions by volume in preference to the term measure. He strongly advocated the adoption of every means which would facilitate the ultimate introduction of the metrical system into
British pharmacy; but he thought considerable inconvenience would result to those who dislike the metrical system by altogether omitting concrete weights and measures, in the manner proposed by Dr. Redwood, from all the formulæ in the Pharmacopæia. The want of relationship between the grain and the ounce or the minim would render in many cases the translation of simple proportional numbers into the existing weights and measures a matter of trouble and difficulty. This is especially observable in those formulæ in which the grain is at present used. In all such instances he would put side by side with the proportional numbers, such concrete weights and measures in the existing terms as would yield the preparation in the quantity generally required.
All the preparations in this category are given in the paper with examples of the formulæ. In the case of the liquors which Drt
. Redwood proposes to make 1 in 100, he writes as follows:-
Of these liquors, three of them are simply aqueous solutions of salts; namely, liquor atropiæ sulphatis, liquor sodæ arseniatis, and liquor potassæ permanganatis. The two first would be written; according to the method I have suggested, as follows: Salt, 8 grains
} or Water, 2 oances
100 fluid parts. The third would be 87; grains to a pint, or 1 to 100. Liquor arsenici hydrochloricus, liquor morphiæ acetatis, liquor morphiæ hydrochloratis, and liquor strychniæ, contain a certain amount of acid, and three of these are partly spirituous. Liquor morphiæ acetatis may be taken as an example:Acetate morphia, 84 grs.
1 part. Dil. acetic acid, 19 mins.
2 fluid parts. Rectified spirit, 1 fl. oz.
25 Auid parts. Water, a sufficiency to
· A sufficiency to make make 2 fi. oz.
100 fluid parts.
Liquor arsenicalis would be written :
16 fluid parts.
A sufficiency to make make 1 pint.
500 fluid parts. Lastly he urges that it would be of very little use to make such important modifications in the Pharmacopoeia as are now contemplated, for the sake of obtaining an improved system of weights
and measures, unless the doses of the drugs and preparations are expressed in terms of the new system side by side with those of the old. The metrical system can obtain but very partial use in English pharmacy until it is introduced into the prescribing and dispensing, as well as the preparation of medicines.
It is by learning the doses in metrical weights and measures, that the best knowledge of the system can be obtained, because the concrete value of the terms is thereby acquired. It will doubtless take many years before grammes replace grains in our prescriptions, but this should not deter us from working assiduously towards the accomplishment of that object, with the confidence that time will inevitably prove the superior merits of the metrical system.
Aromatic Sulphuric Acid. T. Doliber. (Proc. Amer. Ph. Ass., 1871, 444.) The author proposes to replace the cinnamon bark in this preparation by oil of cinnamon-using 4 minims of oil for every troy ounce of the bark. This acid is added gradually to the spirit, and the mixture allowed to cool. The oil is then introduced, and the finely powdered ginger percolated with the product. For an extemporaneous formula tincture, a quantity of tincture of ginger may be used, equivalent to the amount of ginger ordered, the proportionate quantity of spirit being deducted.
Aromatic sulphuric acid made in this way, after standing four months, showed the merest trace of sediment, from which it was then decanted; the đecanted portion, after standing three months more, remained entirely clear.
The substitution of oleoresin of ginger for ginger was also tried, but the result was unfavourable; the preparation producing a much less satisfactory mixture with water, than that made by the above formula.
Pharmaceutical Preparations of Carbolic Acid. In Dr. Sansom's work, entitled, “The Antiseptic System," a number of formulæ for the use of carbolic acid are given, which have been extracted by Mr. W. C. Bakes, and published in the Amer. Journ. Pharm. xliii. 492.
1. Liquefied Carbolic Acid.-A. Calvert's purest (No. 1) acid, liquefied by placing the bottle containing it in hot water, 9 parts; water, 1 part. Mix well.—Calvert.
B. Pure carbolic acid, 15 parts; alcohol, 1 part. Mix well. This keeps fluid at all ordinary temperatures.—Sansom.
For many purposes, especially for dispensing, it is convenient to keep the acid in a liquid form, otherwise the crystals must be melted by heat each time that the acid is employed.
2. Solution of Carbolic Acid in Water.—To obtain uniform solution, it is better to slake the carbolic acid with four times its bulk of hot water, and then to add a sufficiency of cold water; or the carbolic acid may be first mingled with alcohol, which causes more ready solubility, before the addition of cold water. Water will not dissolve more than one-twentieth of its bulk of carbolic acid.
3. Alcoholized Carbolic Acid (Acide Phénique Alcoolisé).-Alcohol (90°), crystallised carbolic acid, equal parts. Mix, and keep in a well-stoppered bottle. Used for making carbolized solutions, etc. Being more fluid than carbolic acid, it more readily penetrates the tissues. Useful in poisoned wounds, for application to smallpox pustules, etc.---Lemaire.
4. Etherized Carbolic Acid (Ether Phéniqué).-Sulphuric ether, 100 parts ; carbolic acid, 1 part. Used for insufflation in catarrh of Eustachian tube.—Lemaire.
5. Carbolized Vinegar (Vinaigre Phéniqué).—Ordinary vinegar, 4 parts; carbolic acid, 1 part. Mix. For use, instead of aromatic vinegar, as a disinfectant, etc.- Quesneville.
6. Carbolized Glycerin (Glycerine Phéniquée.) —Pure glycerin, 100 parts; carbolic acid, 1 part. Mix. For impetigo, chronic eczema, lichen, prurigo, and pemphigus.- Lemaire.
7. Syrup of Carbolic Acid (Sirop d'Acide Phénique).—Simple syrup, 100 parts; carbolic acid, crystallised, 1 part. Mix.Chaumelle.
8. Carbolic Acid Liniment.--For counter-irritation.
9. Compound Disinfectant Solution.- Water, 1000 parts; carbolic acid, 10 parts; sulphate of zinc or sulphate of iron, 3 parts. Mix. Carbolic acid has no chemical action on sulphuretted hydrogen or carbonate of ammonium. When it is employed alone, as a disinfectant, deodorisation does not take place until the gases have disappeared by diffusion. The sulphates change the sulphuretted hydrogen into sulphides, and the carbonate of ammonium into metallic carbonate and ammonium sulphate,-all inodorous compounds.-Lemaire.
10. The Süvern Deodorant.-Good quicklime, 14 bushels, put in a cask, slaked, and well stirred; coal tar, 10 lbs. Mix thoroughly, then add magnesium chloride, 15 lbs., dissolved in hot water. Mix
again, and add hot water, until the mass is liquid enough to drop slowly from a stick plunged into it, and then withdrawn. The maginesium chloride forms deliquescent calcium chloride. Magnesia being liberated, this prevents caking and adherence to pipes, which. is a defect when lime alone is used.—Parkes.
11. Carbolized Earth (Terre Coaltarée).—Common loam, passed through a sieve, 100 parts; coal tar, 2 parts. Mix intimately. Disinfectant for crops and for destruction of noxious insects.—Lemaire.
12. Solution of Carbolic Acid for the Toilette.-Crystallised carbolic acid, 10 parts; essence of millefleur, 1 part; tincture of Quillaya saponaria, 50 parts; water, 1000 parts. Mix. The saponin replaces soap with advantage. The above should be employed, diluted with ten times its bulk of water, for disinfecting the skin, for washing the hands after any risk of contagion or inoculation, etc.-Lemaire.
13. Tincture of Saponin, as used in the foregoing preparation, is thus made : Bark of Quillaya saponaria, 1 part; alcohol (90°), 4 parts. Heat to ebullition, and filter.—Le Beuf.
14. Carbolized Water for the Teeth.—Water, 1000 parts; essence of meat, 2 parts; tincture of saponin, 50 parts; pure carbolic acid, 10 parts. Mix. A dessertspoonful in a quarter of a tumblerful of water, serves as an excellent preparation for cleansing and preserving the teeth.
15. Carbolized Ointment.-Purified lard, 100 parts; carbolic acid, 1 part. Mix. Considered of some service in skin affections; but, modified as it is by the fat, it cannot replace the aqueous solution of carbolic acid.-Lemaire.
16. Carbolized Amylaceous Ointment.—Pure starch, 3 parts; hot water, 20 parts. Mix, in the ordinary way (the starch being made first into a paste with cold water, and then hot water added), to a stiff consistence; then add olive oil 1 part, glycerin 3 parts, carbolic acid 1 part, and thoroughly mix in a mortar. When cool this is a soft jelly, which can easily be applied as ordinary ointment. It is much more efficacious than one the basis of which is entirely fat, and it is an agreeably cool application.-Sansom.
17.–Carbolized Oil.--A. Crystallised carbolic acid, 1 part; boiled linseed oil, 4 parts. Dissolve.--Lister:
B. Pure carbolic acid, 1 part; olive oil, 6 parts. Olive oil is better than linseed oil as a vehicle, as the latter is more prone to oxidation.—Calvert.
18. Carbolized Putty.—Carbolized oil, abont 6 tablespoonfuls; common whiting (chalk), sufficient to make a firm paste-Lister.
19. Antiseptic Lead Plaster.-Olive oil, 12 parts (by measure); litharge (finely ground), 12 parts (by weight); beeswax, 3 parts (by weight); crystallised carbolic acid, 24 parts (by weight). Heat half the olive oil over a slow fire; then add the litharge gradually,