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closed all round them. They were land at which the expedition touched, 3 miles from a small rocky island, in and three bottles of water, one from a 270 fathoms mud; and the island, 'field of ice, one of the water taken from which was distant 5 miles from the the surface at the temperature of 32, main land, was connected with it by and the other at the depth of 80 faice. Land was seen bearing north thoms, as brought up by Sir H. Davy's west by west.
apparatus.. When this apparatus is Captain Ross states, that he has en- kept down 15 minutes at 80 fathoms, countered four burrows of ice: one in it gives the same temperature, when lat. 68°, one in 70°, one in 72° 40', and drawn up, as the self-registering theranother, which he had passed, and mometer. Some water, when taken which he hopes to be the last, in 74° up, was at 30°; and, at the same 30'. He does not venture to hazard time, the self-registering thermometer, an opinion respecting the ultimate at 200 fathoms, gave 28o. The wind success of the enterprise, but every was south, and the ice driving to the thing had bitherto been favourable, north. The specific gravity of the and there were obvious appearances of sea water, in lat. 74°, and temperature the ice clearing away. Neither the 46°, is 1.0266, and at temperature 49°, Isabella nor the Alexander had met 1.0260, when taken from a depth of with any accident, and there had not 80 fathoms. The temperature was been a single invalid on board of either 31° when it was brought up; but it ship. The voyage had been in every could not be weighed at that temperrespect pleasant. For five or six ature, as it contained much fixed air. weeks, the first reef was taken in only The box for Dr Brewster contains once. The water was in all weathers various specimens from different parts as smooth as a mill-pond. There was of the coast of Greenland, and from scarcely any rain. The sun sometimes Waygatt Island ; and likewise specishone without a cloud during the mens of the strata of stones and rocks whole 24 hours, and the only changes taken from the principal icebergs. of weather were from cloudy weather We shall now conclude this notice to thick fogs, and sometimes light with a tabular view of the variation falls of snow.
and dip of the needle at different The whale vessel which brought points of the ship’s course. Captain Ross's despatches, brought al
Variation Dip of tho so several boxes, containing minerals and objects of natural history for Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. Sir Everard Home, Bart. Mr Barrow, Professor Jameson,
84 9 and 'Dr Brewster ; all of which were released at the custom-house by an order from the Lords of the Treasury.*
From these observations it appears, The box for Professor Jameson contains that the ships were approaching rapidspecimens of the mineralogy of the ly to the magnetic pole. From the different places on the coast of Green
observations on the variation, which were previously made, we are disposed
to think that there is a succession of We regret to learn, that the boxes poles, or a magnetic ridge, as it may landed at Leith were opened by the custom
be called, with a diffused and movehouse officers, and so roughly handled, that a very important part of one of the collecable polarity, stretching to the west tions was utterly ruined. We trust that in of Baffin's Bay. The above observafuture an order from government will pre. tions, however, do not yet enable us vent such unnecessary and absurd interfer. either to confirm or overthrow this con
N. Lat. 68 92 0 70 26 13 71 9 30 72 44 0 74 4 0 74 45 0 75 5 0
W. Lon. 53° 12' 0 54 51 49 54 17 0
on the Ice. Needle.
67° 39 W 83° 71 0
57 45 0
60 22 0
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
Discovery of a great Bank of Cod off the connected with the varying elasticity of the Shetland Islands. We are informed that vapour, at the upper and lower stations ; an immense bank covered with Cod has and the other with the expansion which the been discovered, extending from Papa Wes- vapour produces upon the intermediate cotra, in Orkney, along the west coast of lumn of air, Mr Anderson has derived a the Shetland Islands. Already the fishing formula, the results obtained from which has been great. Next season it is expected agree, as near as can be expected from the that this hitherto hidden treasure will af- nature of the data, with the heights deducford lucrative employment to several hun- ed from Geometrical measurement. These dred sail of fishing vessels. The fishermen corrections are exceedingly intricate, both report, that from 150 to 200 sail of vessels with regard to the manner of deriving and cam fish on it, and out of sight of each other. applying them ; but this is perhaps insepaWe expect, in a future Number, to com- rable from the nature of the quantities themmunicate a full account of this important selves. discovery.
Heights of Hills in Scotland. It is Dr Hibbert.-We understand Dr Hib- somewhat singular, that the lofty hill called bert has just returned from the Shetland Benvracky, which terminates the vale of Islands, after having spent five months in Athole on one hand, and the Strath of the active and successful investigation of Garry, with the beautiful Parks of Blair, their mineralogy. He has brought with on the other, has never been classed among him a most extensive series of the rocks and the remarkable mountains of Perthshire. minerals of that remote region and the This is more a matter of surprise, as the view descriptions he has executed are so complete from its summit is one of the most beauti. and satisfactory, that we expect, ere long, ful and extensive among the Alpine scenery from this enterprising naturalist, a complete of Scotland, presenting at once a fine asmineralogical history map of Shetland." semblage of all that is grand and interesting
Measurement of Heights by Barometer - in a landscape. Its height has lately been The method of measuring heights by the determined to be 2,756 feet above the level Barometer is about to receive a very im- of the sea. This is the result of three Baroportant improvement, by introducing into metrical calculations, and one Geometrical the common formula a correction for humi- measurement, conducted with every attendity. Mr Adam Anderson, Rector of the tion to accuracy, in reference to a point in Academy of Perth, who has devoted much the parish of Moulin, near the banks of of his attention to this subject, and publish- the Tummel, the height of which above the ed the results of his inquiries in the Arti- level of the sea was carefully deduced from cle HYGROMETRY in the Edinburgh En- a series of contemporaneous observations cyclopædia, conducted by Dr Brewster, has with the barometer made at the point allately ascertained, that the density of the at- luded to, and the manse of Kinfauns. On mospheric vapour diminishes as we ascend, account of the coincidence of result in all in a much faster ratio than that of air it- these cases, the height thus obtained must be self; and that the disproportionate effects extremely near the truth. Cairn-Our, the thus produced by the elasticity of the va- loftiest of the Ben Gloe mountains, situated pour, at the upper and lower stations, cause about 8 miles north from Benvracky, and a deviation from the law by which the den- overlooking Glen Tilt, has been determined, sity of the air, at different elevations, has by referring it to the same point, to be hitherto been supposed to be regulated.- 3690 feet above the level of the sea. The deviation of the density of the atmos- Limit of Congelation. It appears from in. pherical strata from the condition produced formation which comes from Switzerland and by perfect elasticity, is, however, frequently other alpine districts, that an opinion has counteracted by the dilatation of the whole partly obtained, of the increase of ice generalcolumn of air, by means of the vapour ly, and the descent of the limit of congelation. which it holds in solution, and sometimes From the Tyrol, it is said, that " In this these disturbing causes are so nicely balanc. country an extraordinary increase of the ed, that the density of the air, as we as- glaciers is remarked in several places. A cend, differs but little from what it would mass of ice, which advanced from the Sind. be, if the air were perfectly elastic. At ner valley, has increased from the 6th of other times, the difference is considerable, May to the 30th of July, 76 fathoms. In and leads to very great errors, in the ordi- many parts of Switzerland the same remark nary formula for calculating heights, by the is made. Where, only one generation barometer, particularly when the air is very back, the most fertile alpine pastures were damp. By applying to the formula two seen, there is now eternal ice ; and the line corrections, one of which is immediately of snow seems, in the course of time, to descend lower and lower from the summit “ I the undersigned, Joseph Woodward, of the mountains towards the plains and captain of the Adamant schooner of Hingvalleys.
ham, being on my rout from Penobscot to Ner Inflammable Gas.Dr Thomson Hingham, steering W. N. W., and being has discovered a new compound inflammable about 10 leagues from the coast, perceived, gas, and has called it, from the nature of its last Sunday, at two P.M., something on the constitution, hydroguretted carbonic oxide surface of the water, which seemed to me to Its specific gravity is, 913, that of common be of the size of a large boat. Supposing air being 1. It is not absorbed nor altered that it might be part of the wreck of a ship, by water. It burns with a deep blue flame, I approached it, but when I was within a and detonates when mixed with oxygen and few fathoms of it, it appeared, to my great fired. It is a compound of oxygen, hydro- surprise, and that of my whole crew, that it gen, and carbon ; and Dr Thomson con- was a monstrous serpent.
When 1 apsiders it as being three volumes of carbonic proached nearer, it coiled itself up, instant oxide, and one volume of hydrogen, con- ly uncoiling itself again, and withdrew with densed by combination into three volumes. extreme rapidity. On my approaching again, See Annals of Philosophy, August 1818. it coiled itself up a second time, and placed
New Vegetable Alkuli.-M. M. Pelletier itself at the distance of 60 feet at most from and Caventou have inserted the following the bow of the ship. note in the Annales de Chimie for July. " I had one of my guns loaded with a (The note was read to the Academy on cannon ball and musket bullets. I fired it the 10th August.)
at the head of the monster ; my crew and Whilst analysing the vomica nut, and the myself distinctly heard the ball and bullets bean of St Ignace, they extracted from these strike against his body, from which they two seeds the substance to which they owę rebounded, as if they had struck against a their action on the animal economy, rock. The serpent shook his head and tail
This substance is white, crystalline, and in an extraordinary manner, and advanced very bitter. It crystallizes in the form of towards the ship with open jaws. I had quadrangular plates, or in four sided prisms, caused the cannon to be re-loaded, and pointterminated by an obtuse quadrangular py- ed it at his throat ; but he had come so ramid. It is very slightly soluble in water, near, that all the crew were seized with terbut very soluble in alcohol. It is formed ror, and we thought only of getting out of his like most vegetable substances, of oxygen, way.. He almost touched the vessel ; and hydrogen, and charcoal. It is most distin. had not I tacked as I did, he would certainguished by its alkaline properties; and ly have come on board. He dived; but in though like morphium, is essentially differ, a moment we saw him appear again, with ent from it. It restores a reddened blue col. his head on one side of the vessel, and his our, and with acids forms neutral salts, so- tail on the other, as if he was going to lift luble in water, and crystallizable. With us up and upset us. However, we did not weak nitric acid it forms a nitrate, but the feel any shock. He remained five hours concentrated acid acts on and decomposes it; near us, only going backward and forward. and forms a solution, at first red, but be- “ The fears with which he at first inspir. coming yellow, and yielding oxalic acid. ed us having subsided, we were able to ex. Its acetate is very soluble, the sulphate less amine him attentively. I estimate, that his so, and crystallizable in rhomboidal plates. length is at least twice that of my schooner,
This substance acts on animals in a siini. that is to say, 130 feet ; his head is full 12 lar manner to the alcoholic infusion of the or 14: the diameter of the body below the nux vomica, but more energetically. neck, is not less than six feet; the size of
The class of acid vegetable substances is the head is in proportion to that of his body. numerous ; on the contrary, that of alkaline He is of a blackish colour ; his ear-holes vegetable substances is confined to morphi. (ouies), are about 12 feet from the extremi. um. Nevertheless, M. Vauquelin has notic- ty of his head. In short, the whole has a ed the alkaline properties of a substance ob- terrible look. tained by him whilst analysing the daphne " When he coils himself up, he places alpine. The new body will form another his tail in such a manner, that it aids him genus in the class, which may become nu- in darting forward with great force: he merous, and which has first been observed moves in all directions with the greatest faby M. Vauquelin. To recal these facts, cility and astonishing rapidity.” and designate the substances by a name (Signed) JOSEPH WOODWARD. which will avoid circumlocution, they have Hingham, May 12, 1818. called it vauqueline. This name is better than one entirely insignificant, or that indi. This declaration is attested by Peter cates properties which may be found in other Holmes and John Mayo, who made affidabodies.
vit of the truth of it before a justice of American Sea Serpent.-Another sea ser. peace. pent, different to the one first seen near Cape The animal first seen, has, according to Anne, is said to have been seen, and the fol. accounts, been observed several times since lowing declaration has been drawn up and that period. On the 19th of June, he apattested in proper form.
peared in Sag Harbour, and rewards were offered to the whalers to secure it. S. West, in the lungs, their extent, their state, and of Hallowell, master of the packet Delia, the nature and consistence of the matter describes it as seen on the 21st of June, en- within them, were ascertained. gaged with a whale ; and on July 2d, two Russian Voyage of Discovery.—A very persons, J. Webber and R. Hamilton, saw singular ice berg was fallen in with by the it about seven miles from Portland, between Russian ship Rurick, Captain Kotzebue, Cranch Island Point and Marsh Island. during its voyage. It was of great magni.
The Commercial Advertiser of June 9th, tude, and partly covered with earth and contains a letter from the captain of the brig mould, so that herbs and trees were growWilson, of Salem, bound to Norfolk, where- ing on it. On one part of its water line a in he states, that during his passage, offshore had been formed, by matter washed Cape Henry, he fell in with, as he at first down from above, and on this a landing was supposed, the wreck of a vessel, when he made good. A great quantity of the reordered his boat to be lowered ; but to his mains of a mammoth were found on it, in a great astonishment, he found it to be the very putrescent state. These had probably ses serpent; he says, he then examined it, been preserved for many ages in the cold and such an object he never before witnesse regions of the north, and were no doubt coed; he believed it to be about 190 feet in equal in age to those remains which the gelength, and its mouth and head were of an ologist finds in his later strata, and merits, enormous size. After returning to the ship, therefore, in a geological sense, the name of they bore off, fearing the consequences that organic remains. The vessel brought away might result from its coming in contact with a number of the tusks and other
parts of the vessel.
these animals. Połyhalite M. Stromeyer has lately ana- Northern Herculaneum. We extract the lysed a substance found in the beds of rock following from a very excellent provincial salt, at Ischel, in Austria, and has found it paper, the INVERNESS COURIER. to be a peculiar mineral. It was before con- Lopress, in Sanda, 26th Sept. 1818. sidered, and called fibrous muriacite, but TO THE EDITOR, has now received the name of polyhalite. It SIR,-Having lately seen a notice in the is composed of
newspapers, &c. that vast remains of ancient Sulphate of lime (common), 28.74 buildings— a city--two cities' had been Sulphate of lime (anhydrous), 22.36 disclosed to modern vision, by recent driftSulphate of potash,
27.40 ing of sand, I came here yesterday to ascer, Sulphate of magnesia (anhydrous), 20.11 tain, by actual inspection, the state of the Chloride of sodium (mixed),
0.19 fact. A party of us set out to-day after Oxide of iron,
0.32 breakfast, and took with us labourers, with
spades, &c. to assist in our researches into
99.12 this Northern Herculaneuin ;-and having New Medical Instrument.-A new in- glanced over the scene, I, at least, was quite strument has been introduced into medical satisfied, that the stories which had gone ascience at Paris; and, from the favourable broad upon the subject were very great exreport which it obtained, on being submit- aggerations. A venerable native of this ted to the Academy of Sciences, would ap- unfrequented island of the north, (which, pear to be somewhat more than a chimerical by the way, is a fiction) whom we saw on improvement.
the ground, told us, that he was threescore De Laennec, physician to the Necker and eighteen years of age, and that, for the Hospital, supposed it likely, that the various last sixty years, the sand, which rose in heaps sounds which are formed in the interior of at the headland now referred to, has been the body, as in the breast, &c. might be gradually drifted away--that the whole surcome, from the variation induced on them face of the sand hillocks was green, being by disease, indications of the state of health; covered with grass and bent--and that, with, and that the sounds produced by the action in these last twenty years, the whole area, of motion of any particular organ, as of the now laid nearly bare, with the exception of heart or lungs, would point out any change a small corner at the point of the promon.. in the state of that organ; and taking ad- tory), has been almost freed from its cover. vantage of the superior conducting power of ing of sand-hills. The respectable tenant of solid bodies, with regard to sound, he form- this farm tells me, that he remembers the ed an instrument which should convey these place for the last twenty-five years, and that indicatory sounds more readily and distinct- during that period, the sand-hills, to the ly to the ear. This instrument is a cylinder height of perhaps twenty feet, or thereby, of wood, which, in some cases, according to have been dispersed. The space thus uncover. the nature of the examination, is solid, in ed, extends probably to about a square mile, others, perforated lengthways by a canal ; at the most northerly point of this island and in others, hollowed like a horn. and exhibits evident marks of having been
The voice, the respiration, sounds in the the scerie of human operations, at a period throat, and pulsations of the heart, are ge- anterior to its being covered with the sand. neral indications to so many different kinds Nearly in a line with the sea-beach, as it of diseases; and by one of these, among sweeps round the head of Tofts Ness, and others, it is said, that the existence of ulcers about fifteen or twenty feet above the high
water mark, there is a ridge of loose large ends, so that the legs must have been fold. flag stones, tossed together in irregular ed sideways across the broader end. The masses, and spread out to such a width, and coffins were in width about three feet, comhaving such an appearance as a row of cot. posed of thick slate, without top or bottom, tages in ruin might be supposed to exhibit. and about two feet deep. I am, &c. Besides this range, there are several others Fascinating Power of Serpents.--A me. running off at right angles, and in various moir on the subject of the fascinating power directions, some of them perhaps the re- of serpents, by Major Alexander Garden, of mains of dwellings, or walls for defence, South Carolina, was read at a meeting of and others of them nothing more than old the New York Historical Society, in Šepdikes, such as are common in this country. tember 1817. There are still to be seen along the whole “ He attributed the phenomenon to an line of what may be supposed either fallen effluvium which the serpent voluntarily exhabitations, or fallen walls, the forms of hales at those times when it feels the desire round towers, crumbled down, some of them of food, and the effluvium is of so deleteconsiderably more elevated than the adjacent rious a nature as to cause convulsions in the ground, and one large mount, or tumulus, smaller and more sensitive animals, such as evidently artificial, within the range of the birds, mice, &c. He mentioned several enclosure, points it out as a post of some im- instances in which men had been powerfully portance in its day. There are various tu- affected by the effluvium. He had been muli or barrows, disposed on the outside of informed by the late Colonel Thompson of the rows of stones, which may have been out- Belleville, that whilst riding over his estate, works of defence. Some of them are evident- he came suddenly upon a snake of enorly of this description, while others are only mous size, at which, the moment he could places of sepulture. The latter fact I ascer- sufficiently collect himself, he fired. He tained by getting all the earth and sand tak- killed the reptile, but was at the same inen out of three stone coffins, which have been stant assailed by an overpowering vapour, exposed to view in one tumulus; and in which so bewildered him that he could each of them we found human bones, some scarcely guide his horse home: that a deadly of which I have reserved to show to the cu- sickness at his stomach ensued, and a vomiting rious. There is one mass of stones, differ- more violently than he had ever experienced ent from the ordinary Picts' houses, as they from an emetic. He had been told by a are vulgarly called here; these are circular; lady, that the overseer of one of her plantabut it is oblong, and seems to have been tions being missed, was sought for by his constructed by laying flagstones overlapping family, and found in a state of insensibility. one another, the highest regularly sloping On recovering, he stated that he was watchinward until the opposite sides met. We ing for a deer, when he heard the rattle of meant to have explored it, but a dreadful a snake ; and that before he could remove blast of wind and rain, from the south-east, from the threatened danger, he perceived a had already drenched us thoroughly, and sickening effluvium, which deprived him increasing, compelled us to desist. The instantly of sense. From John Lloyd, Esq. forms of ridges, freed from the sand which he had learned another case :- A negro had long covered them, are quite apparent ; working in his field was seen suddenly to but whether their formation and culture are fall, uttering a shriek : on approaching him, of the same era with the broken down walls it was found that he had struck off the head and towers, it is quite impossible to ascer. of a very large rattlesnake, the body of tain. Those remnants may be the wreck of an which was still writhing. On recovering, ancient establishment of the most barbarous he said that he had shrieked with horror kind, but it could not have been any thing on discovering the snake, and at the same deserving the name of a city. The situa- instant had been overpowered by a smell tion of Toftness, on the very extremity of that took away all his senses. Mr Nathathese islands, protected on one side by the niel Barnwell, of Beaufort, had a negro tremendous Frith betwixt it and North who could, from the acuteness of his smell, Ronaldsay, and on the other by a fresh wa- at all times discover the rattlesnake within ter lake, pointed it out as a position easily a distance of two hundred feet, when in the capable of defence by the rude bulwarks and exercise of his fascinating power ; and when towers, the vestiges of which still remain, in traced by this sense, some object of prey those predatory times when Orkney was the was always found suffering from this influscene of rapine and violence. Whether it ence. To these facts Major Garden added has been a colony of Celts, of Picts, or of some anecdotes collected from Vaillant's Scandinavians, I leave to the sagacity of an- Travels and other sources, corroborating his tiquaries to discover. The subject might theory. When gorged with food, the serafford materials for controversy between our pent is supine: it is only when under the old and respected friends, Monkbarns and stimulus of hunger that he exerts this fasEdie Ochiltree. I inust close these memo- cinating faculty. The cases mentioned by randa, however, by adding, that the stone Mr Pintard, at the last meeting of the socoffins are only about four feet in length, ciety, are among the many evidences of the and that the bodies which they contained existence of the power in the serpent to inwere laid with the heads at the narrowest Auence birds to approach it, maugre their