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low these quoted. Brandy and Geneva are heavy, the sales consisting chiefly of parcels for the immediate use of the trade.-Tobacco. There has been very little business done in this article. Fruit. The demand for Fruit continues considerable.
Irish Provisions. The demand for these continues limited.-In Hemp and Flax there is little doing, and the price of Tallora continues to decline. The demand for Greenland Oil continues limit. ed, and the market heavy. Spermaceti has also given way. In the other kinds there is little variation. Little business has been done in Tar. Mediterranean Produce continues very uninteresting. Very little business is doing in Dyewoods. The quotations of Rice have for some time past been merely nominal, and some partial sales have been made at reduced prices. The prices of every kind of Wines continue steady; and for Port and Sherry, and almost all French Wines, still higher prices are looked for. In other articles of commerce, no alteration has occurred' worth noticing.
In fixing our attention upon the occurrences of the year that is past, we have every reason to rejoice at the prospect of national prosperity which it presents to the view. The agricultural interests of this country are recovered from their severe depression, and hold out, for the future, the strongest prospect of permanent prosperity. Some time, however, must yet elapse before that interest can completely overcome the enormous difficulties with which it had to contend, and under which it laboured. All our manufactures are in fiill activity, and that prodigious branch of them, the cotton manufactures, give full employment to all concerned in it. The wages, for some particular branches of it, are rather low, but their work is abundant, and the workmen have their choice of it, which is an object of the greatest importance to them. The shipping interest of this country is greatly revived, and daily reviving. The extension of our trade, from the additional and increase ing arrivals and departures from every port, is truly great and cheering. The demand for ships is very great, and, we have reason to know, has not been so extensive for a great number of years. In the ports of the Clyde, there are more new ships at present building, than has been known since 1792 ; and we believe we may say, that it is the same in many other ports. Our trade is increasing to every quarter of the world, and, though shackled in some places from revolutionary warfare, presents, upon the whole, an' aspect of the most encouraging description, when considered as a whole, which it ought to be, to appreciate it correctly. The revenue of the country continues to flourish and increase. The actual increase of the year 1818, is very near £3,600,000, a vast sum, and which will furnish a powerful item in the ways and means for the present year. Thus, in every thing that concerns our national greatness, credit, security, and prosperity, the event and the fact completely belies those gloomy prognostications and evil forebodings of opposition orators and writers, those bitterest foes of their country's peace, prosperity, and glory.
Our trade to our East India possessions continues to increase. Our commercial relations with our valuable North American possessions are daily becoming greater and more important. The trade for timber to these places is immense, and increasing with rapid strides. Above thirty tine ships are now exclusively employed in that trade, from the small port of Port Glasgow alone. An association is forming; or formed, at Liverpool, to place vessels in that trade, to go at regular periods, in all seasons. The timber, stones, and provisions, of these our American colonies, find an advantageous and extensive market in our valuable West India possessions; and which trade, the wisdom and vigour of our rulers have see cured to ourselves, and taken out of the hands of our great conimercial rivals, and which is the severest blow ever inflicted on the United States of America.
The consequences of the measures mentioned, as so beneficial to our interests, and ina jurious to theirs, though only commenced a few months ago (from the 1st October last), are developing themselves in every State of the Union, with a great and fatal rapidity. While the United States of America carried their timber, and provisions, and stones, to our West India colonies, to supply their extensive wants, they thus carried on a trade with the latter, in articles which no other part of the world required, or would take from them. For these articles, which employed such a vast proportion in the tonnage of their shipping, they received either specie (this chiefly) or good bills on London. With these they wire enabled to clear their impenetrable woods, and spread cultivation over their immense wilds. But what is more, with the specie they were enabled to go into the East India market on an advantageous footing, which they will now no longer be able to do.
The reduction of the Spanish colonies, whether loyal or revolted, is such, that no supplies of importance in the precious metals can be drawn from them by the United States, in ex change for the articles with which they are allowed to trade to these colonies. Deprived therefore, of the mighty supply formerly received from the British West Indies, specie is now becoming so scarce in the United States, that, according to the latest accounts, it is openly proposed in their Legislature, to enact laws to prevent the exportation of their gold and silver coin. Without the exportation of gold and silver from the United States, it is impossible that the subjects of these States can carry on any trade worth mentioning with the East Indies, the trade to which has, in every age, occasioned a drain of the presous metals to that quarter. The banking system has been tried in America, to give en.
ergy to commerce, and to supply a circulating medium equal to its wants. They want, however, that confidence and stability which olă established commercial countries afford, and which can only render banks useful to a country. In America, therefore, the systema has been tried, but in so far as it was intended to supply every commercial want, it has completely failed.
America has been taught by experience, that she is still too young a country to benefit, to any extent, by banking establishments, and that the different interests which reign in her territories, will, in all probability, prevent her from ever deriving any advantage from pursuing the plan. The consequence of what we have attempted to detail, has occasioned great commercial distress throughout the chief commercial States of the Union. Numerous and extensive failures are daily taking place-confidence is shaken -money is not to be had, and mercantile concerns wear a most unfavourable aspect throughout the Maritime States of America. The best informed consider this distress as not yet
. at its height. The consequences must in some measure be felt in this country, but not to the degree may at first be supposed, because we receive in cotton, &c. double the value that the United States take from us in goods, and therefore our merchants have always more American property in their hands, than the American merchants has of theirs.
Whilst our former great and lucrative trade with Spanish South America remains subjected to the greatest vexations, vicissitudes, and uncertainty, from the nature of the san. guinary and destructive warfare there carried on, and principally supported by daring adventurers from all parts of the world, a great and increasing trade is carrying on betwixt this country and New Orleans. This city, from its geographical situation, commands, and must ever command, the trade of the largest tract of country, and greatest extent of territory of any place in America, or perhaps in the world. All the people or tribes of men who at present inhabit, or who may in future inhabit, the mighty and extensive banks of the Mississippi, the Missoure, Ohio, and their tributary streams, can only find an outlet for the produce of their labours, and an inlet for all their more necessary supplies, through the medium of the port of New Orleans. These regions are peopling fast." The facilities which these navigable rivers afford for transporting their produce, will greatly facilitate the spreading of agriculture and commeree on their banks. Steam-boats are al ready numerous on the Mississippi. There is at present constructing in Glasgow, two engines of forty horse power each, for one steam-boat, of about 700 tons burden, to be eme ployed in carrying goods and passengers from and to New Orleans, on the Mississippi. From the nature of the exports from, and imports to, this place, a great portion of the trade must remain in the hands of British merchants. During last year, there was exported from New Orleans, and chiefly to Great Britian, above 80,000 bales of Cotton, which may serve to give our readers some idea of the trade of this place.
British commerce also is daily extending itself up the Mediterranean, and along its populous shores. The Turkish power is now so much humiliated and broken, that however anxious the followers of Mahomet may be to promote the extension of commercial communications, and, consequently, the introduction of more liberal and enlightened ideas with Europeans, still these are no longer able to oppose any formidable barrier to the extension of trade. Any quarrel with the American powers, must only give the latter a surer footing in the Mediterranean and its interesting shores. The power of Russia, guided by her present enlightened policy, is surrounding the Black Sea, and opening up with the interior of her vast dominions, by this road, a trade once unknown to the west of Europe. Let any one look at Odessa, and see what a few years has accomplished. The trade of Britain, therefore, in every part connected with the Mediterranean, must continue to in. crease and expand. Her name is too well known, and her capital and influence too widely felt, to dread the power of any rival to supplant her in the greatest share of this trade.
From the banks of the Ganges, a British trade is begun with the Russian possessions in Kamtchatka, and the port of Ochotsk. This we hinted at in a former Number, as being only begun, and we are happy to find it continuing to be pressed with vigour, and under every encouragement. This trade opens a wide field indeed for the general advantage and improvement of countries and people, hitherto barely known to civilized Europe.
The British possessions in New Holland and Van Dieman's land, are daily rising in commercial importance and prosperity. The trade to the Cape of Good Hope is also increasing, and affords a prospect of becoming eminently advantageous to this country, and the coast of Africa, along the Gulph of Guinea, and in the territory of Benen (the most advantageous for trade and settlements), are beginning to reap the advantages arising from a peaceful mercantile intercourse with Great Britain ; and it is to be hoped that a few years will open the cyes of the Sovereigns of those parts to the use of the advantages they possess, and that their interests are not to sell their subjects as slaves, but to make industrious men of them.
On which ever side we turn our eyes, or to whatever quarter of the globe we extend our researches, there we see British skill, capital, industry, and honour, exerting themselves in a way, which, while it adds to the wealth and security of their country, must also prove eminently beneficial to mankind at large.
We subjoin the following important Tables of the Exports and Imports of Great Britain, during the year 1818, and our readers may rely on their general accuracy.
Cotton imported in 1818.
Cotton exported in 1818. bags & bales.
bags bales. At Liverpool 421,265 From Liverpool,
swoman 9,154 London,
(a) of this quantity 213,507 bags were from the United States ; 168,498 bags, &c. from the Brazils ; 41,919 bales, &c. from the British West Indies ; 222,786 bags, &c. from the East Indies; and 8,941 bags, &c. the remainder, from European and Irish ports.
Sugar imported, 1818.
hhds. Into London,mammaren
- 20,586 Lancaster and Whitehaven,
mamananca 3,043 Clyde and Leith,
cases, bags, &c.
(a) Total, 251,479 27,822
131,794 (a) of this quantity, 117 tierces and 3552 cases were from the Brazils and South America ; 184 cases and 105,642 bags from the East Indies ; the remainder from our West India colonies.
Sugar exported in 1818 from all ports-- 24,025 tons, about 30,000 hhds.
Sugar paid Duties on 1818.
Cwts. B. Plantation.
7,906 - Bristol, &C...
20,461 This quantity is uncertain—it is supposed to be equal to the quantity imported, as very little is exported from these ports to foreign countries.
Rum imported, 1818.
Rum paid Duties on 1816.
1,269,421 - Liverpool, 5,018 167 Liverpool,
415,501 Bristol,...and 2,067 65 Glasgow,
172,097 Lancaster, &c. 912 144 Leith,
30,620 · Clyde and
Bristol, &c. saya 4,622
200,000 (ay) 155 Leith,
Total, 2,087,639 48,306 971 (a) We have not the accurate returns for these ports, but it cannot be less, as the report presently to be mentioned will shew.
Rum exported to all parts, 1818–27,501 puns. of 110 galls each.
48,445 103,458 (a) of this quantity, 267 hhds. and 13,181 barrels and bags, were from the Brazils and South America ; 16,522 barrels and bags from the East Indies, and the remainder from our West India colonies.
Coffee paid Duties on 1818.
Cwts. B. plantation, Cwts. Foreign.
Coffee exported, 1818.
To all parts.
Paid duties on.
hhds. At London,..........18,955 From London, www.1,937 At London, 4,543 hhds. Liverpool, camarone
-11,521- Liverpool,... 3,397 Liverpool,. 4,164 do. Glasgow,commewan 2,003 Glasgow, no re
Glagow.......990,435 lbs. 32,479
5,334 Leith, .682,049 do.
TO ALL PARTS, 1818.
16,070 cwts. Barilla, 6.614 tons.
283 tons. *Brimstone,................... 6,022 tons.
9301, tons. Currants, 5,201 butts, &c.
5,022 cwts. Figs.... 953 tonis.
2,435 cwts. Flax, 16,986 tons.
176 tons. Flax Seed,...................185,526 quarters.
9,479 quarters. Ginger, ...104,701 packages.
14,688 cwts. Hemp,... 23,215 tons.
2,156 tons. .903,844 number.
141,371 number. Indigo, 19,863 seroons and chests.
27,793 cwts. Lime and Lemon Juice,... 1,171 casks.
6,226 galls. Madder, 7,342 casks.
2,907 cwts. Madder Roots,............... 26,920 bales and bags.
216 cwts. Olive Oil, ..................... 6,524 casks.
80,914 galls. Palm Oil,.. 2,939 casks.
183 galls. Pimento,... 15,655 barrs. and bags.
12,034 cwts. Quercetron Bark, ........... 4,595 casks.
2,680 cwts. Raisins,......... 5,993 tons.
5,740 cwts. Rice, 22,499 tons.
7,2634 tons. Saltpetre, ....... 131,069 bags.
1,494 tons. Shumac,.. 43,622 bags.
2,688 cwts. Tallow, ......................... 24,983 tons.
360 tons. Tar, .............................138,176 barrs.
10,445 barrs. Turpentine....... 81,401 casks.
Wheatgoma 4,038 qrs.
Flourgnano 2,058 tons.
Beef, 7,020 barrs.
Pork, 15,397 barrs.
Butter, 4,515 firkins
689 pipes, and 327 hhds., &c. &c, Although, in the previous enumeration, we are without a very great number of articles, to give an accurate idea of the enormous foreign trade of Great Britain, still what we have given, may prove useful, and be deemed curious by our readers, and serve to give them some idea of the trade of their native country.
On the tables here given but few remarks are necessary. The import of Cotton has last year greatly increased, from the East Indies, the Brazils, and the United States of America. The total increase is 178,478 bags; and it appears that the consumpt has increased also.
Upon casting his eye over the tables, the reader will be at no loss to perceive the prodigious weight
which our much injured and calumniated West India colonies hold in every thing that concerns the trade and revenues of the country. The value of the Sugar, Rum, Coffee, and Cotton, alone, exclusive of duties, cannot be less than from £16 to £17,000,000 Sterling. The duties paid on the articles, the growth and produce of these colonies, cannot be less than £6,000,000. The Sugar and Řum alone here enumerated, as paid duties upon, would yield £5,350,000; yet these are the possessions which James Stephen, Esq. asserts in his audacious publications to the people of Great Britain, " sink every century more of our commercial capital than they are worth.”-(Mr Stephen's Speech, page 30). Such is the extent, the value, and demand for a trade, which the same gentleman's equal. ly wise and accurate co-adjutors, the critics in the Edinburgh Review, insist should be greatly lessened, in order to save Great Britain from ruin; for, say they, as the quantity of Sugar paid duties for in Great Britain, in 1775, was 1,533,421 cwts. (Edinburgh Review, vol. 11th, page 160, consequently, the quantity raised in these latter times, is far beyond the demand for it. “ We have endeavoured to shew," said they, " that there was an excess of Sugars, not merely in the British markets, but in the market of the world;