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Latitude 56° 25', Elevation 185 feet.


Before proceeding to offer any remarks on the above table, I shall state, as on a former occasion, the extreme points to which all the instruments were observed to rise and fall, during each month, as well as their greatest and least range on any one day; the thermometer of course being the only instrument

whose real extremes have been ascertained. (1818. Thermometer.



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ture of the place. In the above table, some for theoretical reasons sufficientMr Anderson's theory is again com- ly plausible, and some for no reasons pletely verified-the result of his for- at all; but if a copious induction of mula, at 10 o'clock in the morning, facts be of any value in physical being only one tenth of a degree, and science, the periods that I am now refor both morning and evening eight commending are surely entitled to the tenths of a degree different from the consideration of meteorologists. mean minimum. The greatest differ- The coincidence between the mean ence, as usual, is during the spring temperature of spring water and the months, which, however, may be ac- mean temperature of the atmosphere, counted for, from the prevalence of is very remarkable, the difference bea dry north and north-east winds. In ing only about two-tenths of a degree. assigning this as the cause of a similar During the years 1814 and 1815, I difference last year, I expressed my- kept a similar register of the temperself, I believe, somewhat inaccurately, ature of pump-water, raised from a when I stated, that the hygrometer in depth of 25 feet, and found the mean dicated a greater degree of dryness to coincide very nearly with the anthan actually existed. This, strictly nual mean of the open air ; but where speaking, is impossible ; for Mr Les- the depth is so small as three feet, and lie has satisfactorily shewn, that though the fluctuations, of course, greater, wind may quicken, it cannot possibly I was not prepared to expect such a augment, the depression of tempera- coincidence as that which the table ture of the moistened bulb of the hy- exhibits. I am aware, that one year's grometer. Still, however, the pre- observations do not afford sufficientdata valence of north and north-east winds for the establishment of any theory, may sufficiently explain the anomalies and shall not therefore venture to spein the above table, inasmuch as a con- culate much on the subject. I may be tinued succession, for days together, allowed to remark, however, that a of dry cold air from the northern re- series of observations on the tempergions, must augment the dryness of ature of water near the surface of the the atmosphere beyond what is nat- ground, may in time furnish results ural to this climate, a new wave, as it of considerable importance to agriculwere, flowing in before the preceding ture, not only in giving the average one can receive any sensible augment- heat of the ground for the whole year, ation of moisture.

but in marking more distinctly, as At the risk of being thought a little well as more correctly, the gradual hobby horsical, I must beg leave again progress of the seasons. The farmer, to draw the attention of your readers it is true, can neither hasten fnor to a fact which I have on former oc- retard these ; but the observation of casions laboured to establish, and years might enable him to ascertain which is amply confirmed by the pre- more correctly than he can at present ceding table. In my observations on do, how far any season is really forthe abstract for 1817, I stated, that on ward or otherwise, and teach him so an average of fifty-two months, the to regulate his operations, as to take mean, of the daily extreme tempera- advantage of favourable, and prevent tures, differed, from the mean of 10 in some degree the consequences of o'clock morning and evening, little unfavourable circumstances. more than three tenths of a degree. In the averages of the barometer The difference of the same two means, and hygrometer, there is nothing de for the whole of 1818, is exactly three serving of particular notice. tenths—a quantity so very inconsidere mean height of the former during the able, especially when the nature of the year is one hundreth of an inch higher subject is taken into the account, that than that of 1817; the average of the I may now, I think, venture to re- latter is nearly the same for both years. commend, with still more confidence in a former communication to your than formerly, these hours (10 in the Magazine, I proposed and explained at morning and 10 in the evening) for some length a contrivance for conthe observations of temperature, as the structing Leslie s hygrometer so as to hours that will certainly give the ave- register the extreme points to which rage of the whole year correct to a it rises or falls in the absence of the small fraction. Other hours, indeed, observer. Of the practicability of the have sometimes been recommended, contrivance I have no doubts, and with


regard to its value, it must obviously a superficial audacity of unbelief, an be to the hygrometer in its original overflowing abundance of uncharitableform, what a self-registering thermo- ness towards almost the whole of his .meter is to one of the common kind. race, and a disagreeable measure of As it has been satisfactorily shown, assurance and self-conceit-each of however, by Mr Anderson, that any these things is bad, and the comobservation of the hygrometer, unac- bination of the whole of them in the companied by a contemporaneous ob- character of any one person might, at servation of the thermometer, is in first sight, be considered as more than reality useless; and as the self-regis- sufficient to render that one person uttering hygrometer which I formerly terly and entirely contemptible. Nor proposed does not afford the means of has the fact, in general, been otherascertaining the temperature at the wise. In every age, the sure ultimate moment the hygrometer reaches its reward of the sophistical and phantasextreme points, I have been led to tical enemies of religion and good or. abandon my purpose of constructing der among mankind, has been found the instrument in that form, for a con- in the contempt and disgust of those atrivance which I apprehend will be gainst whose true interests their weamore useful. I propose to employ pons had been employed. From this two self-registering thermometers, doom the most exquisite elegance of graduated so as to coincide as exactly wit, and of words, the most perfect as possible with the two that I pre- keenness of intellect, the most Hattersently make use of for ascertaining ing despotism over contemporary opithe extreme temperatures, and to cover nion--all have not been able to prethe bulbs of both with wet silk. The serve the inimitable Voltaire. In this whole four being adjusted, the two doom, those wretched sophists of the that are dry will stand higher than the present day, who would fáin attempt to others, in proportion to the dryness of lift the load of oppressing infamy from the air, and at the next period of ad- off the memory of Voltaire, find their justment the difference between the own living beings already entangled, maximum thermometers, reduced from “ fold above fold, inextricable coil.” Fahrenheit to the millesimal scale, will Well may they despair :-we can alshew the state of the hygrometerat, or at most pardon the bitterness of their disleast very near, the momentof the max. appointed malice. Their sentence was imum temperature, and the difference pronounced without hesitation, almost between the minimum ones will shew without pity-for there was nothing the state of the hygrometer at or near in them to redeem their evil. They the moment of the minimum tempera- derived no benefit from that natural, ture. It may happen that the results universal, and proper feeling, which thus obtained will not indicate the influences men to be slow in harshly, state of the hygrometer, at the precise or suddenly, or irrevocably condemning moment of the extreme heat and cold, intellects that bear upon them the but they must in general be so very stamp of power,-they had no part in near it, I conceive, that there will be that just spirit of respectfulness which no sensible error in supposing them to makes men to contemplate, with an be contemporaneous with these tem- unwilling and unsteady eye, the abperatures. I hope to be able, at no errations of genius. The brand of invery distant period, to carry my plan expiable execration was ready in a mointo effect. Meantime I remain, Sir, ment to scar their fronts, and they have your obedient servant, R. G. · long wandered neglected about the January, 13th, 1819.

earth-perhaps saved from extinction, like the fratricide, by the very mark

of their ignominy, OBSERVATIONS ON THE REVOLT OF Mr Shelly is devoting his mind to ISLAM.*

the same pernicious purposes which

have recoiled in vengeance upon so A PERNICIOUS system of opinions con- many of his contemporaries; but he cerning man and his moral government, possesses the qualities of a powerful

and vigorous intellect, and therefore The Revolt of Islam ; a poem, in his fate cannot be sealed so speedily as twelve cantos. By Percy Bysshe Shelly. theirs. He also is of the “COCKNEY London, C. and J. Ollier.' 1818.

SCHOOL,” so far as his opinions are concerned; but the base opinions of the Mr Shelly has no excuse for printing sect have not as yet been able entirely a very unfinished piece an error which to obscure in him the character, or he does not confess,—or indeed for take away from him the privileges of many minor errors which he does conthe genius born within him. Hunt fess in his very arrogant preface. The and Keats, and some others of the unskilful manner in which the allegory School, are indeed men of considerable is brought out, and the doubt in which cleverness, but as poets, they are wore the reader is every now and then left, thy of sheer and instant contempt, and whether or no there be any allegory at therefore their opinions are in little all in the case ; these alone are suffidanger of being widely or deeply circu- cient to render the perusal of this poem lated by their means. But the system, painful to persons of an active and ardent which found better champions than it turn of mind; and, great as we conceive deserved even in them, has now, it the merits of Mr Shelly's poetry to be, would appear, been taken up by one, these alone, we venture to prophecy, of whom it is far more seriously, and will be found sufficient to prevent the deeply, and lamentably unworthy; Revolt of Islam from ever becoming and the poem before us bears unfor« any thing like a favourite with the tunately the clearest marks of its au- multitude. thor's execrable system, but it is im- At present, having entered our genpressed every where with the more eral protest against the creed of the noble and majestic footsteps of his ge- author, and sufficiently indicated to nius. It is to the operation of the our readers of what species its errors painful feeling above alluded to, which are,—we are very willing to save ourattends the contemplation of perverted selves the unwelcome task of dwelling power-that we chiefly ascribe the sie at any greater length upon these disa lence observed by our professional cri- agreable parts of our subject. We are tics, in regard to the Revolt of Islam. very willing to pass in silence the Some have held back in the fear many faults of Mr Shelly's opinions, that, by giving to his genius its due and to attend to nothing but the vehi. praise, they might only be lending the cle in which these opinions are conmeans of currency to the opinions in veyed. As a philosopher, our author whose service he has unwisely ena is weak and worthless ;--our business listed its energies ; while others, less is with him as a poet, and, as such, able to appreciate his genius, and less he is strong, nervous, original ; well likely to be anxious about suppressing entitled to take his place near to the his opinions, have been silent, by reae great creative masters, whose works son of their selfish fears-dreading, it have shed its truest glory around the may be, that by praising the Revolt of age wherein we live. As a political Islam, they might draw down upon and infidel treatise, the Revolt of their own heads some additional marks Islam is contemptible ;--- happily a of that public disgust which followed great part of it has no necessary contheir praises of Rimini.

nexion either with politics or with inAnother cause which may be assign- fidelity. The native splendour of Mr ed for the silence of the critics should Shelly's faculties has been his safeperhaps have operated more effectually guard from universal degradation, and upon ourselves; and this is, that the a part, at least, of his genius, has been Revolt of Islam, although a fine, is, consecrated to themes worthy of it and without all doubt, an obscure poem. of him. In truth, what he probably Not that the main drift of the narra- conceives to be the most exquisite ornative is obscure, or even that there is ments of his poetry, appear, in our any great difficulty in understanding eyes, the chief deformities upon its the tendency of the under-current of texture ; and had the whole been its allegory—but the author has come framed like the passages which we shall posed his poem in much haste, and he quote,--as the Revolt of Islam would has inadvertently left many detached have been a purer, so we have no parts, both of his story and his allu- doubt, would it have been a nobler, a sion, to be made out as the reader best loftier, a more majestic, and a more can, from very inadequate data. The beautiful poem. swing of his inspiration may be allow- We shall pass over, then, without ed to have hurried his own eye, pro comment, the opening part of this tempore, over many chasms ; but work, and the confused unsatisfactory


allegories with which it is chiefly filla general effect ;-there are unhappily ed. It is sufficient to mention, that, not a few passages in which the poet at the close of the first canto, the poet quits his vantage-ground, and mars supposes bimself to be placed for a the beauty of his personifications by time in the regions of eternal repose, an intermixture of thoughts, feelings, where the good and great of mankind and passions, with which, of right, are represented as detailing, before the they have nothing to do. throne of the Spirit of Good, those It is thus that Laon narrates the earthly sufferings and labours which beginning of his love for Cythna, --if, had prepared them for the possession indeed, his love can be said to have and enjoyment of so blissful an abode. had any beginning, separate from that Among these are two, a man and a of his own intellectual and passionate woman of Argolis, who, after rescuing life. their country for a brief space from An orphan with my parents lived, whose eyes the tyranny of the house of Othman, Were loadstarsof delight, which drew me home and accomplishing this great revolu. When I might wander forth; nor did I prize tion by the force of persuasive elo- Aught human thing beneath Heaven's quence and the sympathies of human mighty dome love alone, without violence, blood- Beyond this child : so when sad hours were shed, or revenge,-had seen the fruit of all their toils blasted by foreign in. And baffled hope like ice still clung to me, vasion, and the dethroned but not in Since kin were cold, and friends had now

become sulted tyrant replaced upon his seat; Heartless and false, I turned from all, to be, and who, finally, amidst all the dark- Cythna, the only source of tears and smiles ness of their country's horizon, had to thee. died, without fear, the death of heroic martyrdom, gathering consolation, in Whatwert thou then ? A child most infantine, the last pangs of their

expiring nature, Yet wandering far beyond that innocent age from the hope and the confidence that in all but its sweet looks and mien divine ; their faith and example might yet

Even then, methought, with the world's tyraise up successors to their labours, A patient warfare thy young heart did wage, and that they had neither lived nor When those soft eyes of scarcely conscious died in vain.

thought, In the persons of these martyrs, the Some tale, or thine own fancies would engage poet has striven to embody his ideas To overflow with tears; or converse, fraught of the power and loveliness of human With passion o'er their depths its fleeting affections; and, in their history, he has

light had wrought. set forth a series of splendid pictures, She moved upon this earth a shape of brightillustrating the efficacy of these affec- ness, tions in overcoming the evils of pri- A power, that from its objects scarcely drew vate and of public life. It is in the One impulse of her being in her lightness pourtraying of that passionate love, Most like some radiantcloud of morning dew, which had been woven from infancy which wanders thro’ the waste air's pathless in the hearts of Laon and Cythna, To nourish some far desart: she did seem and which, binding together all their Beside me, gathering beauty as she grew, impulses in one hope and one struggle, Like the

bright shade of some immortal dream had rendered them through life no Which walks, when tempest sleeps, the more than two different tenements for

wave of life's dark stream. the inhabitation of the same enthusiastic spirit ;-it is in the pourtraying Once she was dear, now she was all I had of this intense, overmastering, unfear- To love in human life-this playmate sweet, ing, unfading love, that Mr Shelly My sole associate, and her willing feet

This child of twelve yearsold-so she was made proved himself to be a genuine poet. Wandered with mine where earth and ocean Around his lovers, moreover, in the

meet, midst of all their fervours, he has shed Beyond the aerial mountains whose vast cells an air of calm gracefulness, a certain the unreposing billows ever beat, majestic monumental stillness, which Thro' forests wide and old, and lawny dells, blends them harmoniously with the Where boughs of incense droop over the scene of their earthly existence, and emerald wells. realizes in them our ideas of Greeks And warm and light I felt her clasping hand struggling for freedom in the best spi- When twined in mine : she followed where rit of their fathers. We speak of the I went,

rant rage

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