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Torfæus relates, that Harold Haar- until in the twelfth century, when fager sent his trusty Hauk Habrok Sleswig had lost all its trade in Svend with a ship to Russia, to fetch certain Grathe's time, and the town of Sigcommodities. Hauk arrived just at tuna was entirely destroyed. Nor did the time when the market was held, the Norwegians neglect to trade with to which a vast concourse of people, Biarmiland (Archangel), as may be. from different countries, had come; seen from the voyage made by Thorer and he bought, for money, a valuable Hund and his companions thither. upper garment, adorned with gold, After the murder of St Oluf, Svend, the like of which had not hitherto the son of Canute the Great, became been seen in Norway. In the Saga of king of Norway. In his reign king Thordi Hredii, mention is made of an Jarisleif of Russia forbade all comIcelander who lived in the tenth cen- merce between his kingdom and Nortury, called Skinnabiörn, because he way, because the Norwegians had murwas accustomed to sail to the eastward. dered their king, with whom he was We are informed in the Hirmskringla on terms of friendship. The circumof a rich man (who lived in the tenth stance that king Oluf's coffin was century) called Lodin, who often sail- covered with embroidered work, shews ed to Esthonia for trade, and had his that there was foreign commerce. In ship always laden with goods for that the battle with the Vandals, king country, which he probably exchanged Magnus, the son of Olaf, was dressed for others.

in a red silk robe, over which was a Upon the universal introduction of coat of mail. In Adam of Bremen's Christianity into the north, about the description of Norway, it is said, that eleventh century, commerce was very there are found in it, bears, wild much improved, for hereditary piracy oxen, and elks, as likewise in Sweden; was gradually abolished, so that the but wild oxen are found only in Slainhabitants could devote themselves to vonia and Russia ; whereas Norway the arts of peace. The soil was in alone has black foxes, white hares, consequence better cultivated. Towns martens, and bears, which live under were here and there erected, and arts water. It was principally under the and sciences were, in process of time, government of Olaf Kyrre, where the introduced by foreigners. Denmark country enjoyed peace and was prosand Norway then likewise received perous, that foreign fine cloths, espetheir first coinage ; at least this is true cially silk ones, trimmed with gold, respecting Denmark. The town of came into use; and the Hirmskringla Slesvig was the richest in Denmark; under the reign of Magnus Barfod, it carried on a great commerce with son of Olaf, mentions many Russian Russia. Bornholm was, as Adam of dresses that had been brought from Bremen testifies, a place of rendezvous Asia, and partly also from Greece, and haven for all the ships that went where the manufactures of silk had thither. Under Svend Estritzen, Roes- been established as early as the reign kilde had an extensive trade ; among of the Emperor Justinian. other proofs of this, there lay then It is therefore undeniable, that the many ships that were bound to the Scandinavians carried on a very coneastern countries, (Esthonia, Russia, siderable trade with Russia during the ued Livonia). The Danes likewise middle ages. It now only remains traded with Russia, for Adam asserts for us to show what commodities they that king Svend, by means of many conveyed thither, and with what they presents, induced a merchant to build paid in return for those they purchased; a church there. In the Hirmskringla, for trade was transacted on their part there is mentioned, under the reign of most frequently by barter, because it St Olaf, a merchant, who sailed to and was not till long after the -introtraded with Russia, and purchased duction of Christianity that coined there for the king, costly garments and money came into use in the North. a splendid tablecloth. Galland was a From the above it appears, that what rendezvous for the Russian traders; they imported from Russia were alwhich circumstance probably gave the most entirely luxurious, which were first occasion to the foundation of the not of Russian, but of Asiatic growth, powerful city Visby, which, however, namely, costly linen, and especially did not reach its highest prosperity, silk dresses, frequently adorned with

gold and silver, ornaments of pearls, know whence it was brought ; for and the precious metals, valuable Cazwini says, “amber is a yellow weapons, furniture, and such like.

stone, inclining to red. It is said, that With regard to the commodities im- it is the gum of certain nuts. It deported into Russia, although they are livers the person that bears it from nowhere expressly mentioned, one can jaundice, palpitation of the heart, have little difficulty in determining swelling, and hemorrhage, and prethem, when he considers the nature of vents vomiting, and, when suspended the productions of the north, and the upon a woman with child, it preserves wants of the Asiatics. Three articles the child." then occur to us, that are all found It may be seen, from this short deprevalent in the north, furs, fish, and scription of the articles of commerce, amber. That furs were very abund. that, as the greatest number of comant, and of excellent quality, in Scan- modities imported were articles of luxdinavia, cannot be doubted. Norway ury, the Scandinavians, so long as they and Sweden produce, at present, bears, maintained the simple mode of living wolves, squirrels, ermines, hares, foxes, used by their ancestors, must necesbeavers, and similar animals, in greater sarily have gained by their trade with or less abundance, according as the dis- Asia, through the medium of Russia; tricts are more or less inhabited and and that the Russians, in order to precultivated. Only a few such animals serve the balance, must have been obare now found in Denmark; which is liged to expend money, in order to occasioned by the increased number of pay for the quantity of northern wares the inhabitants, the universal cultiva- they received, which was greater than tion of the ground, and the decrease that of those they disposed of. Scanof woods. There was throughout all dinavia, therefore, and the northern Scandinavia, in former times, when coast of Germany, were in those times the lands were only thinly peopled, a an abyss, in which the money received much greater number of all such ani- for all those commodities was swallowmals. If we also remember what we ed up; and as neither the Russians, have before remarked, what an un- nor the Bulgarians, nor any other peobounded desire the people in the east ple or horde upon the Volga had any had, and still have, for beautiful furs, coinage of their own, but made use of we shall form an idea of the extent to the Arabic (for along the banks of the which our ancestors, who were born Volga, at Cadova and Rival, Arabic huntsmen, carried this trade. coins are found in great quantities),

T'he second considerable article of which they gained by the overbalance commerce, which can here be con- of their trade; it follows, that these sidered, was that of salt-water fish, of same Arabic coins must have likewise which the seas of Scandinavia, especi- found their way to Scandinavia, and ally along the Norwegian coasts, pro- the northern coast of Germany, in duce a greater number of kinds, in payment for the wares exported from greater abundance and of better qua- those countries. In fine, it is very lity than any other sea in the world. evident that, as trade was carried on It is well known with what eagerness first with the different Arabian and the Norwegian stockfish (fish of Ber- Persian dynasties, settled near the Casgen) are sought everywhere along pian sea, all payments must have, in the coast of the Mediterranean, so that the first instance, been made in their there is no doubt, but that a consider- money, which afterwards would come able quantity was imported into Rus- into circulation in the northern counsia (although its large seas and rivers, tries. especially in the Ukraine, possess great This balance in their favour, howabundance of fresh-water fish of infer- ever, ceased, in proportion as the ior quality), especially as they were not Scandinavians acquired a taste for difficult to transport. The sale of am- Asiatic and Byzantian luxury; and ber was likewise an important object it became necessary to the higher and of trade. It is well known, that this lower ranks to possess fine clothes, is found upon the shores of the Baltic, weapons, furniture, and other such especially in Prussia, and was well things from those countries. After known and sought after from the ear- piracy was abolished, the consequenliest times. The Arabians were all ces of it were more sensibly felt, inacquainted with amber, but did not asmuch as people could acquire

articles which they had themselves culation. In order, however, to obmade necessary, only by money, or tain small money to make up the dethe value of money, i. e. for other ar- ficiency of weight, they usually broke ticles ; but these were no longer in in two pieces the oldest and most used sufficient supply. This was the case coins, particularly those of the first in Scandinavia, in the eleventh cen- califs ; and on many of them are still tury, when the ancient simple man- to be seen incisions, which were made ners were daily growing more into for the purpose of more easily breakdisuse. Luxury and the increased ing them when occasion required. consumption of the above-mentioned That this method of settling moneyAsiatic commodities, became more matters by breaking silver coins, was and more prevalent after the time of in use in the large trading town of SaMagnus the Good; the consequence marcand, is expressly testified by John of which was, that the exportation of Haucal. furs, which were the principle arti- All the coins hitherto found were cle that should have preserved the ba- struck by, or in the reign of the chalance of trade, decreased considera- lifs at Bagdad, down to the year 1910, bly on account of the improved cul- in Irak, Chorasan, the countries on tivation of the soil, and the increase the other side of the Jihson ; in the of population, especially in Denmark towns of Alshash, Bagdad, Bitch, Basand the north of Germany. Lastly, sora, Bochara, Enderabe, Ferabar, the irruption of Thorgills into the mo- Cufa, Samarcand, &c. Not one is dern Russia took place at the same from Palestine, Egypt, or North Afritime.

ca, whence they might have been We must not, then, expect to find brought by the crusades ; and none after this period (the beginning of the from Spain, although that country lies eleventh century), Arabic coins in the much farther north. Whereas most North.

of the coins that have been found, Experience fully confirms what has were struck in the countries lying imbeen here said. An incredible number mediately around the Caspian Sea ; a of Arabic silver coins, with Cuficinscrip- great number, particularly of the coins tions, none of which is posterior to the of the Samanidæ, have been discoveryear 1010, have been dug up in Jut- ed; for that powerful dynasty, which land, in Sweden (especially Gulland), ruled over Persia, and the countries Norway, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, on the other side of the river, from and Prussia, although in other places the year 874 to 999, encouraged and there are found coins of a date as mo- protected trade, and caused money to dern as the thirteenth century. Be- be coined, both in large quantities and sides, silver coins (dirhems) only are of excellent quality; and the coins found, and no gold (denarii) or cop- have found their way to the north in per coins; for these last were nei- so great numbers, that they can scarcether of very easy conveyance, nor of ly be found any where else. The caany value in the North, which abounds binets of the north almost alone can in copper. It was likewise the cus- show them; they are neither found in tom to measure their value by that of the south of Europe, nor even in the silver. Gold coins are altogether de- country, whence they originally came, ficient, because the Bulgarians and as Niebuh inforins us. On the conRussians probably had themselves kept trary, these Cufic coins, from the the gold, and given the Scandinavians countries mentioned, are found in the silver, or, as is still more probable, north in incredible numbers. When because gold, in the northern coun- we consider only the immense numtries, on account of its scarcity, had ber that has become known, and how no determinate value, as measured by many more the ignorant and avaricious that of silver, which, in general, was discoverers have kept concealed or at that time difficult to determine. melted, it appears as if almost all the When coins were weighed, it would Cufic coins, from the regions of the therefore be most convenient to adopt Caspian, had been destined to be desome one current metal, which could posited in Russia and Scandinavia. be weighed without requiring any cal

THREE ORIGINAL SONNETS OF WORDS- We have to add, that Yorkshire a

WORTH; SUGGESTED BY WESTALL’s bounds also with ruins of the finest views or THE CAVES IN YORK- specimens of Gothic and Norman arSHIRE.

chitecture in the kingdom ; and that

Mr William Westall and Mr M‘KenMr William Westall has lately pub- zie are at present employed in produclished some most striking and impres- ing a series of views of these venerable sive “ Views of the Caves near Ingle- remains, from which a work will be ton, Gordale Scar, and Malham Cove, published in the course of the spring. in Yorkshire. These caves, at once the most singular and sublime of any

I. scenes of the kind in England, were PURE Element of Waters, wheresoe'er visited by the poet Gray, and have been Thou dost forsake thy subterranean haunts, described generally by him, with those Green herbs, bright flowers, and berry-bearpowerful and characteristic touches Start into life, and in thy train appear ; which render his prose as truly poeti- And, through the sunny portion of the year, cal as his verse. They were after- Swift Insects shine thy hovering pursuivants, wards subjected to a visit from a Mr And, if thy bounty fail, the forest pants, Hutton, a Westmoreland Rector, we And Hart, and Hind, and Hunter with his believe, or Church-dignitary of some spear, sort or other, whose long and laboured Languish and droop together ! Nor unfelt account of them may be found in the In Man's perturbed soul thy sway benign; appendix to “ West's Guide to the And haply far within the marble belt Lakes.” Mr Hutton having read Vir- For grace and goodness lost, thy murmurs

Of central earth, where tortured spirits pine gil at Cambridge, more especially the melt sixth book of the Eneis, seems to Their anguish, and they blend sweet songs have been perpetually haunted by the with thine ! image of the infernal regions; and the moment he found himself in a cave,

II.-Malham Cove. he imagined himself metamorphosed Was the aim frustrated by force or guile, into Æneas. This fancy pervades his When Giants scoop'd from out the rocky journal of his descent into the caves of ground Yorkshire ; and after having identifi- Tier under tier this semicerque profound. ed the great Trojan prince with the That Causeway with incomparable toil !

Giants--the same who built in Erin's Isle parish minister of Burton, he found Oh! had the Crescent stretched its horns, no difficulty in transforming the old

and wound, hostler of the inn at Ingleton into the With finished sweep, into a perfect round, Sybil. Accordingly, Virgil becomès No mightier Work" had gained the plausive a Yorkshireman—and he, the old smile hostler and Æneas Hutton, on their Of all-beholding Phebus ! but, alas! reascent from the “inania regna," seek Vain earth! false world ! Foundations must out the “Eagle and Child,

be laid rather more than social over a can of Things incomplete, and purposes betrayed,

In Heaven; for, 'mid the wreck of is and was, stingo.

Make sadder transits o'er Truth's mystic Mr Westall, however, is a person of glass, a very different character-an excel- Than noblest objects utterly decayed ! lent artist and an intelligent man. He has described the various caves, very

Ill.-Gordale. shortly and simply, in the letter-press Ar early dawn, or when the warmer air that accompanies the “ Views ;" while Glimmers with fading light, and Shadowy Eve we do not recollect ever to have Is busiest to confer and to bereave, seen the wild and fantastic wonders of To Gordale chasm, terrific as the lair

At either moment let thy feet repair Nature delineated by the pencil with Where the young Lions' couch; for then, more vivid and intense truth. An ho

by leave ngur has been conferred upon these of the propitious hour, thou may'st perceive “ Views,” of which the greatest artist The local Deity, with oozy hair in England might well be proud. And mineral crown, beside his jagged umn They have received the praise of Recumbent !--Him thou may'st behold,

who hides Wordsworth, who has expressed the delight with which their poetical cha- Teaching the docile Waters how to turn ;

His lincaments from day, and there presides racter inspired him, in three Sonnets, Or if need be, impediment to spurn, which we are now permitted, by their And force their passage tow'rd the salt sea illustrious author, to make public. tides. Vol. IV.


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ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL OB- water, it is, I conceive, the simplest, SERVATIONS FOR THE YEAR 1818. as well as the most accurate, method

of finding the temperature of the MR EDITOR,

ground at that depth below the sur

face, Thermometers, of sufficient I beg leave to present your readers length to reach the required depth, with an abstract of another year's me have been recommended, and, in one teorological observations, and to offer instance at least, have been actually a few remarks on some of the most employed for this purpose ; but besides interesting facts which it contains. the difficulty of constructing such in

At the commencement of last year, I struments, the method appears to me began, and continued regularly, to make to be liable to the objection of inaccur. the following observations, in addition acy. If the thermometer be sunk in. to those that I had been in the habit to a sandy soil, heavy rains passing of making for some years before. Ist, through the cold surface in winter, The daily range of the thermometer, and the heated sand in summer, will or the number of degrees betwixt the reach the instrument more rapidly, highest point to which it rose, and and of course produce greater fluctuathe lowest point to which it sunk, tions, than would take place in a during the 24 hours. 2d, The daily loamy soil; and, on the other hand, range of the barometer, or the spaces if it be fixed in clay, it will be less between the points at which the mer- readily affected than it would be in cury was observed to stand at 10 o'clock soils of a different description. The morning, and evening of the same method adopted in the following obday, and at 10 on the morning of the servations, is, I think, not liable to following day. The sum of these this objection. The water, before bewas entered in a column as the daily ing collected in the first or highest range, or the whole space through cistern, is brought in different direcwhich the mercury moved every 24 tions, and from a considerable dishours. The amount of course can on- tance, in covered ditches, cut for the ly be an approximation to the truth, as purpose of draining a large field. Afa the mercurial column might have risen ter issuing from that cistern, it is conhigher, or sunk lower, during the in- veyed through the distance mentioned terval, than it was at the time of ob- above, before it flows from the stopservation. 3d, The temperature of cock where the temperature is taken; water issuing from a pipe, after pas- and at every observation it is allowed sing through a distance of several hun- to run five minates.' By this means, alred yards, at the depth of about 3 the water, besides embracing a great teet below the surface. In one of the extent, passes through a considerable inonthly reports, the depth was stated variety of soil, and gives the mean at 34 feet; but I have since ascertain- temperature, not of any particular ed, that the average is considerably spot, but of the general average of the less, hardly amounting perhaps to 3 ground in the neighbourhood. Of the feet. The temperature is taken three advantages to be derived from a series times every month, viz. about the 5th, of such observations, I shall make 15th, and 25th. The first two of the some remarks afterwards. The other above particulars, viz. the ranges of columns of the subjoined table conthe thermometer and the barometer, tain the same particulars as those of can hardly be called additional obser- the abstract for 1817, inserted in your vations, as they are merely the results tenth Number-the observations being arising from subtracting the lowest made with the same instruments, on observation from the highest. They the same spot, and precisely at the serve, however, to shew more readily, same hours. I need hardly reinind as well as more distinctly, the extent your readers, that these hours are 10 of the changes that take place in the o'clock morning and evening, and that state of the atmosphere, and are there the day is supposed to begin at that fore, I apprehend, not the least valua- hour in the morning, and to terminate ble

part of the abstraet. With regard at the same hour next morning. thus to the 3d, the temperature of spring embracing an entire day and night.

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