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Friday afternoon arrived, they brought rope, which she gave two men to pull. the girl to a thing which they con- She then brought a large dagger cealed in the earth, resembling in the (knife), having a broad point, which mouth a milk pail. She placed her she thrust in between her ribs, and feet upon men's saddles, looked down then drew out. The two men surupon the milk pail, and spoke to them. rounded her with the rope (drew it on They made her go down, then turned each side) until she was dead. The her face a second time, and she did as nearest of the men then approached the first time. The same took place with the dead bodies, took a piece of wood her the third time. They then gave her and set fire to it; then went backwards a hen, the head of which she cut off and to the ship with the firebrand in one cast away, but they took the body and hand, whilst the other lay upon his laid it in the ship. I asked the inter- back. He was naked whilst he set fire preter what she did ? He answered, to the wood, which was far under the

The first time she said, lo! I shall ship. The other men who were presee my father and mother; the second sent came immediately with wood and time, lo! I shall see all my deceased firebrands. Each had a piece of wood, relations; the third time, I shall see the end of which he lighted and then my master sitting in paradise, and par- threw it among the other wood. The adise is beautifully green, and with wood immediately caught fire, then him are men and young swains. He the ship, the tent, the man, girl, and calls me; go with me to him! They every thing in it. A most vehement went with her to the ship. She took wind then blew, so that the fire flamthe two bracelets which she had oned violently, and a large flame set the her arms and gave them to the woman whole in a blaze. Å Russian was who was called Death's angel, and was standing by me, whom I heard conversthe person appointed to kill her ; in ing with the interpreter, who stood by like manner, she took off her garters, him. I asked the interpreter what the and gave them to the two girls who other said ? He answered, that he had had watched her, and were the daugh- said, “the associates of the Arabians ters of her who was called Death's an, are certainly great fools, for you give gel. They then made her ascend the yourselves a great deal of trouble, that ship, but did not make her go into the man should love and honour you, and tent. The men came with shields and you throw him into the earth, where pieces of wood. They gave her a large worms and vermin devour him; but cup full of palm wine. She sang over we burn him in a moment, and he it, and drank it. The interpreter told goes into paradise instantaneously, and me, that she thereby took leave of her at once. He then laughed very hearticomrades (female friends). Another ly, and said, 'from love for him, his cup was then presented to her, which lord sends him a wind, which may she took, and sang a long time over. take him away speedily ;' and indeed, The old woman encouraged her to scarcely an hour had passed, before drink it off, and go in to the tent, the ship, the wood, the girl, and the where her master was. I saw her; dead prince, were reduced to ashes. she appeared to be out of her senses They afterwards built over the place, from fright and agitation. In the mom where the ship (which they had taken ment when she wished to go into the out of the river), lay, something retent, she placed her head between the sembling a round hill, erected in the tent and the ship. The old woman middle of it a large piece of a tree, laid hold of it, and dragged her into wrote upon it the name of the man the tent. One of the men went in and that of the Russian king, and with her, while they beat their shields went away." with the pieces of wood, that the sound He says, likewise, « that it is of her cries might not be heard, and a rule among the Russian kings, for lest other girls should be dispirited and each of them to have with them 400 frightened, and refuse to die with their of his bravest chiefs, in war and peace, masters. Six men then entered the men whom he can depend upon tent, shewed great kindness to the girl, They die with his death (with him), laid her close to the side of her master, and fall next him. Each of them has and held fast both her hands and her with him a girl, that washes his head, feet, whilst the woman, called Death's and prepares every thing he eats and angel, fixed about her neck a twisted drinks; they have another to sle VOL. IV.

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with. These 400 men sit under his the author of the geographical dictionthrone (couch), which is large and ary, “extends from Andalusia and ornamented with pearls. Beside him Tangier to the north, until opposite sit on the throne forty girls, whom he the country of the Slavi, and to the lies with, and he sometimes amuses north of this country there issues from himself with one of them, in presence it a large bay.” “But towards the of the companions just mentioned. south reached to the Caspian sea, as He does not come down from his Cazwini expressly says. # The counthrone, and when he wishes to yield try of the Slavi,” says the same auto the necessities of nature, he does it thor, “ is large and widely extended in a cask ; when he wishes to ride, in the northern regions, having towns, they bring his beast (horse) to the villages, and arable land. It has a throne, from which he mounts him, sea of fresh water, flowing from west and when he wishes to dismount, he to east (the Baltic); another river approaches so close to the throne, that flows on the side of Bulgaria. They he can dismount upon it. He has a have no salt sea, for their country is vice roy (successor), who leads his ar- far removed from the sun. Upon this mies, fights his enemies, and is des- sea are towns, provinces, and fortified tined to succeed him in the govern- places.” ment.”

Thus unsatisfactory are the accounts “ I have copied all this from Ibn the Arabian geographers can give us Fodhelan's letter, with some few ale respecting that immense extent of terations and abbreviations. He must country, comprehended under the be responsible for the truth of what he name of the country of the Slavi. has related. God knows if it be true. Even Sherif Edrisi, although he knew -Now it is known that the Russians more of the north than any other Arabian are Christians.”

geographer, does not give us, on the We shall here refrain from making whole, a much better account. Ingeneany observations upon this relation, ral, the farther we proceed to the north, leaving it to the antiquarians of the the knowledge of the Arabians benorth; we shall only deduce from it comes more indeterminate and uninthe following results: the Russians, telligible, particularly as most of the or perhaps the principal people only names of the countries are either at among them, must have had, under present changed, or from the dissimithe Varigians, no small resemblancelarity of the languages, and different to our forefathers in religion and cus- pronunciation, cannot be recognised, toms; the Arabians must have visited so that we wander, as it were, in the Russia, in such a degree, as to have dark, whilst we search for similar gained a considerable acquaintance names in the farthest north, and frewith the nation, and to have been ac- quently have a difficulty of knowing customed to see them; the Russians in what country we are. Neverthee received commodities from the south less, however obscure the accounts of Asia, traded upon the Volga (if may be, which the Oriental geograthe Baltic or White Sea be not here phers can give üs of the north, it canmeant), and sold girls, martens, &c. not be uninteresting to be acquainted to the southern nations.

with them. Cazwini, Edrisi, and AbTo the west and south-west the darrahman Yacuti (according to De Russians were surrounded by the Guignie), shall be our guides in this Slavi, whose country was three months' intricate path. We shall commence, journey in extent. They inhabited, from the east, with that wonderful according to the Arabian geographers, people Yajouge and Majouge, whom The present Poland, Prussia, the north the Arabs have placed in northern Sieastern part of Germany, as far as beria. Since Cazwini is, at all times, the Baltic, which countries were, by extremely inclined to enlarge upon all the ancients, called Sarmatia, a name kinds of fabulous narrations, it is not to which does not occur in history after be wondered at, that he avails himself the year 471; and the inhabitants were of this opportunity of exalting the afterwards called by the general name credibility of the Koran. We shall of Sclavi or Slavi. The country of here adduce the most important of his the Slavi, on the north, did not reach accounts: “the mountain that surthe ocean, but to a large bay of it rounds Yajouge and Majouge, and is (the Baltic), for “ the ocean," says called Carnana, has its sides so steep and precipitous, that no one can as- districts where there is constant snow cend it. Deep and thick snow, which and rain.” never diminishes, lies upon its sum- It is reported, that the interpreter mit, on which grow plants that never (dragoman), Salam, who understood fail. It extends itself from the sea of more than forty languages, travelled darkness to the remotest inhabited land; so far, that he saw the wall. The but no one is able to ascend it. Be- princeof the faithful, Al-Vattek-billah, hind this mountain, dwell an innu- chalif of the race of the Abbessidæ, merable multitude, Yajouge and Ma- sent a message to him, desiring him to jouge. Upon the mountain there are travel thither to see the wall, and acvery large serpents and lizards. Some- curately to inform him in what mantimes fire ascends from this moun- ner it was built. He travelled, and tain. He who will see what lies be- returned after an absence of two years yond it, neither comes to it, nor can and four months, and reported tha return, but perishes. Sometimes out he and his companions travelled until of a thousand one returns, who tells, they came to the lord of the throne that he saw, on the other side of the (Sarir) with the letter from the prince mountain, a large fire. It is said, of the faithful. He received it very that Yajouge and Majouge were full graciously, and gave them a guide. brothers, who made marauding expe- They went on, until they came to the ditions to plunder their neighbours borders of the country of Sahrat (the before the arrival of Alexander. They country of the fascinators), and thence plundered many countries, and de- to a very extensive country, where stroyed many men, who were not on there was an abominable smell. They their guard. Yet there was a portion of passed over this in the space of ten them, who refrained from what was days. They carried with them someforbidden, and were displeased with thing to smell, in order to prevent the the conduct of the others. When the bad consequences of the smell of the two-horned (Alexander) came to them country, which attacked the heart. with his army, those who had refrain. They hastened therefore from this ed from acting unjustly complained country, and came to the land of Chaof Yajouge and Majouge, and of the rab (Destruction), where no sound injury they had done to the countries was heard, or any human being seen and their neighbours, and said, that for a month's journey. They thence they were opposed to their party, and went to the fortifications near the barwished to be delivered from their in- rier mountain (obex). The inhabijustice. Many tribes, likewise, gave tants of these castles spoke Arabic and testimony in favour of them. Alex- Persian ; and there was a large town, ander heard their prayer, caused them whose king's name was Chakan Atato remove out of the mountain, and kosh. These people asked how we pointed out to them a land to dwell did. We mentioned to them, that in. These people were, Alcharchalih, the prince of the faithful, the chalif, Albanisih, Charchirih, Alboghazghih, had sent us in order to examine the Alkaimakih, Algaidgianih, Alatcos, wall, and bring him back a descripAtlurcos, Alhakshah, Alshalick, Al- tion of it. The king, and they who ghuz, Albulgar, and many others, too were with him, were astonished, when numerous to be here described. He they heard us speak of the prince of then raised a wall, (obex) to repress the faithful and the chalif, of whom the disorderly. These people were they knew nothing. The wall was very small; none of them was higher two parasangs distant from this town. than three spans. Their face was very We and some others, whom they had large in circumference; their hair re- given us as companions, travelled thisembled the down that grows about ther, until we came to a pass between the mouth (lanugo); their ears were two large mountains, which was 150 round, and so long, that they fell down ells in breadth, in which was a gate of upon their shoulders. Their colours iron 150 ells long, provided with two are white and red; their voice is weak, pillars, each 25 ells broad and 150 and the mouth amazingly large and long. On these rested a cross-bar of wide. Their country abounds in trees, iron, 150 ells long. Over this crosswater, fruits, the necessaries of life, bar were two battlements (pinnä) of and four footed beasts, excepting those iron, and on each side of these two horns of iron, which were connected like wild beasts. When they eat, a with the other battlement, so that the violent motion was heard. They have one was fastened to the other. The two large ears, &c. · The author of gate was built of iron-bricks, fastened this book of wonder says, that there is together - with meited copper. Each in the interior of the county of Yaof the two folding doors was from 50 jouge and Majouge, a river called Alto 54 ells broad. On the gate was a mosatin, whose mouth is unknown, lock of iron 7 ells long, in height from &c. the ground 40 ells. Five ells above Thus much of certainty at least may the lock was a bar, 5 ells longer than be deduced from this account, that the lock. Over the lock was also a Yajouge and Majouge must have been key to lock it, an ell and a half in the name of a people or horde, probalength, which had twelve handles of bly of Finnish origin, which and eriron, and was suspended by an iron ed about in North Siberia, and very chain. The threshold of the gate was early made themselves terrible by their 10 ells high, 100 long, although the attacks upon the neighbouring tribes, sides were concealed under the pillars. on which account these separated them These measures were taken by the ell selves from them. This simple hismeasured from the wrist to the elbow. torical truth became by degrees, ac

The superintendent of these fortifi- cording to the imaginations and woncations mounts on horseback every derful ideas that prevailed in the east Friday with ten knights, each of whom respecting the north, embellished, and carries a hammer weighing five minæ. finally, as it were, reduced to a sysWith these clubs they beat three tem, which immediately discovers 'its times every day upon the lock, to hear Oriental origin, from the circumstance if any of the Yajouge and Majouge are of their being subdued by Alexander, behind the gate, and that they may the ideal of bravery in the east. The know that there is a guard. After story was thence introduced into the they have struck the door, they apply Koran, and thereby it was a duty imtheir ears to it, and then they hear à posed upon every true believer to betremendous noise, like that of thun- lieve every jot and tittle of it, as well der, from those who are behind. Near as every other word which descendent this there is a castle 10 ells in length; to the prophet. That Cazwini, howand close to the gate itself, there are ever, did not in reality consider this two fortresses, each 100 ells in ex- story as any thing else than a mere fatent; between them is a well of fresh ble, which he only as a Mohammedan water; and in one of them there are was obliged to relate, is pretty evident the remains of the instruments of from his introduction, where he says, building, such as iron-pots and ladles. “ Yajouge and Majouge dwell in the The pots stand upon elevations, on region of the north, after one is come each of which there are four, which to the country that lies between Caiare larger than soap-boilers. There makia and Slavia. God knows their are likewise seen the remains of iron- power better. Their country is so bricks, which adhere to one another mountainous that beasts of burden from rust. Each of these is an ell and cannot, but men only can, ascend their a half long, an ell broad, and two mountains. No one has given us a fourths high. But neither the gate, better account of them than Abu nor the cross-bar placed over it, nor Ishak, lord of Chorasan, who informs the lock, nor any thing else, is rust- us, that their articles of trade are care ed; for they were anointed with wis- ried on the backs of men and goats, dom's oil, which preserves from rust and that a week or ten days is requirand splinter. Salam, the interpreter, ed to go up and come down one of related also, that they inquired if any these mountains." one had seen any of Yajouge and Ma- Sherif Edrisi still remains, of whom jouge. They answered, that they had we have already observed, that, as he seen many of them upon the battle- wrote in Sicily in the midst of Norments of the building, and that a mans, he was enabled to obtain far strong wind blew upon them and more accurate information, respecting threw down three hundred of them, Europe and its northern part, than the of whom each was less in size than other Arabian geographers who wrote three spans. They had crooked claws in Asia, and were obliged to obtain instead of nails---eyes and jawteeth theirs by way of the Caspian Sea, Balgaria, and Russia. We can only la- Scandinavia, through the whole of the ment, that even in him the names of middle ages, stood in the most intimate places are so transformed, that we can- commercial relation with Archangel, not discover their meaning.

(Biarmeland), and the countries lying After having begun the seventh upon the Gulph of Finland, (Garclimate, by saying, that the whole of derike), every page of our Sagas and its first part comprehends the sea of Chronicles informs us, so that we need darkness (the western ocean), and its not here examine that question ; we second part the islands England, Scot- shall, however, here adduce some facts, land, and Ireland ; he says, at the end which prove that it was least of all or of this part, from the coast of England by no means Russian productions, for to the island Danis is a day's sail; from the Scandinavians had then as good the coast of North Scotland to the among themselves, but pearls, silk, island Raslandah is a distance of three splendid cloths, weapons, and many days' sail, &c. The third part begins other South Asiatic commodities, which thus: In the third part of the seventh they brought from thence ; so that it climate is comprehended the coast of appears, at the same time, that silk was Poland, Zuada, Finmare, and the in ancient times of much more freislands (peninsulas) Darmushah and quent occurrence than in the southern Berkaghah. After having mentioned countries of Europe. the places Vizreh (Weser) and Bro- In Alfs Saga, mention is made of berg, with the river Elbe, he says Hiorlef, the king of Hordiland, and of that Darmushah is of a round figure, an expedition which he made to Biarsandy, and contains four principal meland, in order to gain riches. We towns, many smaller ones, and many are informed in the Heimskringla, that celebrated and well inhabited sea-ports, the Danes plundered, in the sixth cenamong which is Vendeboskade. Be- tury, towards the east, by which is tween Darmushah and Berkaghah is generally understood Esthonia and half a day's sail; and from the town Russia. Saxo Gramaticus speaks of Landschaden, on the first mentioned Danish merchants, who traded with island, to the north of the river Ko- and went to Russia in the time of Halftelv, at which lies the town of Sikthun, dan, father of king Harold Kilditand, is a distance of 190 miles. The fourth which shows that all our forefathers' part of the seventh climate compre- expeditions were not of a predatory hends the greater part of Russia, Fin- kind : the same mentions Simmond, a mare, (Finland) the country Thest, warrior of Sigtuna, who was accusLaslandeh (Iceland), and Magus, or tomed to buy and sell, and was, conthe land of the Normans. These sequently, a merchant, and probably countries are, for the most part, de- not the only one in that city, which serts, with a few inhabited towns, lay conveniently for commerce, and everlasting snow, and few tracts of any was the residence of the Swedish kings. service. But Finmare has many towns, The Swedish king's son, says a Saga, much cultivated land, and many living made a mercantile voyage for his facreatures.

ther, with two ships, to the eastward, From these accounts, although they or to Russia, whither the commerce of are to us rather obscure and unintel- our forefathers in early times appears ligible, we may with certainty con- principally to have been directed. Ruselude, that the Arabians had no des- sia is frequently in our ancient volumes picable knowledge of Scandinavia ; and called Greece, because the Christian how are they, Edrisi excepted, to have religion was introduced there, towards obtained this knowledge unless by the end of the tenth century, by the means of trade, not immediately with Greeks ; from which period there has Scandinavia itself, but through the always been a close connexion between medium of commerce with Russia and the two people. The reason why our Balgaria? That; the Arabians and the ancestors went so frequently to Russia Southern Asiatics in general, came, was, because the Russian kings, and traded, and resided in these two coun- the most eminent of the people, were tries, especially in the first, I trust has of Varegian (i. e.) of Scandinavian been so incontrovertibly proved from blood; whence we find that both royal the preceding pages, that it will not be families united themselves with one necessary to dwell longer upon the another by marriage, and that exiled subject. That, on the other hand, northern princes took refuge in Russia.

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