Imágenes de páginas

times, adorned with carving, gilding, knights or senators, who robbed whole corerlids, and cushions, all of the most countries, who saw kings at their feet, costly execution and quality. With who brought hundreds of slaves of her right hand she leans tenderly up- every complexion from their subjuon her younger daughter, whose face gated provinces, to adıninister to the is turned to her with an affectionate pomp of their Roman insulæ, or their expression. On the other side stands Italian villas. the elder daughter, occupied with a A whole regiment of female slaves, female slave, who is arranging some- each having her own particular dething in the back part of her hair. In partment in the great work of the ether respects her dress is already fi- toilette or the wardrobe, attended on nished, the hair is encircled with a the nod of the Domina ; for by that double band, in the front it is fasten- name was she called by her domestics, ed with long dressing-pins, whose no less than by her lovers and depenheads alone are visible; the locks be- dants. That great painter of manners, hind float in careless ringlets over the Lucian, has given us a true and lively shoulders. The whole dress, with its description of the levée of one of these exquisite border, the ear-rings, arm- ladies, which we shall begin with lets, &c. shew that the day is that of translating. a festival. It may be, that the scene “ Could any one see this fair crearepresents a bride in the attire of her ture," says Lucian, “ at the moment wedding-day. Near her, upon a beau- when she awakes from her sleep, he tiful little table, a white and blue band would have no great difficulty in belies beneath a dressing-box, together lieving him to be in company with a with a few green leaves, probably meant monkey or baboon,-according to all for an offering-garland. At the foot of authorities a bad omen to begin the the table there stands a slender gently- day with. It is for this reason she curved ewer. The whole gives us a takes especial care that no male eyes view of a female toilette of that age shall see her at this hour. Now she and country, in which the most agree- takes her seat amidst a circle of officiable mixture was exhibited of Grecian ous old hags and dainty waiting damtaste with Roman splendour.

sels, whose skill and dexterity are all We hear much and often of the ex- zealously engaged to call from their travagant and costly dresses of the Ro- grave the dead charms of their misman ladies of that age, when the spoils tress. To wash sleep from the eyes and luxuries of a plundered world were with a basin of fresh well-water, and all collected in the imperial city; when then set alertly and merrily about the the whole earth was ruled by the proud management of household concerns Romans, and these by their yet proud- what a tasteless old-fashioned idea ! a wives. Many of our readers, we No, the first concerns to be attended doubt not, will consider a peep into to are the salves, and powders, and the morning and toilette hours of a essences, and lotions ! The room has Lady of that time, as likely to furnish the appearance of a millinery shop. nearly as much amusement as the per- Every slave has her own department usal of a heroic romance, founded on at the toilette : one bears a silver washthe manners of our tilting and tour- hand-basin, another a silver pot-denaying forefathers, or a tale of ghosts chambre, another a silver ewer, others and goblins in the Radcliff taste. They hold up as many looking-glasses and may perhaps remember something of a boxes as the apartment will admit of; description of this sort in the travels and in all these, nothing but Deceit, of Anacharsis ; but there, they will and Treachery, and Falsehood in one, recollect, they saw only the modes and teeth and gums—in another, eyelashes fashions of the retired and domestic and eyebrows, and such like trumpery. matrons of Athens. In Rome, things But the most, both of art and time, wore a quite different aspect. The are devoted to the hair. Some, that most luxurious lady of an English Na- have the rage for turning their natubob, the most expensive Knesin of St rally black locks into white and yelPetersburgh, however extravagant her low, besmear them all over with salves, wishes may be, can never hope for a and then expose them to be sucked in a moment to rival the profuse splen- and burned in under the sun's rays at dour which was daily commanded noontide. Others are contented to keep by the wife of one of those Roman them as black as they are ; but they lavish the whole substance of their sembles, in the morning, a wall with husbands upon them, so that the whole ill-mixed and bursting plaster,--and of Arabia breathes from the hair of so indeed the great satirist Juvenal has one of them. Burning lotions are kept described it. boiling on the fire to crimp and twist

“ Interea fæda aspectu ridendaque multo what nature has made smooth and Pane tumet facies sleek. The hair of one must be Tandem aperit vultum et tectoria prima rebrought down from the head, and ponit, taught to lie close to the eyebrows, Incipit agnosci.” lest the Cupids, I suppose, should have If we take into our consideration the too much play-ground on the fore- fact that, in addition to all this, our head; but behind, the locks float over Domina had laid aside, with the rest the back in bundles of vanity."* of her dress, several not unimportant

But is it not possible that Lucian items of the “human face divine," has been too hard upon the poor la- such, for example, as the eyebrows, dies of his age ? Lucian was a great the teeth, the hair, &c. and that theresatirist, but he had so much wit, that fore she probably bore much more we, for our parts, do not suspect him likeness to the death's head, over which of having had frequent recourse to ca- Hamlet moralized, than to the living ricature. Were it necessary, however, model of the Venus of Praxiteles,-we to bring any authority in confirmation shall, perhaps, upon the whole, be of his, we might point out abundant forced to admit that Lucian's comparipassages, at least as strong as the above, son of the monkey was, if not the in the most reverend fathers of the most gallant that he might have sechurch, particularly from the Pedu- lected, the most graphic, piquant, and gogus of Clement of Alexandria, but just. In truth, old Ennius had obmost of all from that invaluable mine served the same likeness several cenof information, Tertullian's famous turies before ; treatise on the Dress of Women. But

“ Simia quam similis turpissima Bestia here too, we well know that our au

nobis." thorities would be represented as suspicious, and the over austerity of these what is, properly speaking, the dress

Before, however, Sabina comes into divines would be said to have incapa. ing-room, her own body-damsel, the citated them from giving a just account muel-teased Smaragdis, has already of things as they stood. Our fair readers, however, must ascribe it to their performed certain little services about own well-known spirit of incredulity, these lazy lords and ladies of the world,

her person, the signal for which, from that we trouble them even with the threatening of such formidable cita

was a crack of the fingers.* tions.

Our Domina--without injury to all the other ladies, Roman and not Ro- all, in the famous question put into the

* There is not much of caricature, after maan, who bore the same name, she mouth of a Roman lady by Juvenal" Is may be called Sabina-at her first a- then a slave a man ?” That idea, if not wakening is any thing but an amiable expressed openly in words, was the ruling object. Perhaps Lucian's similitude principle of much of their conduct-it was of the she-baboon may not be far 2- one part of this to give directions to their miss. But you shall judge for your slaves, not by language, but by nods and selves. According to the custom of gestures. The pious Clement of Alexandria, her times, she had placed on her face for this reason, mentions the cracking of

the fingers (οι δια των δακτυλων ψοφοι, των over-night, a plaster of bread soaked

οικιτων προκλητικοι) as instances of the mode in asses' milk. The inventor of this in which slavery brought men down to the embrocation, by means of which the condition of beasts. The digitis concrepare skin was rendered very soft and white, was a common signal to the servant in waitwas the illustrious Poppæa, the wife ing; but its most usual meaning was, that of Nero, and it had preserved her he or she should bring the pot-de-chamname. During the night, part of bre. It is thus, that in the Trimalchio of the beauty-plaster had been sucked Petronius we read, “ Trimalchio homo lauinto, and part of it had dried upon, her tissimus digitos concrepuit ad quos signum

In face, so that Sabina's physiognomy re

spado ludenti matellam supposuit.”
one of Martial's epigrams, we read of a

Castratus, who was, it seems, skilful in this Amores, T. ii. p. 440. ed. Wetsten. part of his vocation, “ delicatæ sciscitator

opus ?


At last she enters the dressing-room, Cur mihi nota tuo caussa est candoris in ore? where her arrival has been perhaps Claude forem thalami : quid rude prodis for hours expected by a regiment of slaves and attendants. Her first nod Multa viros nescire decet. Pars maxima is to the slave that watches the door; Offendat, si non interiora tegas.” (the Janitrix, as she is called,) and then she asks after the billets-doux, the admission of any young gentleman

Sabina is aware what consequences bills, letters, messages, milliners, &c. that have arrived before she has got she guards effectually against it. She

to this privacy might produce, and up. But who might be admitted to gize with uninitiated eyes upon such remembers the story of Psyche, who a scene as this? Sabina has read the put love to flight by the injudicious

introduction of the torch. precepts of the great master in the art of love, and she forgets not his pre- numerous circle of her damsels and

Scarcely has the Domina entered the cepts. * Non tamen expositas mensâ deprendat the zeal of rivalry, betakes her to her

tire-women, ere each of them, with arnator Pyxidas. Ars faciem dissimulata juvet. part. As of old, among the Egyptians, Quem non offendat toto fæx illita vultu, each part of the human body had its Cen fluit in tepidos pondere lapsa sinus? peculiar physician, so that the earEsypa quid redolent, quamvis mittitatur doctor, the eye-doctor, the tooth-docAthenis

tor, the clyster-doctor, the foot-docDentus ab immundo vellere succus ovis ?

tor-each had his own little unapNec coràm mixtas cervæ sumsisse medullas, proachable division of the general vicNec coram dentes defricuisse probem. Ista dabunt faciem; sed erunt deformia visu: tim to deal with, as it might seem good Maltaque, dum fiunt turpia, facta placent.

to his fancy,-here too the surface of Quæ nunc nomen habent operasi signa My. Sabina is portioned out among a vast ronis,

variety of petty governors. Every bit Pondus iners quondam, duraque massa fuit. of the smoothened, polished, painted, Annulus ut fiat, primò colliditur aurum : pranked body, thanks a different artist Quas geritis vestes, sordida lana fuit. for its ornament. The slaves are arCùm fieret, lapis asper erat ; nunc nobile ranged into troops and sub-divisions

signum Xuda Venus madidas exprimit imbre comas.

like a legion. * Tu quoque dum coletis, nos te dormire pu- ers, the layers-on of white and red,

The first file consists of the painttemus; Aptiùs à summâ conspiciare manu.

the stainers of the eye-brows, and the scrubbers of the teeth. . The whole

materials made use of by this class, urina.” In another, we have the vessel were combined under the general itself introduced, speaking thus :

Greek term of Cosmetic, for the rage

of the Roman ladies was in these days * Dum poscor strepitu digitorum et verna

to call every thing by Greek names, moratur, O quoties pellex culcita facta mea est.” exactly as it has been the rage of GerLib. xiv. 119. man ladies, in our own times, to call

From the The only relic of this barbarity seems to be every thing by French. perceived in the after-dinner fashions of the lover, down to the tooth-brush, every English gentlemen. The employment of thing had its endearing appellation in daves, however, in such ministrations, was Greek. The maids occupied with this shocking even to the ancients. We read great department were called kosmetæ. in Plutarch (see Laconica Apophthegmata The first who begins to operate is is variis, 35. tom. i. pt. ii. p. 934, Wyt. Scaphion, who, with a basin of luketenbach,) of a young Spartan slave who killed himself from the feeling of this de- the nocturnal incrustation of bread. the soaps and essences which were ap- While Phiale is busy with her penplied after its removal, ousyuara. To cils and pallet, a third slave, whose enumerate all the names of these nom-de-toilette is Stimmi, is getting would require a treatise, and a dull ready a little pot with pounded black one; the ancients, so far as chemical lead (which they called, very approskill was not absolutely necessary, were priately, filigo) and water. In her nowise inferior to the moderns in this other hand she has a very delicate species of invention. Varro, a contem- pencil or needle, for laying on this porary of Cicero, calls one of these tincture ; for in those days the Greek salves by which wrinkles were re- and Roman ladies universally made moved, tenti pellum-humorously like use of methods for increasing the lustre ing it to the stretchers used by tan- and depth of their eye-lashes and eyeners. The second slave is Phiale brows, very similar to the surmé still her care is the pallet alone, it is her's employed for the same purposes by the to clothe with white and red the clean Oriental fair. The common mixture washen and smoothed visage of the was called Stibium (a slight alteration Domina. Before, however, she pre- of the Greek orijeks, an eye-brow), and sumes to apply her colours, she breathes it might either be formed, as we have on a metallic mirror, and gives it to already described it, from lead, or from her lady, who smells the breath. The antimony or bismuth, the very matestate of the saliva of the maiden is by rials still in fashion among the easthis ascertained—a circumstance of terns. Stimmi, with her calliblemighty import in the mixing of the pharon (for this too was another name colours."

warm asses milk, washes from the face gradation ; and a serious debate is to be This mass was called zaraziaopez found in Arrian, (i. 2. 8.) whether or no a slave should submit to it. In another passage of the same work, we hear of the

* See Pignori de Servis Romanorum, emperors having a servant expressly itti 7* (ed. ii. Batav. 1656,) S 191–204. See azeza. This abominable degradation was also Gori upon the Columburium Liviæ revived in modern France, where a court Augusta, discovered a century before that lady of high rank took her title from the time. A Roman dame of high rank, at Cabinet d'aisance. See Soulavie's Memoires the age of our Sabina, had at least 200 Historiques du regne de Louis XVI., vol. libertà and servæ attached to her daily serül p. 18.


for it, and the most elegant of all), The ointments and colours, and the soon transfers Sabina into some resemwhole apparatus wherewith, as Ham- blance of the ox-eyed hero of Homer.* let says, they disguised God's handi- The eye-brows also are delicately touchwork, was contained in two caskets of ed. Next comes Mastiche to her post, ivory and crystal work, which form- the dentist of the toilette. She applies ed, in these days, the chief ornaments to the Domina that Chian martix from of the female toilette, and were known which she derives her own name, and by the Greek name, Narthekia. Our which was the customary dentifrice of fair readers may be excused for wish- the day.t From the corner of her ing to have a glimpse of the interior beautiful mastix-box she next produof these repositories; but let our gen- ces a little onyx phial, containing the tlemen take warning from the fate of urine of an infant, and a golden shell, “ Peeping Tom of Coventry.” We containing finely pounded pumicemay, however, mention this much in stone, which, from the mixture of a degeneral, that with the exception of the ancient and saturnian white lead,

• The best description of this operation is which was then quite as fashionable Juvenal's : as it is now, the greater part of the Illa supercilium madida fuligine tactum ancient paints were derived from the Obliquâ producita cu, pingitque trementes comparatively innocent animal and ve. Attollens oculos. getable kingdoms. The Roman ladies Petronius also speaks of “Supercilia prowere in this respect wiser than ours.

ferre de pyxide." What Juvenal calls the obliqua acus is called by Galen, in speaking

of the ladies of his time, (ás ornjipas Soll• The word Fard is derived, not from Magouesvas yuvasxes) unan, i. e. specillum. fucus, as Menage thinks, but from the Ita- + The word mastix itself (pasifuv, maxlian farda_saliva. The sublimate of mer- illa, macheoire) shews how universal was eury was always moistened by saliva before this practice. The substitute of the rich, it was mixed up with the colours. To this when any substitute was used, was a silver Ariosto alludes, in his first satire :

picker spina argentea. (See Petron. c. 33. “ Voglio che si contenti della faccia

p. 128.) The poor then, as they still do in Non sa ch'il liscio e fatto con salvo

the east, were obliged to employ a false Delle Guidee ch'il vendon, ne con tempre species of mastich, the attractilis gummifera Di muschio ancor perde l'odor cattivo." Linn. In old times the tree itself, however,

See Triller de remediis veterum cosme- was sedulously cultivated both in Italy and ticis eorumque noxiis, vit. 1757, 4. the Levant. Sonnini has several curious

Also, an amusing article in the European remarks concerning it, and the trade arising Magazine, 1797, the Adventures of Mer out of it. See Voyage en Grece et Turquie

vol, ii. p. 126.

leate marble, sparkles with every va- DESCRIPTION OF THE DRESSING-BOX riety of colour. But perhaps all this OF ASTERIA, A ROMAN LADY OF is mere show. The teeth which are THE FOURTH CENTURY, FOUND IN contained in the little box of Mastiche THE YEAR 1794. have no real occasion for tooth

powder, dentifice, or pearl essence. These are “ COULD we but see one of the rougeeasily placed with all their beauty in boxes in the Museum of Portici ! Has the hollow jaws, and no powder or no dressing-box been found among all brush can do any good to the few and their excavations? Learned men used ragged remnants of the aboriginal to be buried with a copy of Homer or stumps. The truth is, that the in- Cicero under their heads—did no fair vention of ivory teeth and golden and luxurious Domina ever take her sprigs is as old as the twelve tables. * toilette apparatus with her to her

Martial often speaks in a manner grave ?” So we can easily imagine one which proves the universality of the of our fair readers to express herself, use of false teeth in his times; for in- after perusing the first scene of our stance, in the following, when he in- Sabina. troduces the tooth-powder as speak- By a happy accident, there was dising;

covered, some years ago, the complete Quid mecum est tibi ? me Puella sumat,

toilette of a Roman larly of the first Emptos non voleo polire dentes.

rank, in a tomb of the imperial city.

It is true, that the age of this precious The goddess Fashion had in these monument is some few centuries later times not only as many worshippers, than that of our Sabina ; and it is albat was adored by them with the same

so true, that our Herculanean lady can incense and morning offerings as now.

scarcely be supposed to have rivalled To many a Sabina of that day a por- the magnificent equipage of the contrait-painter might have made the same sular lady Asteria; but, nevertheless, excuse which Lord Chesterfield has

we may gain at least some light from put in the mouth of Liotard, I never copy any body's work but my tiquity. But first a few words on the

examining that interesting relic of anown and God Almighty's.”+

mode of its discovery. Let us hear the address of Martial

In the spring of 1794, some labourto one of his own countrywomen:

ers digging for a well in the garden Com sis ipsa domi mediâque ornere Suburâ of a monastery, not far from the SaburFiant absentes et tibi Galla Coma

ra, at the foot of the Equiline hill, Nec dentes aliter quam Serica nocte reponas, Et jaceas centum condita pyxidibus.

canie upon a large subterranean cham

ber filled with crumbled ruins, from Nec tecum facies tua dormiat, innuis illo Quod tibi prolatum est niane, supercilio.

which, after some time, they succeed

ed in extricating a chest filled with a Sixteen centuries later, La Bruyere variety of ancient articles of dress. At speaks much in the same way of his first, however, this discovery was countrywomen: “ I have collected looked upon as so unimportant, that the voices of the men, and they were almost all of my opinion, that it is al government, although legally entitled

to all things so dug up, made over the most as odious a thing to see a woman prize, without difficulty, to the perwith white lead on her face, as with

sons in whose garden it had been false teeth in her gums, or waxen found. These sold the whole to a plumpers in her cheeks. They pro- German connoisseur, the Baron von tested, that before God and man, no Schellersheim, then residing in Rome, part of this deceit and treachery could who was indefatigable in picking up be laid to their charge."..

all antique rarities discovered during

his stay; and who, upon a closer inCicero de legg. u. 24. It is forbidden ing, that he had thus got into his pos

vestigation, had no difficulty in find. to bury gold with the dead, but where an express exception is made concerning those session one of the most precious rewho were buried with false teeth fastened mains of Roman antiquity which had with gold in this way.

ever been dug from the earth, both by + The World, No 105.

reason of its materials and its works # Caractères, vol. i p. 153. manship He shortly after shewed.

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