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Kirghisians, who now inhabit this and China, by which communication steppe to the east of the river Ural, a the Arabians received commodities. Nomadic race, who probably knew from those remote countries. There as little of agriculture as these do. is scarcely any doubt, but that some of The ancient inhabitants lived princi- those tribes were, during the middle pally upon horse flesh, the Kirghisians age, to the trade of eastern and northLive on sheep, but the favourite bever- ern Asia, what the Armenians then age of both the ancient and modern were, and now are, for that of the inhabitants is mare's milk, or, as the northern by way of the Caspian Sea. Tartars call it, kumis, a much esteem- But let us return to the north, and ed drink, which is made of sour, boil- particularly to Bulgaria. ed and unboiled, mare's milk. It is, This people inhabited, to the north when it becomes sour, so nourishing of Chazaria, the country near the river and pleasant to the taste, and also so Don, where it approaches so nearly to spirituous, that it not only serves for the Volga, that many, as well Byzannourishment, and promotes a healthy tine as Arabian writers, have considera and fresh appearance and a good con- ed the southern part of it as the weststitution, but it also intoxicates, when ern branch of the Volga, and thence taken in too great profusion. This along the Volga, as long as it takes a steppe is described by Russian travel western direction, until the river Belers as a vast, open and dry plain, laya ; for there was situated their capiwith extensive sands, very little fruit- tal, Bulgar, upon the left bank of the ful land, and still less wood. It is de Volga. So early as the fifth century ficient in good water, but possesses a the Bulgarians began to make incurgreat number of brackish lakes. The sions into the Roman empire, and on land, therefore, is not cultivated at all, the north side of the Danube and the but horses, horned cattle, sheep, and in Black Sea so harrassed the Slavi, that some places, camels, are in great abun- these were compelled to remove fardance. One difficulty, however, yet re- ther north to the Dnieper and the Vismains, which cannot easily be removed. tula. At last, in the year 679 and 680, Both Cazwini and Edrisi make mention they took possession of the country of a large sea, called Tehama, which was from the Black Sea to Pannonia, or 250 miles in circumference, the water the present Bulgaria ; but there reof which was of a deep green colour, mained, notwithstanding, a part of but fragrant and pleasant to drink. them in their native country, that conIn this sea there were many flat fishes, tinued to form a state, although it was which the Turks (Tartars) relished much weakened by emigrations, and much, because they considered them in consequence oppressed by the Rusas the best means of exciting desire. sians, until one of Genghischan's sucThis sea lay in the southern part of cessors, Chan Bathi, who, in the midthe country,

but neither in the Kirghi- dle of the thirteenth century, in consian steppe itself, or on its borders, do junction with several tribes, settled, we find in our maps a sea 250 miles in upon the river Ural, a horde, called by circumference (which, in our measure, the Tartars “ the great,” by the Rusmake 83 miles, about 415 English sians, “ the golden,” subdued the miles), but only some inconsiderable kingdom of the Bulgarians, and ebrackish lakes, of different sizes. We rected in its stead those of Casan and must here then leave undetermined Astracan. the situation of this sea.

“ The country of the Bulgarians," To the east of Alodcos, or, as this says Cazwini “'is extensive. The ecountry is generally considered as a vening begins in winter at half-past subdivision of Uzia, to the east of the three o'clock among the Bulgarians Uzians, there wandered in Tartary and Russians.” Alhanchali says, “ I and Siberia many bordes, such as the testify that the days in their country Alcha zalgi, Altayhazghaz, Charcbir, are in winter hardly of sufficient Kaimakia, &c. with whom the Arabi- length to afford time for four solemn ans must undoubtedly have been ac- prayers and the attendant ceremonies. quainted ; partly because many of The inhabited places of the Bulgarian those hordes were Mahommedans, land are conterminous with Roum. partly because some of them carried They are a numerous people; their on trade with Siberia, and others, as city is called Bulgar, a large city, which the Bucharians at present, with India I do not mean to describe, that I may not be accused of violating truth.” merous ruins of large buildings which He says, nevertheless, in the introduc- are found there. It is likewise very tion, that. Bulgar was a small town, evident that it must have been a staple which had few possessions, but had town for different kinds of merchanbeen celebrated because it was the ca- dize, and a place of resort for mere pital, and likewise the place for loade chants from very remote places, for the ing and casting anchor in the Volga), monuments indicate that the persons for those kingdoms; but the Russians there buried were from provinces to had plundered it in the year 358, to the south of the Caspian Sea. The gether with Atel and Samandar (in oldest tombs must have lain there for the country of the Chazarians), which nearly 1150 years, the latest more than had greatly diminished its prosperity. 400. The same may be confirmed Edrisi (in the sixth part of the seventh by the number of silver coins with climate) mentions another town, Ba-Cufic and Arabic inscriptions, which bun, which was well fortified, lay up- is found there. In the same country, on the summit of a hill, was well built, at Tschermtschew, close by a small and had abundance of the necessaries river, which falls into the Volga, may of life ; and adds, that to the north of be seen the yet more ruinous remains Bulgaria was the mountain Kokaia, of the considerable city Bulymer, first beyond which neither man nor beast Bulgarian, and afterwards Tartarian, could live on account of the cold. in whose site now stands the small This mountain Kokaia, in the north- town of Biljærsk. ern Ural chain between Russia and Thus far did the certain acquaintSiberia, says he in another place (in ance of the Arabians with the counthe ninth part of the fifth climate), tries of the north reach. Thus far was that which surrounded Yajouge they frequently came themselves, and and Majougi. Yacuti describes the could therefore see and hear of whatcity Bulgar in the following manner: ever was most remarkable in the coun" It lies in longitude 90° 5', and in tries which they travelled through ; latitude 49° 30', on the shore of the but they seldom or never went farsea Pontus (the Black Sea), is built of ther; this is affirmed by Ibn Haucal, pine tree, and has its wall of oak. It and sufficiently proved from the acis surrounded by Turks. Between counts of the countries to the north of this town and Constantinople are two Bulgaria, which are more or less immonths' journey, and these people perfect and fabulous on account of make war with those of Constantin- their distance. It is seen, however, ople. The length of the day is twenty from the embassy of Ibn Fodelan to hours, and of the night four. It is the Slavonian country in the tenth very cold ; in summer and winter the century, during which, as we shall afground is covered with snow. It is terwards see, he lived among the Russaid, that they are the posterity of sians some time, that Ibn Haucal's those who believed in Hud, and with confession holds good only with redrew to the north, where they settled. gard to the more ancient times, proTeeth are found in the ground which bably before the Varegians came to resemble elephants' teeth, and are as the government of Russia in the ninth. white as ivory.” Ibn Haucal remarks, century, into which they gradually that the Bulgarians are a powerful and introduced Scandinavian hospitality numerous people, for the most part and loyalty. For although the southChristians, and have the same language ern people seldom or never went into as the Chazarians, which resembles the Russian country before the time of that of the Turks, and is understood the Varegians, for fear of being killed by no others.

by the barbarous inhabitants, they We learn from Pallas's Travels in nevertheless carried on trade with Southern Russia, that there are not far them, as is confirmed by Ibn Haucal, from Simbirsk, on the left side of the who says, that “the Chazarians bring Volga, large and magnificent remains honey and wax from the borders of of the capital of the Bulgarians, Bul. Rus." gar or Biæchimova, consisting of tow- The city of Bulgar, however, whose ers, mosques, houses, monuments, all situation on the Volga, below the of quarry stone and brick. That it mouths of the Kama and Belaya, was must have been a very considerable admirably adapted for trade, was the city, may be concluded from the nu- residence of a great number of Aras

A. W. SCHLEGEL.

bians and Persians from Southern terest not only the learned of France, but Asia, as the monuments show, and those of Spain and Italy, since many celelikewise undoubtedly of many Arme- brated Troubadours were born in their counnians, who are, perhaps more than the try, and since the Provençal poetry, the first Jews, born to be merchants and agents could not fail to have great influence on the

to develope itself, and much diffused abroad, of trade. In this city were stored up formation of the Spanish and Italian poetry. the goods, which were brought from The Provençal dialect appears to have been very remote countries of the north and spoken heretofore in some parts of Upper the south, and even from Siberia. Italy. It exists at this day as a living tongue, With regard to the articles of trade, it excepting the inevitable alteration of so many is not necessary here particularly to centuries, in Catalonia, in the kingdom of enumerate them, as that has in part Valencia, and in the Balearic Isles, as well been already done by Cazwini and the as in the south of France. above-mentioned writers, and they clear this uncultivated ground. The task

“ M. Raynouard has begun the first to were at that time in a great measure which he has undertaken singly, is of such the same as they are at present, al- extent and difficulty, that one would have though those that are brought from said it was sufficient to occupy a society or Scandinavia and that part of Russia scholars for a considerable number of years. which borders on the sea, are carried But he does not come new to the undertakby a different mode of conveyance, al- ing; what he gives to the public is matured most entirely by sea, to the Levant by long study-all his materials are ready and the Black Sea.

and with the activity he bestows on his work, (To be continued.)

we may hope to see it increase rapidly, and soon to be in possession of the whole, exhibiting a complete course of Provençal literature.

“ The pieces we have before us serve as OBSERVATIONS ON THE PROVENÇAL the Introduction. In the first, the author LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, BY traces the Romance dialect to its origin,

bringing together such scattered indications

as are left of it. In the second, he seizes We give our readers some extracts from language at the very moment, as it were, of a Memoir of the learned A. W. Schle

a more regular formation, and analyses its

most ancient monuments extant. Lastly, gel on the Provençal Language and in the Grammar he developes the inflexions, Literature, written on occasion of M. the rules, the idioms of the language, such Raynouard's very interesting work, as it was spoken and written in its most now publishing, on the same subject. fourishing, epoch, that is to say, in the We are glad to introduce them, not twelfth and thirteenth century. only in reference to this work, which The second volume of this Collection, unwe have much pleasure in thus an- der the title of Monuments of the Romance nouncing, but for that character of Language, will contain the most ancient simple, judicious, and manly criticism, companied with a translation and notes. In

original texts, both in verse and prose, acby which all the writings of M. Schle- the third, which is at this moment in the gel are distinguished.

press, and will appear along with the second, “ The labours of M. Raynouard are des- will be collected the amatory poetry of the tined to fill up a great hiatus in the literary Troubadours. In the first half of the fourth, history of the middle ages. The Trouba- the sirventes and the tenzons-generally, the dours were in every one's mouth, but no- satirical, political, moral, and religious thing was known of them. What was said pieces. The second part of this volume could scarcely be otherwise than vague or will contain the various readings, the lives false. But in a little time, the men of letters of the poets, such as they are found in the who may undertake to treat this subject, so manuscripts, and some pieces which the important in respect to the origin of modern Editor did not think fit to rank under the poetry, will be left without excuse, if they preceding heads. In the fifth, a comparado no better than their predecessors. tive view of the languages of Latin Europe,

“ For some time past, the exertions of re- and other philological researches, will serve spectable writers have not been wanting to as the Introduction to a Glossary of the elear up the antiquities of the French lan- Romance language, reserved to the last voguage and literature. But if some of them, lumes. like M. de Sainte-Palaye, have seriously oc

“ The erudition of M. Raynouard is as cupied themselves with the Provençal litera- extensive as it is solid. But what is far ture before M. Raynouard, no one at least more admirable still, is the luminous critihas communicated to the public the results cism, the truly philosophic method which he of his studies. Such a long neglect is the more surprising, as this literature must in

The first Volume.

brings to all his inquiries. He advances to give, the greater part of their songs, esnothing without the proofs in his hand. He pecially their amatory pieces, will need no goes back always to the sources : he knows farther explanation. Many poems, those, them all.

for instance, containing historical allusions,

cannot do without it ; and others still, such • The songs of the Troubadours are often as some pieces of Arnaud Daniel, and of composed with a very studied artifice : in a Marcabrus, will perhaps remain forever undestyle exceedingly concise, purposely enigma- ciphered, even to scholars as conversant in tical and filled with allusions to unknown the Roman tongue, and as accomplished in facts, and to manners which to us are foreign. the art of philosophical criticism, as M. RayThe turn of thought itself, the expression of nouard. sentiments, bear in them the colours and “ But to what purpose, it will perhaps the costume of a distant age, to which we be said, is all this apparatus of a difficult have to transport ourselves in imagination. and unattracting erudition. Might one not And to facilitate the intelligence of such translate freely into prose, the best pieces of poems, the scanty remains of a language the Troubadours, give extracts of some which has ceased to be cultivated for so others, and consign all the remainder to obmany ages, we had, till now, neither gram- livion, from tenderness to the memory of mar nor dictionary of this language : the on. our honourable ancestors ? — The experi. ly help, was the analogy of other dialects de- ment has been tried, and with lamentable rived from the Latin ; an analagy often de result. There are, no doubt, works of ceitful : for, although the Roman language poetry, which, without sustaining any conwas, so to speak, the eldest daughter of the siderable injury, may be transferred into Latin tongue, and though it has strong fea- other languages, provided the translation be tures of resemblance to its younger sisters, at least elegantly versified. The more any the French, Italian, Portuguese, and Spa- work is the production of an ambitious, but nish languages, especially to the last, it has sterile imitation, of an art become mechanialso much of idioms of its own, and the Latin cal, the more it revolves in a circle of magwords are often diverted from their primi. nificent common places, and a phraseology tive sense in a peculiar manner.

learnedly artificial, the less it risks in trans“On engaging in the study of this lan. lation ; for the equivalent of things of this guage, I speak from my own experience, sort is found abundantly in every cultivated one despairs of laying hold on a clue to literature. But the original impress, not guide one through its labyrinths : One is only of the consummate works of genius, tempted to lay the blame of one's own im- but even of early art, is difficult to preserve perfect knowledge on the language itself, in translation. I think it would be imposand to believe that it is capricious, irregu- sible to imitate, with a happy fidelity, the lar, rebellious to all analogy. This is, how- provençal poetry, as much, perhaps, from ever, a very erroneous opinion. M. Ray- its almost fantastic originality, as its simplinouard has very clearly demonstrated the city of native grace. One cannot consider contrary. He has carried a clear light into the songs of the Troubadours, as the sponthe midst of this darkness : he has disen. taneous effusions of a nature still altogether tangled, by his sagacity, an apparent con- savage. There is art, often indeed a very fusion : and, hereafter, they who have done ingenious art; especially a complicated sysno more than followed attentively in his tem of versification, a variety and a copioussteps, will already have surmounted the ness in the use of rhymes, which have not greater part of their difficulties.

been equalled in any modern tongae. The " A certain dryness is inseparable from Troubadours themselves called this comgrammatical discussions ; but M. Ray- bination of poetry and music, in which they nouard has avoided it as much as possible, exerted their talents, a science, but the gay by the spirit of philosophy which he intro- science. It was not drawn from the source duces into his analysis, and by the elevation of books, nor of models reputed classical ; of his point of view. To judge from the it was inspired to them solely by their poetic space it occupies, one might think his gram- instincts, and

by the desire to please their mar diffuse ; it is, on the contrary, drawn generation. The age in which they lived, up with most perfect conciseness. The was not learned nor philosophical, but rogreater part of his pages is filled with criti- bust, undisciplined, warlike, adventurous. cisms of original texts, which serve at once It was marked by striking contrasts; on for examples and proofs of his grammatical one side a noble delicacy of sentiment, a rerules. Ñ. Raynouard thus affords his read- fined courtesy of manners in the higher ers the means of examining for themselves, classes ; on the other, dark shades of licenand convincing themselves of the truth of tiousness, of rudeness and ignorance in the his observations. These numerous frag- total of social life. The poetical composiments of provençal poetry, accompanied by tions of such a time, especially those which literal translations, familiarise the student rest most on the inspiration of the moment, with the constructions of the language, and and an individual feeling and situation, nameprepare him to read the Troubadours them- ly, their lyrical compositions, resemble not the selves. With the help of the grammar, and usual flowers of our literary gardens, but the glossary which M. Raynouard proposes much rather those Alpine plants, which can

To some

not be transplanted from their native soil, the learned Editor of the Troubadours : He and from the sky under which they sprung. will borrow from them the truest and most To see the rose of the Alps in blow, we striking of the local tints of his picture. must climb the mountains. To enjoy those Even did the Provençal poetry contain songs which have delighted so many illus- nothing more than some historic details, trious sovereigns, so many gallant knights, else unknown, still it would be necessary to so many ladies, celebrated for their beauty resort to the original text; for in all that is and their grace, which have had such vogue, to serve for evidence in matter of history, it not only in the south of Europe, but where is not possible to rest satisfied with translaever chivalry flourished, and even in the tions. Holy Land, to enjoy these songs, I say, “ Lastly, The study of the Provençal we must listen to the Troubadours them. language is very curious in itself, under the selves, and apply ourselves to comprehend threefold respect of the general theory of their language.

languages; of the etymology of the French " It will be time to discuss the poetical tongue, and other dialects derived from the merit of the Troubadours when we have Latin; and finally, of its own peculiar the opportunity of reading their principal beauties and distinctive qualities.” works in a correct edition, accompanied by all that is necessary to assist us in under of these inquiries a little more in de

M. Schlegel proceeds to sketch some standing them : such a one, in a word, as M. Raynouard promises us. But those who tail; particularly in reference to the are acquainted with history will all agree, bearing of this study on the theory of that the Provençal poetry contains a trea- language in general and on the for. sure of national recollections. Some Trou. mation of the French and other lanbadours are the ancestors of families that guages from the Latin. hold, even at this day, a distinguished rank points of such discussion we may in France ; others belong to families now hereafter, perhaps, have occasion to extinct, but once illustrious and powerful; call the attention of our readers. The many, as Bertrand of Born, and Polquet of corruption of the language of the RoMarseille, played an important part in the mans, into the dialects in which it still political events of their time; a great number of them have spoken of these same

subsists among the descendants of the events, of which they were witnesses, often, nations they had conquered, is one of perhaps, with the partiality of passion, but the most curious and interesting sube always with the manly frankness of vigorous jects that are open to philologists; inminds; all furnish living pictures of the asmuch as it presents to them the exmanners of their age, whether designedly, traordinary phenoinenon of language as in their moral and political pieces, or falling into destruction, if we may say unconsciously, in the native ingenuous expression of their feelings and their thoughts. ruins ; as the mass, too, of materials,

SO, and renewing itself out of its own What uncolours the history of the middle ages is, that the contemporary chronicles for the investigation, is unusually have generally written in Latin. Now, it large, and as the several languages is almost impossible to transfer, into a dead which have thus arisen have each atand learned language, the most charactertained to considerable perfection, and istic individual traits. All, then, that is have each formed themselves into a transmitted to us in the popular dialects of very peculiar, and, it might almost be those times is exceedingly precious, if we said, original character. would know them intimately, it is as if we has himself in preparation,

M. Schlegel

« A His heard the distinguished men who then lived speaking to us themselves. What is called torical Essay on the formation of the in history, the spirit of an age, says a Ger- French language,” which, from his man writer, is commonly nothing more than thorough acquaintance with the literathe spirit of a modern author reflecting an ture of all the ages of modern Europe, altered image of past times. The historian and from the philosophical spirit which has not yet appeared in France who could he brings into 'all literary discussion, paint the middle ages in a manner truly cannot fail, when it appears, to interest dramatic-that is to say, bringing on the deeply the curiosity of the students of stage the men as they lived, surrounded with the atmosphere of the then prevalent

philology. opinions and feelings, without imparting to

He closes his Memoir with the folthem motives foreign to their nature-with- lowing words : out analysing their characters by reflexions “ I here conclude my observations, which of universal application, entitled philosophi. have no other object than to draw the atcal, and without expecting to arrive at the tention of the public to a literary undertaksecret of individual existence by the circui. ing of the greatest importance, in relation tous road of reasoning. If such a historian both to the study of philosophy and to the should arise, he will know how to turn to history of the middle ages. M. Raynouard, account the materials prepared for him by so celebrated as a poet, so honourably known

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