Imágenes de páginas


sess seemed opened beyond one side of when he heard where I had passed the the cell, and each spectral eye turning night, came down with an early party with a sidelong glance towards it, of visitors, and freed me from my dundrew mine the same direction by an geon.—There was no straggling among uneontrollable fascination. Still appear- the company for that day. ing to gaze determinedly upon them, You well know, my dear friend, I had power, as I dreamed, to obey what have been my habits and employtheir impulse simultaneously, and to ments since that night; and I could perceive a dreadful figure, black, bony, summon you with confidence, to give and skull-headed, with similar terrific your testimony, that few persons are eyes, whom they seemed to hail as now less slaves of superstitious terror their minister of cruelty, while with than myself. By a strange and singuslow and silent paces, it drew near to lar anomaly of circumstances, the wild clasp me in its hideous arms. Closer fancies I had imbibed in the free air and closer it'advanced, -but, thanks of my native hills, and among the and praise to the all-gracious Fower cheerful scenes of romantic nature, I that stills the tempests of the soul !- unlearned in the dreary catacombs of the limit of suffering was reached, and Paris. If I still am fanciful, you will the force of terror was exhausted. My not charge me with extravagance ; if berres, so long weak; and prone to a- I still have sensibility, I trust it does gitation, were recovered, by the over- not verge on weakness ;-and, as I violence of their momentum,-and, have proved my personal courage on instead of losing reason in the shock, more than a single trial, I may be al @ waking in the extremity of fear,- lowed to smile, when I hear in future the vision was suddenly changed,- some boisterous relater of my narrative the scenery of horror melted into light, condemn me for a coward. E. and a calm and joyful serenity took Place R

Sept. 1818. possession of my bosom. My animal powers must have been nearly worn out, for long-long I slept in this delightful tranquillity,—and when I

No 11. wakened, it was, for the first time of my life, in a peaceful and healthy state“ Homer,” adds our author, “ conof mind, unfettered, and released for sidered temperance as the virtue which erer from all that had enfeebled and best becomes young men, and from debased my nature. I had passed in which they were likely to draw the that celestial sleep from death to life, greatest benefit. He therefore never from the dreams of weakness, and fails to inspire them with the love of lapses of insanity, to the full use and it, in order to rouse them to the peranimation of my faculties, -and I felt formance of great and good actions, to as if a cemented load had broken and excite a desire of excellence, and that crumbled off my soul, and left me fear- species of benevolence which leads to less and serene. I was never happy,- mutual kind and good offices. He I was never worthy the stile of Man constantly represents his heroes as satill then ; and, as I lay, I faultered out tisfied with the simplest food, dressed my thanks in ecstasy to Heaven, for in the plainest manner, knowing that all that had befallen me.

a luxurious table led only to sensualMy limbs were numbed by the cold ity and voluptuousness, and to awaken and damp of the floor on which I had and set in motion the rebellious pasbeen lying; but, rising from it, a new sions ; whereas frugality and temperbeing in all that is essential to exist- ance produced good order and modeence, I entered the passage, and walk- ration in every situation of life. He ed briskly up and down, to recover the therefore furnishes all with the same play and vigour of my frame. I found kind of food, to kings and private cithe thigh-bone on the ground where I tizens, to old and young, without vahad dropped it,--and no longer tor- riation or preference, always roasted tured by the fears that were gone for meat, generally beef; at public and ever, replaced it quietly in its former private entertainments, at weddings situation. I kept near the entrance of and other festivals, still the same simthe cell, that the first guide who de- ple fare." scended might not miss me; and it “ When Ajax had fought singly acould not be more than two hours, be- gainst Hector, Agamemnon, as an hofore Jerome, whose hair stood on end nourable reward, treats him with a chine of beef. To old Nestor and Though in another place the poet Phænix he likewise presents plain says, that wine (taken to excess, I roasted meat. Even Alcinous, who presume) enervates and lessens the boled a voluptuous life, is supplied by dily strength." the poet with the same plain meals.” • Hecuba, in the same poet, sup

« The suitors of Penelope, riotous posing that Hector would spend the and extravagant as they were, are not remainder of the day at Troy, invites represented by Homer as feasting up- him to drink, to unbend his mind, and on fish, or fowls, or delicate pastry. to be merry, after the usual libations. The poet, with great art, avoids those Hector refuses ; she continues imporkind of dainties, which, according to tunate; he leaves her, to go to the Menander, serve only to excite the field of battle. After some time he unruly passions of sensuality and con- returns out of breath, she again incupiscence. Priam even reproaches vites him to make the usual libations, his sons for eating things contrary to and to refresh himself with wine: but law, as lambs and

kids ; for Fhilocho. he, covered with blood, alleges, that rus reports, that lambs being scarce in it would be the height of impiety for Attica, the magistrates of Athens did him to comply with her wishes, in not allow them to be killed till they that condition.' had been shorn."

“ Homer well knew the good and “ Nothing can be more simple than salutary qualities of wine taken in the diet and habits of the gods, nectar moderation, but justly inveighs against ard ambrosia: no incense, no per- the intemperate use of it." fume, no crowns, and mankind only “ In the simplicity of ancient manoffer to them in sacrifice the firstlings ners, he represents the women, and of their flocks.”

even young girls, as bathing and washAfter they had satisfied their apa ing the guests. This was not looked petites, they rose from table, and re- upon as indecent or improper ; it neitired to practise athletic games ;-such ther excited nor encouraged wanton as wrestling, throwing the disk, and or loose desires; it was sanctioned by exercising with the lance ;-thus in usage: and thus the daughters of Cotheir very sports preparing themselves calus* wash Minos when he arrived in for more serious action. Some attend- Sicily.” ed to the minstrels who accompanied « To censure drunkenness more the harp, singing the noble deeds and pointedly, he (Homer) represents the warlike achievements of their ancient giant Cyclops, when intoxicated, as heroes. Nor is it to be wondered at, easily overcome by a very little man. that men thus educated, had both –The companions of Ulysses likewise, their minds and bodies at all times are changed into wolves and lions by ready for immediate exertion." Circe, because they had abandoned

“'To shew that a temperate use of themselves to voluptuousness. Ulyswine contributed to health, fortified ses is preserved, as he prudently atthe body, and rendered the mind more tended to the advice of Mercury; but equal to all emergencies, Homer makes Elpenor, who had drunk to excess, Nestor come to the assistance of Maprecipitates himself from the top of chaon, the physician of the Greeks, the palace, and is killed.”+ who was wounded in the right shoul- “When the Greeks re-embarked, der. He gives him wine, as a preser- Homer informs us, that they were invative against inflammation; Pramnian toxicated, and consequently seditious wine too, which we know to be glutinous and nourishing, not to allay • Vide Ovid's Metam, b. viii. p. 261. thirst, but to strengthen the body. + Homer is particularly recommended He therefore advises him to use it of- for the morality of his poems, in epist. i. ten. “ Sit,” said he, “ drink, scrape book 2. epist. ad Lollium Horace. cheese made of goat's milk into the Qui, quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid wine, and then eat an onion to create utile, quid non a still greater desire to drink *." Plenius ac melius Chrysippo et Crantore dicit.

Sirenûm voces, et Circes pocula nosti ; • I do not see how this example illus- Quæ si cum sociis stultas cupidusque bibisset trates the position, unless it be considered Sub dominâ meretrice fuisset, turpis, et exthat the habitual temperance of Machaon cors : gave more efficacy to the wine taken medi. Vixisset canis immundus, vel amica luto sinally.


and disobedient, which led to their daites, from duti Jus to divide; for, in ruin. He tells us, elsewhere, that fact, everything was distributed in Eneas, one of the most sensible of the portions, even the wine. Upon these Trojans, being in that state, began to occasions the cook was called des Teos, boast of his valour, and to deride the because, after having dressed the supGreeks ; when exposing himself to the per, he divided it into equal portions." impetuosity of Achilles, he had well The guests in Homer never take nigh paid for it with his life.” away with them what remains of the

* Hemer makes Agamemnon inge- entertainment, it being left with the nuously confess, that he had erred, person who gives the repast. This and brought upon himself his misfor- the female servant takes charge of, tunes, by pernicious judgment, or be- and locks up, that if an unexpected cause he was intoxicated, or made in- guest should arrive, there may be sane by the anger of the gods. something ready to lay before him.”

« Thus putting drunkenness and “ Homer allows that the people of madness upon the same level ; for so his time ate birds and fish. The the passage is read by Dioscorides, the companions of Ulysses, when in Sicily, disciple of Isocrates.”

took' birds, and likewise fish, with “ Amongst other reproaches which hooks. These hooks were not fabriAchilles makes to Agamemnon, he calls cated in Sicily, but brought with them him drunkard, and as having dog's in their ships. This shows that they Eyes."

understood the art of fishing, and em« Οινοβαρες, κυνος ομματεχων.”+

ployed themselves in it. The poet

compares the companions of Ulysses, « Philemon mentions, that the an- who were taken by Scylla, to fish tients made four meals, argaripov

, the taken with a long line, and drawn breakfast; agison, the dinner; istigioue, out of the water. Homer, indeed, the collation, or lunchion; and, dsītvov, speaks of the art of fishing with more the supper. 1

knowledge than many authors who « In Homer, the guests eat sitting. had written poems and treatises exSome critics have supposed that each pressly on the subject." had his particular table, because a “ Homer says, that before each well-polished table is placed for Men- guest was placed rævsov xas aguasca, mas tor when he came to visit Telemachus, deras, a basket, a table, and a cup. all the other tables being already oc- “ An extraordinary distinction was cupied. Such a conclusion is by no paid to particular persons. Diomede means warranted by the passage, as it had a greater quantity of food, and may be inferred, that Mentor, or Mi- more cups to drink out of. Ajax had nerva, ate at the same table with Tele- a chine of beef entirely to himself; machus."

which, according to the simplicity of “ Bread was handed about to the the times, was a dish reserved for guests in baskets."

kings." “ The supper was usually divided " They had also a peculiar manner into as many portions as there were of drinking to each other. Ulysses guests; and, for this reason, it had drank to Achilles, presenting the cup the name of picas, or equal, given to it, to him with his right hand. It was from the equality of the portions. likewise customary for the guests to These repasts were likewise called send certain portions from the table.

Thus Ulysses sends a part of the chine • Vide Clarke's note, Il. b. i. L 119;

of beef to Demodocus." and Casaubon's notes in locum.

“ Musicians and dancers usually at+ See a curious treatise on the scolding tended great entertainments. These of the ancients, in Dr Arbuthnot's Works, musicians were men of some considertol i p. 40.

ation and consequence. Agamemnon The Swiss have a sort of repast exactly left one of them with his wife, Clyanswering to the intrigane, which they call temnestra, when he went to the siege a goute. Tea supplies it with us. & Vis tu consuetis audax conviva, canistris

of Troy, to protect and advise her. Impleri, panisque tui novisse colorem ?

Men of this sort, by reciting the praises Juv.

of virtuous women, excited a desire to Dant famuli manibus lymphas, cereremque imitate good examples; and at times, canistris

by holding out an innocent amuseExpediunt.

VIRG. ment to the mind, excluded evil Vol. IV.


thoughts from possessing it. Thus “ They who played at this game Egisthus was not able to corrupt the were particularly careful that all their virtue of Clytemnestra till he had re- motions should be attended with a moved from her this faithful guard- graceful display of their persons. It ian."

is thus described by Demoxenus : Equally respectable was the mu- “A youth of Cos, of about seventeen years, sician whom the suitors of Penelope Display'd his skill at tennis, (for this isle obliged to sing at their repasts, not- Produces youth like gods, and such he withstanding the imprecations he ut- seem'd.) tered against them. ' For this reason, First eyeing the spectators, he began ; says Homer, the Muses particularly And whether he receivd, or servå the ball, honoured the minstrels, and bestowed 'Twas follow'd by a general shout. In ali

He said or did, there was such polish'd on them the talent of music."

grace, “ Demodocus sung to the Pheacians Such perfect harmony of voice and action, the amours of Mars and Venus; not That I ne'er saw or heard of such perfection. as approving of such irregularities; The more I gaz'd, the more I was delighted, but, knowing them to be a voluptuous And the remembrance of it charmsme still.I' people, he wished, by exposing the “ The philosopher Ctesibius, of consequences of vices so like their Chalcedon, was an elegant performer own, to inspire them with the love of at this game. Many of the courtiers virtue, and to turn them from the im- of Antigonus were much pleased to moderate pursuit and gratification of exercise themselves with him. Timotheir Bicentious passions.”

crates, the Lacedemonian, composed a “ Phemius sung to the suitors of treatise on the subject.” Penelope the return of the Greeks.” The author proceeds to give some

The Sirens sung to Ulysses what account of the Thracian and Persian they knew would give him the great modes of dancing. est pleasure; and, by increasing his “ After supper, when the guests knowledge, excite in his mind a de- were about to depart, they made libasire to excel, and to obtain glory.” tions to Mercury; and not, as at a

“ The dances that are mentioned subsequent period, to Jupiter, ridatos, by Homer, are those of the tumblers, or the all-perfect. This honour was and others performed with a ball, the paid to Mercury, because he was said invention of which is ascribed by to preside over sleep. They likewise Agallis of Corcyra, to Nausicaa, in made libations over the tongues, which honour of a princess of her country. were burnt out of respect to him, Dicæarchus, however, gives the in- when they rose from table. Tongues vention to the Sicyonians, and Hip- were sacred to him, as the interpreter pasus to the Lacedemonians, who cer- of the gods." tainly excelled in this exercise. Nag- “ The custom of using a variety of sicaa is the only one among the he- food was known to Homer; and the roines of Homer, who had any skill magnificence which distinguishes the in this dance with the ball.

present times was almost exceeded. “ The game of ball, which used to The palace of Menelaus was very be called Passivda, now takes the name splendid. Polybius describes the paof aprasov*. It is of all others that lace of the king of Iberia, of great exwhich is the most agreeable to me, tent and sumptuous grandeur, as he from the violence of the exercise, and imitated the splendid luxury of the the skill and agility necessary to pre- Pheacians. In the middle of it were vent missing the ball; as likewise, placed vessels of gold and silver, filled that from the continual exertion of with a wine made of barley. In dethe muscles of the neck, it contributes greatly to strengthen that part of the Demoxenus was an Athenian born, bodyf.”

and seems to have been a voluminous writer. He was the author of a play called Heau

tontimorumenos, or the Self-tormentor. Agtasoy genus pilæ grandius

Demoxenus poeta comicus, cum ait mox parrivde genus ludendi pila a posve ostendo. de Co insula, diss yap pasvet' s voos Pspsov,

+ The game which Galen extols so much, videtur deos appellare homines Coos, qui under the name of the small ball, uinque virtute sua cælum sibi aperuerunt. Sic roupa, bears a great resemblance to tennis.- propter Bacchum et Herculem dictæ olim Hygiene, by Hallé, from Encyclopedie Me. Thebæ 988's Pigem.-Casauboni Animad. in thodique.

Athen. p. 24.

xaxOTATOS ATovons;

seribing the palace of Calypso, Homer “ The suitors being 108, they plarepresents Mercury as astonished at ced the same number of pieces, equalits magnificence."

ly divided, in opposition to each other, “ Speaking of the Pheacians, Homer Leaving a space between them. In this says,

interval was placed another piece, which ** The friendly banquet, and the cheerful was called Penelope, or the queen. To harp,

obtain this, was the great object of the Are ever theirs

contest. They drew lots who should “ Eratosthenes reads thus the fol. have the first throw or move. If any lowing passage in Homer :

one struck the queen, so as to remove * In my opinion, life has not to boast her, his piece was to take the place A greater bliss, than when, reclin'd at ease, which she had occupied, and she conAnd free from worldly cares, the guests are tinued in that to which she had been charma

driven. He then launches a second With the sweet warblings of the poet's lyre."* piece; and if he strikes her again, « In the text he has rax

without touching any of the other all malice or wickedness apart: but pieces, he wins the game ; and from the word here means only excess or this circumstance conceives the hope extravagance of any kind; as the of obtaining Penelope." Pheacians, according to Nausicratus, “ Eurymachus, who had often conwere greatly beloved by the gods, and quered his rivals at this game, flattercould not be otherwise than sober and ed himself that he should succeed in discreet."

the marriage. The suitors were in “ The suitors of Penelope entertain general so enervated by luxurious hathemselves by playing at a game bits, that none of them had strength (somewhat similar to chess) before to bend the bow of Ulysses. Their the court of the palace. They were very slaves were equally weak and efcertainly not instructed in this by feminate.” Diodorus of Megolopolis, the capital “ Homer was not unacquainted with of Arcadia, nor Leo of Mitylene, ori- the luxury of soft beds. Arete orders ginally of Athens, who, according to such a one to be prepared for Ulysses: Phanias, was not to be conquered at and Nestor, speaking to Telemachus, this game."

boasts of the number he possessed.” “ Appian of Alexandria says, that Æschylus is censured for the inCteso of Ithaca had informed him par- delicacy of his descriptions, in repreticularly of the game which was played senting the Greeks in such a state of by the suitors, which he thus de- intoxication, as to throw urinals at cribes :

each other."

Sophocles, in the banquet of the * Clarke has the following note on this Greeks, exceeds the filthiness of ÆsTading of Eratosthenes, κακοτητος απουσης

chylus on this subject. μευ κατα δημoν απανία : “ Eratosthenes apud By a fragment of Eupolis, Palamedes Athenæum, l i. c. 14, legendum vult appears to have been the inventor of 222STATES arouins, sed malè, uti notant urinals. Bardesius et Casaubonus in Annotationibus When the chiefs in Homer are ad hunc Athenæi locum.”

entertained by Agamemnon, though Pope (for he was the translator of this Achilles and Úlysses dispute, they still book) omits the music, and gives the pas- preserve a certain decorum, and are sage in a very tame insipid manner, thus : " How goodly seems it ever to employ

guilty of no breach of good manners. Man's social days in union and in joy,

The object of their contention was The plenteous board high heap'd with cates useful. It was to determine whether divine,

Troy should be taken by open force And o'er the foaming bowl, the laughing or by stratagem. Even the suitors of wine.”

Penelope, though they are represented Cowper, more in the spirit of Homer, gives it thus :

Fuit ille Græcorum sanè quàm turpis " The world, in my account, no sight affords et defædus mos quem tangit auctor hisce More gratifying, than a people blest

verbis, ws

και τας αμιδας αλληλους, &c. With cheerfulness and peace; a palace Aderant illis convivantibus, inter alia inthrong'a

strumenta perditi luxus, etiam matulæ, has With guests in order rang'd, listening to sæpe, ubi incaluissent, in capita invicem sounds

sibi illidebant.--Casauboni Animad. in loMelodious."

cum, p. 26.

« AnteriorContinuar »