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are no pleasant pastimes, especially fatal errors, may, during the long conthe former; but the very lowest classes test which they carried on, be justly in such a country as ours, where self- laid to their charge. But this is cerrespect may safely be said to be a na- tain, that, placed among difficulties tional feeling, would prefer a load of and dangers greater than perhaps any taxation to a load of dishonour, and, Ministry ever had to encounter, called ignorant as they too often are, they upon to act under exigencies not only can discover the necessity of the one, formidable beyond all former experi. but never would submit to confessence, but so wholly new, that there that there could have been any neces- were no precedents by which they sity for the other. These are feelings might be guided, and no maxims by that “ with the lofty equalize the low," which they might be swayed—they and make the peasant as true a patriot yet carried along with them the cons as the noblest in the land.
fidence of the whole nation-exhibit. The policy enjoined by the Op- ed a calm, steady, and collected conposition, during our long contest for fidence in themselves—and boldly existence, was indeed far unlike that turned a deaf or an indifferent ear to pursued by the great English states- the systematic and unwearied vituperamen of the elder times of England's tions of those who, with no greater glory. In dark and perilous days, talents than themselves, had far less they counselled resistance unto the wisdom, and who, with louder prodeath; submission was a thought that fessions of love for the country, were had no existence; and there was no most assuredly not inspired by so pure difficulty-no danger-no suffering, a patriotism. that was not to be surmounted, faced, It was the soul of him "who, being and endured, rather than that the dead yet speaketh," that inspired and bright name of England should be supported the Ministry during all the dimmed, or one inch shorn from her struggle. On his deathbed Pitt exjust dominion. But if we turn to the claimed “Oh my country !" for at that recorded counsels and prophecies of hour it seemed that her sun was seta our modern Whigs, we shall hear of ting. But a great man cannot know the nothing but of disaster of armies power of his own genius, else he would overthrown-and principalities laid have foreseen the future triumphs of prostrate as if
his country to be achieved by the ima “ Broken were fair England's spear,
perishable spirit of his counsels. His And shattered were her shield.”
successors are all indeed inferior to
him, but they are at least in theme There is, we know, a small assort- selves equal to the best of their oppoment of foolish persons who attribute nents, and far superior in the strength all the glorious issues of the war, of a loftier faith. The Vessel of the partly to chance, and partly to the State was at one time seen drifting to blunders of England and her allies. leeward- and breakers were on the The attempt to apply to politics the shore but her masts were not cut by theory of the fortuitous concussion of the board-nor her sails lowered atoms, has not been very successful; nor her flag struck-nor her guns and even they who hold it are startled thrown over board nor her helm aa by certain indications of intelligence bandoned—nor her officers dismayedand design. But neither, on the other nor her crew in despair ; and we hail hand, do the friends of the Ministry her with pride and exultation once claim for them the whole merit of more, such wondrous success. Inconsisten- “ That danger's troubled night is past, cies, vacillations, and even some more And the star of Peace returned.”
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
In our last 'Number we noticed the un. Hence, whatever causes may have produced fortunate interference of the custom-house the favourable change in our summer, the officers in this quarter with collections of same appear not to have operated in the re, Natural History. We find by the follow- mote regions of the Pole.' ing observations in a very valuable periodi. “ I have brought my meteorological obcal journal, published in London, that other servations to what I mean to be a close, collections have experienced similar treat- and which may be stated thus : ment. “ An instance of this excessive zeal April, 370 observations give the mean temp. in the public service took place lately under when reduced to lat. 70-14. our own observation, and we are sorry to May, 956 observations in 12 years give add, was attended with the usual bad con- mean temperature in lat. 77° 17 -22° 8', sequences. A few bottles of water, taken June, 831 observations in 10 years give from the ocean at great depths, and in dif- mean temperature in lat. 78° 15'_313'. ferent latitudes, as well as from icebergs in July, 548 observations in 7 years give different circumstances and situations, were mean temperature in lat. 77° 18'-37° 3'." sent, carefully sealed, by an officer high in -British Review. rank in the Isabella, and addressed to a dis- Belzoni's Researches in Egypt.-On my tinguished philosopher in this country, for return to Cairo, I again went to visit the cethe purpose of analysis and experiment. lebrated pyramids of Ghiza ; and on view. The mere direction to a scientific character, ing that of Cephrenes, I could not help re. coupled with the knowledge that the pack- flecting how many travellers of different na. age had come from the discovery squadron, tions, who had visited this spot, contented ought to have superseded all searching at themselves with looking at the outside of the custom-house ; but so far from this in- this pyramid, and went away without indulgence being granted, the box containing quiring, whether any, and what chambers the bottles (and there were only three or exist within it; satisfied, perhaps, with the four of them) was broken into, and the report of the Egyptian priests, " that the corks drawn. We are aware that a thou. pyramid of Cheops only contained chambers sand tricks are practised by experienced in its interior." I then began to consider smugglers ; but that a man of science about the possibility of opening this pyra. should have thought of smuggling three mid. The attempt was perhaps presumptubottles of intoxicating spirits from the arctic ous ; and the risk of undertaking such an ocean, and had them carried, too, several immense work without success deterred me thousand miles, carefully packed up along in some degree from the enterprize. I am with valuable articles for a museum, a- not certain whether love for antiquity, an mounts to a degree of suspicious vigilance ardent curiosity, or ambition, spurred me which we know not well how to praise."- on most, in spite of every obstacle, but I de. British Review.
termined at length to commence the operaCuptuin Scoresby on the temperature of tion. soon discovered the same indicaGreenland. The cold in the Polar regions tions which had led to the developement of is sometimes considerably exaggerated. Mr the six tombs of the kings in Thebes, and Scoresby in the course of last summer as- which induced me to begin the operation on cended a mountain in Spitzbergen, which the north side. It is true, the situations of he estimated at the height of 3000 feet. the tombs at Thebes, their form and epochs, “ The temperature of the air,” he writes, are so very different from those of the pyra" was 37° on the top at midnight, the ther. mids, that many points of observation made mometer laid under the shade of the brow with regard to the former, could not apply of the mountain among some stones. At to the latter ; yet I perceived enough to the foot the temperature was 44o and 46°. urge me to the enterprize. I accordingly Hence the line of perpetual congelation in set out from Cairo on the 6th of February the polar regions lies much higher than is 1818, under pretence of going in quest of usually estimated."-" The summer in Bri- some antiquities at a village not far off, in tain,” he continues, " having been unusual. order that I might not be disturbed in my ly warm, it may be interesting to compare it work by the people of Cairo. I then rewith that of Spitzbergen. The temperature paired to the Kaiya Bey, and asked permise of the month of July in the present year, in sion to work at the pyramid of Ghiza in latitude 77} north, was nearly one degree scarch of antiquities." "He made no objecbelow the mean temperature of the same tion, but said that he wished to know if month, as determined from seven years' ob- there was any ground about the pyramid fit servation made under the same parallel. for tillage ; i informed him that it was all
stones, and at a considerable distance from a descent, which also had been forced, and any tilled ground. He nevertheless persist- which ended at the distance of forty feet. I ed'in inquiring of the Caschief of the pro- afterwards continued the work in the hori. vince, if there was any good ground near the zontal passage above, in hopes that it might pyramids ; and, after receiving the necessary lead to the centre; but I was disappointed, information, granted my request.
and at last was convinced that it ended Having thus acquired permission, I be there, and that to attempt to advance in gan my labours on the 10th of February, that way would only incur the risk of sacriat a point on the north side in a vertical ficing some of my workmen ; as it was real. section at right angles to that side of the ly astonishing to see how the stones hung base. I saw many reasons against my be- suspended over their heads, resting, perhaps, ginning there, but certain indications told by a single point. Indeed one of these me that there was an entrance at that spot. stones did fall, and had ncarly killed one of I employed sixty labouring men, and began the men. I therefore retired from the forto cut through the mass of stones and ce- ced passage, with great regret and disapment which had fallen from the upper part pointment. of the pyramid, but it was so hard joined Notwithstanding the discouragements I together, that the men spoiled several of met with, I recommenced my researches on their hatchets in the operation; the stones the following day, depending upon my inwhich had fallen down along with the ce- dications. I directed the ground to be clearment having förmed themselves into one ed away to the eastward of the false ensolid and almost impenetrable mass. I suc- trance; the stones incrusted and bound toceeded, however, in making an opening of gether with cement, were equally hard as fifteen feet wide, and continued working the former, and we had as many large stones downwards in uncovering the face of the py- to remove as before. By this time my reramid; the work took up several days, with treat had been discovered, which occasioned out the least prospect of meeting with any me many interruptions from visitors, among thing interesting. Meantime, i began to others was the Abbé de Forbin. fear that some of the Europeans residing at On February 28, we discovered a block Cairo might pay a visit to the pyramids, of granite in an inclined direction towards which they do very often, and thus discover the centre of the pyramid, and I perceived my retreat, and interrupt my proceedings. that the inclination was the same as that of
On the 17th of the same month we had the passage of the first pyramid or that of made a considerable advance downwards, Cheops ; consequently I began to hope that when an Arab workman called out, making I was near the true entrance. On the 1st a great noise, and saying that he had found of March we observed three large blocks of the entrance. He had discovered a hole in stone, one upon the other, all inclined tothe pyramid into which he could just thrust wards the centre ; these large stones we had his arm and a dejerid of six feet long. To- to remove, as well as others much larger, as wards the evening we discovered a larger we advanced, which considerably retarded aperture, about three feet square, which had our approach to the desired spot. I perbeen closed in irregularly, by a hewn stone; ceived, however, that I was near the true this stone I caused to be removed, and then entrance, and in fact, the next day, about came to an opening larger than the preced- noon, on the 2d of March, was the epoch ing, but filled up with loose stones and sand. at which the grand pyramid of Cephrenes This satisfied me that it was not the real but was at last opened, after being closed up for a forced passage, which I found to lead in so many centuries, that it remained an unwards and towards the south. The next day certainty whether any interior chambers did we succeeded in entering fifteen feet from or did not exist. The passage I discovered the outside, when we reached a place where was a square opening of four feet high and the sand and stories began to fall from a- three and a half wide, formed by four blocks bove. I caused the rubbish to be taken out, of granite ; and continued slanting down. but it still continued to fall in great quan- ward at the same inclination as that of the tities ; at last, after some days labour, I pyramid of Cheops, which is an angle of discovered an upper forced entrance, com- 26 deg. It runs to the length of 104 feet municating with the outside from above, 5 inches, lined the whole way with granite. and which had evidently been cut by some I had much to do to remove and draw up one who was in search of the true passage. the stones, which filled the passage down to Having cleared this passage I perceived a- the portcullis or door of granite, which is nother opening below, which apparently
ran fitted into a niche also made of granite. I towards the centre of the pyramid. In a found this door supported by small stones few hours I was able to enter this passage, within 8 inches of the floor, and in conseand found it to be a continuation of the quence of the narrowness of the place, it lower forced passage, which runs horizon- took up the whole of that day, and part of tally towards the centre of the pyramid, the next, to raise it sufficiently to afford an nearly all choked up with stones and sand. entrance. Tlris door is 1 foot 3 inches thick, These obstructions I caused to be taken out; and together with the work of the niche, and et half way from the entrance I found occupies 6 feet 11 inches, where the granite work ends ; then commences a short wall like those in the great chamber of the passage, gradually ascending towards the first pyramid. I returned to the before. centre, 22 feet 7 inches at the end, on which mentioned perpendicular, and found a pas. is a perpendicular of 15 feet; on the left is sage to the north in the same inclination of a small forced passage, cut in the rock, 26 deg. as that above: this descends 48 feet and also above, on the right, is another 6 inches, where the horizontal passage comforced passage, which runs upwards and mences, which keeps the same direction turns to the north 30 feet, just over the north 55 feet, and half-way along it there portcullis. There is no doubt that this pas. is on the east a recess of 11 feet deep. On sage was made by the same persons who the west side there is a passage 20 feet forced the other, in order to ascertain if there long, which descends into a chamber 32 were any others which might ascend above, feet long and 9 feet 9 inches wide, 8 and 6 in conformity to that of the pyramid of feet high: this chamber contains a quantity Cheops. I descended the perpendicular by of small square blocks of stone, and some means of a rope, and found a large quanti- unknown inscriptions written on the walls. ty of stones and earth accumulated beneath, Returning to the original passage, and ad. which very nearly filled up the entrance in- vancing north, near the end of it is a to the passage below, which inclines towards niche to receive a portcullis like that above. the north. I next proceeded towards the Fragments of granite, of which it was made, channel that leads to the centre, and soon are lying near the spot. Advancing still to reached the horizontal passage. This pas. the north, I entered a passage which runs sage is 5 feet 11 inches high, 3 feet 6 inches in the same inclination as that before men. wide, and the whole length, from the above tioned, and at 47 feet 6 inches from the mentioned perpendicular to the great cham. niche it is filled up with some large blocks ber, is 158 feet 8 inches. These passages of stone, put there to close the entrance are partly cut out of the living rock, and which issues out precisely at the base of the at half-way there is some mason's work, pyramid. According to the measurements, probably to fill up some vacancy in the it is to be observed, that all the works berock ; the walls of this passage are in seve- low the base are cut into the living rock, as ral parts covered with incrustations of salts. well as part of the passages and chambers
On entering the great chamber, I found before mentioned. Before I conclude, I it to be 46 feet 3 inches long, 16 feet 3 have to mention, that I caused a range of inches wide, and 23 feet 6 inches high; for steps to be built, from the upper part of the the most part cut out of the rock, except perpendicular to the passage below, for the that part of the roof towards the western accommodation of visitors. end. "In the midst we observed a sarco- It may be mentioned, that at the time I phagus of granite, partly buried in the excavated on the north side of the pyramid, ground to the level of the floor, 8 feet long, I caused the ground to be removed to the 3 feet 6 inches wide, and 2 feet 3 inches eastward, between the pyramid and the redeep inside, surrounded by large blocks of maining portico, which lies nearly on a line granite, being placed apparently to guard it with the pyramid and the sphinx. I openfrom being taken away, which could not be ed the ground in several places, and, in par. effected without great labour ; the lid of it ticular, at the base of the pyramid ; and in had been opened ; I found in it only a few a few days I came to the foundation and bones of a human skeleton, which merit walls of an extensive temple, which stood preservation as curious relics, they being, before the pyramid, at the distance of only in all probability, those of Cephrenes, the 40 feet. The whole of this space is coverreported builder of this pyramid. On the ed with a fine platform, which no doubt wall of the western side of the chamber is runs all round the pyramid. The pavean Arabic inscription, a translation of which ment of this temple, where I uncovered it, has been sent to the British Museum. It consists of fine blocks of calcareous stone, testifies, “ that this pyramid was opened by some of which are beautifully cut, and in the Masters Mahomet El Aghar and Otinan, fine preservation. The blocks of stone that and that it was inspected in presence of the form the foundation are of an immense size. Sultan Ali Mahomet the first, Ugloch." I measured one of 21 feet long, 10 feet There are also several other inscriptions on high, and 8 in breadth (120 tons weight the walls supposed to be Coptic. Part of each); there are some others above ground the floor of this chamber had been removed in the porticoes, which measured 24 feet in in different places, evidently in search of length, but not so broad nor so thick. treasure, by some of those who had found Anglo-Gallic Operation, for determining their way into it. Under one of the stones the figure of the Earth, C.-Colonel I found a piece of metal something like the Mudge and Captain Coulby have just rethick part of an axe, but it is so rusty and turned from Dunkirk, with the scientific decayed, that it is almost impossible to form instruments belonging to the Hon. Board of a just idea of its form. High up and near Ordnance, which they have employed, in the centre there are two small square holes, conjunction with MM. Biot and Arago, one on the north and the other on the south, two very able astronomers appointed by the each one foot square ; they enter into the French Government, in determining the latitude of that important place. The recep- Dobereiner is of opinion that if this mi. tion which these gentlemen and their asso- neral were to be found in abundance, it ciates found, was higbly honourable to the would yield at once, simply by reducing French nation and to Dunkirk : nothing it to the metallic state, excellent steel. could exceed the attentions paid them by Schweigger's Journal, xxi. 49. all the principal authorities in the town Spodumene, or Triphane.- This mineral, and unlimited orders were given by the which was supposed confined to Sweden and French Government to ensure them a simi. Norway, where it was first observed, has lar reception in Lisle, and any other towns been discovered lately in the Tyrol, on the they might visit. It is pleasing to observe road to Sterzing, in a granite rock along the perfect concurrence of two great nations with tourmaline. Its specific gravity is in an operation for the benefit of science. 3•1158, and it has not been found crystalSeveral years ago the two governments lized in this locality any more than in united in directing a Trigonometrical Oper- Sweden. It was analyzed by Vogel, and ation, for determining the relative situations found to consist of of the observatories of Greenwich and Paris: Silica
63-50 since that time, the English have taken Alumina
23-50 measures for determining the longest me. Lime
1.75 ridional arc that the Bristish Isles will ad. Potash
6.00 mit; and the French have determined the Oxide of Iron...
2-50 meridional arc between Dunkirk and For. Water manamarca
2.00 mentera, the southernmost of the Balcaric Manganese.commonsonanmmons
Trace Islands. The junction of these two arcs forms the most extensive arc which can pro
99.25 bably be measured, in the present state of Our readers are aware that the alkali Europe, and therefore the best that can be to which the name of potash is given in found for deducing an universal standard of this analysis is lithina, which Arfvredmeasure. As the French astronomers had son found in spodumene to the amount of determined their latitudes by means of the eight per cent. It deserves inquiry, howcircle of repetition, and the English theirs ever, whether the new alkali be an essential with a zenith sector of eight feet radius, it constituent of this mineral. If it be only became desirable to try the latitude of the an accidental ingredient, it is very possible connecting point of the two arcs with both that the Tyrol spodumene may merely coninstruments together, in order that no doubt tain potash. might remain on either side. This has now Tantalite.-- This mineral, hitherto conbeen done, and we are informed that the fined to Sweden, has been lately found at result is satisfactory.
Bodenmais, in Germany. Its specific gravi. Knebelite. This is a name given by Dobe- ty is 6.464. Leonhard and Vogel extractreiner to a mineral which was given him by ed from it, by mechanical division, a fourMajor Von Knebel, and which differs in its sided prism terminated by oblique faces, composition and characters from all other making angles of 940 and 86' with the sides minerals hitherto observed. Nothing is of the prism. Vogel attempted to analyze stated respecting the place where this mi. it by the method followed by Berzelius, but neral was found ; but its description, as could not succeed. He found its constidrawn up by Mr Lenz, is as follows: tuents as follows :
Its principal colour is gray, but it is Oxide of tantalum...wa... 75 spotted smutty white, brownish red, brown, Protoxide of iron........... 17 and green.
Protoxide of manganese
5 It is massive.
Oxide of tin.........
1 External surface, uneven, and full of holes. Lustre, both external and internal, glis
Schweigger's Journal, xxi. 60. Fracture, imperfect conchoidal.
Carriages without Horses.-Mr Charles Fragments indeterminate ; sharp edged. Drais, who, according to the testimony of
Opaque, hard, brittle, difficulty frangible. credible witnesses, had already, in July last, Sp. gravity 3•714.
with one of the latest improved carriages, Infusible by itself before the blow-pipe; without horse, invented by him, gone from but with borax it melts into a dark olive Manheim to the Swiss reley-house, and coloured bead.
back again, a distance of four hours jourIts constituents, according to the analy. ney by the posts, in one short hour : sis of Dobereiner, are as follows:
has, with the same machine, ascended the Silica....
-32-5 steep hill from Gernsback to Baden, which Protoxide of iron... 32.0 generally requires two hours, in about an Protoside of manganese........35.0 hour, and convinced a number of amateurs,
assembled on the occasion, of the great
99-5 swiftness of this very interesting species of or it consists of an atom of silicate of iron carriage. The principle of the invention is united to an atom of silicate of manganese. taken from the art of skating, and consists