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ceptible of greater improvement by mount more than doubles that of Agra, irrigation than the province of Delhi'; its former rival, the population of and it is probable an immense extent which is not now supposed to exceed of moving sand, at present not merely 60,000. unproductive, but threatening to over- Having proceeded thus far with the whelm the adjacent lands, might a- description of the city, which, like gain be brought under cultivation. In Rome, and some other ancient capitals, remote times, several rivers traversed still promises to linger on for centuries, the north western quarter, which have we may now resume the history of its long ceased to flow, and one of them, sovereign. Ever since the conquest of now lost, the Sereswati, was of such Delhi, no task has been found more magnitude as to mark a geographical difficult, or has employed more of the division in the books of Hindoo my- time and exertions of the different thological history. At a very mode- residents at this court, than to imrate expense, and without much la- press the Emperor's mind with a due bour, the rivers which have been ab- sense of the relative situation in which sorbed and choked up, might be again he stands towards the British nation; led into their former channels, and for although destitute both of energy much valuable moisture, which now of character, and vigour of mind, he is flows undisturbed to the sea, through easily led by the Hattery of those athe Satuleje and Jamna, might be ar- bout him, to entertain erroneous norested in its progress, and made sub- tions of his own importance, and is in servient to the purposes of husbandry. consequence much disposed to inFour years ago, an intelligent engineer crease his influence by a system of ima officer* was deputed to survey and portunate solicitation and petty entake the levels of the extinct canals croachment. And certainly an imand rivers; but his services being pression is still prevalent all over Incalled for in the Nepaul war, he was dia, that the power which has posseswithdrawn from the investigation, sion of Delhi, and the king's person, which does not appear to have been is the virtual ruler of Hindostan; and since resumed. As in Egypt, the sur- under this idea many independent face of the country, subject to alluvion, states have repeatedly applied to be has probably risen, by successive de- received as subjects and tributaries, posits, and the channels of the rivers in and complained of the refusal as a diproportion sunk, but as they all issue reliction of duty on the part of the from lofty mountains, a high level British government. Applications of may always be found ; and it is to be this nature have been pressingly urged apprehended, that the fertility of Egypt by the Rajas of Joudpoor, Jeypoor, will never be restored until canals are Bicanere, Jesselmere, Assam, Cachar, drawn from above the cataracts of the and Aracan, the Nabobs of Mooltan Nile, where the elevation is sufficient and Behawulpoor, and by the innumeto admit of their irrigating an immense rable petty states exposed to the raextent of what is at present a sandy pine of Sindia, Holcar, and other Madesert.
haratta depredators; and so far from No regular census of the inhabi- an insatiable desire having been shown tants of Delhi has ever been taken, to extend the British limits, the diffiand any attempt at an actual enume- culty has been, for the last ten years, ration would be viewed with jealousy to resist the importunities of the surand distrust by a people naturally a- rounding states. Of this fact, our liverse to innovation, or to any new ar- mits will not permit us to multiply rangement which tends to bring them examples; we shall therefore make more under observation, or seems like
one suffice, that of the Raja of Jesselly to impose on them either addition- mere. al duties or expense.
From a con- In 1808, this chief applied to Mr currence of circumstances, there is rea- Seton, then resident at Delhi, stating son to believe, that the total number the desire he entertained of visiting is somewhere between 150,000 and the banks of the sacred Ganges, for 200,000 souls; and low as this esti- devotional purposes, provided he could mate is for so great a capital, the a- receive from the British government
assurances of respectful treatment; for Lieutenant Blane of the Bengal Esta. it appears he had received very erroneLlishment.
ous impressions of that people, both
individually and as a nation. He was successor's right, it was still considerencouraged to proceed, and his confi- ed as so gratifying a mark of distincdence being restored, he adverted to tion, that, in 1807, Maun Singh, the his political situation, representing, powerful Raja of Joudpoor, petitioned that many chiefs had by violence ob- the British government with much tained fragments of the Mogul empire, anxiety, to interfere with the king to which they ruled with an iron hand, obtain it for him. The British gowhile he and his ancestors had remain- vernment, however, refused to intered at rest from the remotest antiquity fere, the right of conferring the mark within their own domains ; but even of distinction in question being consithese were now endangered, as such dered an obsolete act of sovereignty, encroachments were daily making on the revival of which would be partihis hereditary possessions as threaten- cularly objectionable.-It was feared, ed utterly to annihilate his principa- moreover, that their interference would lity. He therefore appealed to the be considered as a recognition of the British, as sovereigns of Hindostan, to pretensions of Raja Maun Singh, then whose protection he was entitled, and disputed by a competitor, and as a deen treated them to save for him his parture from the neutrality which had small residue of country, which its nat- always been observed. The Raja was ural barrenness and seclusion could accordingly apprized of this determinnot preserve from molestation. To ation; the inutility of the act, as this petition a conciliating answer was a mark of confirmation, was represent, with some presents; but the sented to him, as well as the folly of Raja was informed, that the principles making an unmeaning reference of the which regulated the conduct of the validity of his title to a power which British government precluded all ex- neither claimed nor exercised a right tension of territory, unless they were to grant or to withhold it. compelled to it in their own defence; The universality of this impression and that therefore all interference with throughout Hindostan may be farther his political concerns must be declined; inferred from the conduct of the Tambut that he would experience every baretty, or Princess of Travancore, a office of friendship due to a friendly Hindou state, situated near Cape Corneighbour, and the utmost hospitality morin, the southern extremity of Hinduring his contemplated pilgrimage. dostan, and at no period of its history
Although the Delhi sovereign had subject to the Mogul, or to any Mabeen deprived of all real power and hommedan superior ; yet, in 1813, she dominion, before political events made applied to have a dress of investiture him connected with the British go- for her son, the infant Raja, although vernment, almost every state, and he was under the special guardianship every class of people in India, still of the British government, to which continues to reverence his nominal he was indebted for the tranquillity of authority. The current coin of every his accession. The result of her apestablished power is still struck in plication was the same as the one ahis name, and princes of the high- bove mentioned, but she could not be est rank still bear the titles, and dis- convinced that the ceremonial was play the insignia which they or their wholly superfluous. Under existing ancestors derived from this source, and circumstances, his Majesty's assumpthe Delhi Emperor, amidst all his vi- tion of legitimate authority is altocissitudes, is still considered the only gether incompatible with the situation legitimate fountain of similar honours. in which he is placed ; his granting In conformity with this notion, it is dresses of investiture was accordingly still usual, when a Hindoo prince suc- prohibited, both as impolitic, and as ceeds to his deceased father, to solicit adding nothing to the validity of the the Mogul to honour him with a succession. The same objection did teeka, as a mark of investiture, or at not apply to the granting of titles, least, of royal approbation, which ce- which have been admitted through the remony consists in having the fore- agency of the British government, in head anointed with a preparation of favour of the Nizam, and of the Nabruised sandal wood. Although this bobs of the Carnatic and Bengal. inunction had long ceased to be a ne- These and similar applications, the cessary token of confirmation of the king, being a man of weak intellects,
MY DEAR SIR,
and quite infatuated with his own im- LETTER CONCERNING HAYTI. *
H. M.S visions of departed dignity, and pro
Port Royal, Sept. 1, 1818. mise to prove a source of emolument to his servants, and the horde of intriguers by which he is surrounded. I PROMISED you, if I could give you The exercise of such authority, hown any information from Hayti, I would ever, is completely at variance with send it. I am just returned from the scheme of British policy, the fun- paying the King a visit at Cape Hendamental maxim of which is, that the ry: I send you, by Lieut. Bunce British government shall not derive, of the marines, in the Pique, all the from the charge of protecting
and sup- Haytian publications ; and I am sure porting his Majesty, the privilege of you will be pleased to hear that the employing the royal prerogative as an
Baron Vastey is compiling a very full instrument for establishing any con
history of King Henry, from his eartrol or ascendency
over the chiefs of liest days, with a large appendix of states of India, or of asserting, on the original letters and papers. Mr part of his Majesty, any of the claims Steevens wished to have the docuwhich, in his capacity of Emperor of ments sent him to complete a history, Hindostan, that prince may consider but the king desired him to be told, himself to possess upon the provinces that he wished one of his own subjects formerly composing the Mogul Em- to have the credit of writing it, but pire. The British power in India is that it should be sent him after publicaof too substantial a nature to incur the tion, with whatever other documents hazard of resorting to the dangerous he might wish. I told Baron Dupuey expedient of borrowing any portion of (who is every thing at the Cape, what authority from the lustre of the Mo- you may call the king's factotum, gul name ; it could not therefore per he has), that I hoped they meant to
and certainly far the ablest man mit his interference to withdraw the inhabitants from their obedience to give a true and fair account of the their actual superiors, or that he should king's early years, before he became a attempt to convert his nominal into conspicuous character. He answered, any thing like a real supremacy: From he were speaking about the history,
that the king, when Baron Vastey and the Emperor nothing was derived by the British government in return for said, “my desire is, that it may, in the rescue of himself and his family clear statement of facts, and that
what regards my life, be a plain and from a state of penury and degrada- those who knew me in early life, tion, and his support in comparative when they see those facts in the book, comfort and affluence under its protection; he is only required to continue may vouch for their truth.” if they to live peaceably, and to abandon all really do this, it will not only be cudreams of ancient grandeur.*
rious but valuable, for few more extraordinary characters have appeared
He has risen from a slave at St Kitts, As may be supposed from the prior where he was born, to be a steward narrative, the British resident at Delhi is in one of Count D'Estaing's fleet, and the efficient prime minister to the Emperor, from that to uncontrolled power and on which account the Bengal government riches, beyond what any individual always selects for that office men of estab- almost ever possessed. When in good lished reputation and conciliatory manners. At an early stage of the conquest
, humour he calls himself an Englishnow General Sir David Ochterlony, Bart.
man. and K.C. B. officiated; he was succeeded To account for my kind and friendby Archibald Seton, Esq. afterwards pro- ly reception at the Cape, it is necesmoted to the Supreme Council, on which sary to say that since my former vievent C. T. Metcalfe, Esq. was appointed, sit in 1814, the king has always rehaving for his assistants the Honourable E. membered me. Gardner, at present ambassador at Catmandoo, the capital of Nepaul, and Mr Fraser,
Strong impressions have gone out from whose intended journey to the sources of the Sutuleje and Jumna rivers, much of the Editor, by a Naval Officer of high
This Letter was addressed to a friend valuable information may be expected.
all over the world against this man, of here.'” Such, in 1814, were the senhis tyranny, cruelty, avarice, and in- timents I found the merchants imjustice, both to his own subjects, and pressed with, and such they are at this those strangers who reside as mer- moment ; nor could I hear of one act chants in his dominions—but always of injustice that could fairly be attriremember one thing in reading ac- buted to the king. He is sharp in his counts of his atrocities, that there are dealings, and in making them fulfil three set of men whose interest it is their contracts. But it is almost need to hold him up as a monster. The re- less to mention how far a merchant publicans, his neighbours, they have adventurer will go for gain, and how more justice on their side than the necessary it is to watch them. They other two-the proprietors of slaves have now nearly given up attempting to and advocates for slavery all over the take him in by outward show. He has world—and the merchants who trade too good judges about him; and being with him ; they do it, to keep others, a good one himself, and when they by fear, away, that they may monopo- least expect it, seeing every thing, it lise the trade. This was the first cause would be a bad job for them to bring of our opening a correspondence, and bad goods. I was asked by one of the that has had the desired effect in a principal merchants in Kingston, who great measure.
had lost a good deal by the trade with In 1814, I was sent by Admiral Cape Henry, and who, of course, attriBrown to visit Cape Henry, for the buted that loss to the king, will you purpose of ascertaining the true state tell me of one man, Capt. of our commerce with Hayti; for who has made money by trading there? there were strange reports in circula- I answered, will you tell me, Mr tion, both to windward and at Jamaica. Pavishaw, of one merchant that ever It was said that neither the persons made money by sending his goods to nor the property of our merchants were a market where double its consumpsafe ; that on the most trivial occa- tion is thrown in annually, and from sions he threw them into prison, and which there is no other outlet, except seized and confiscated their property- by reshipping your goods back to in short, such was the impression upon England ? me, that I actually thought that my In the following remarks, I intend person was endangered by landing. just to write you what I have seen However, I ventured, and once on myself or heard from the best authoshore, I remained all the time the ship rity. It would be presumption in me lay there, and certainly was not a lit- to venture to give the character of this tle astonished to find myself, after all, most extraordinary man,-so you must in the midst of a gentlemanlike well- draw your own conclusions from the informed set of merchants. And the facts. following report, which I gave Admi- The king is in his person what in ral Brown, will show you the state of England you would call a fine portly that body of men :—" According to looking man, about 5 feet 10 inches. your orders, I first of all communicated He is now growing stout, and on privately with the principal merchants, horseback, where he certainly looks and then with
these in a body at a pub- the best, has much the appearance of lic meeting. Their answer was unani- old George. His dress, except on mous. (Some of them, at that time, state days, is very like the Windsor had the experience of eight years). uniform, without lace or star. He 'We conceive our persons and pro- is quite black, with a manner and perty under the protection of the king countenance, when in good humour to be as safe as at Kingston, unless the (and I have never seen him in any French land an expedition, and then other), very intelligent, pleasant and he has given us notice that all pro- expressive his features are much that perty, public and private, will be of his countrymen_his nose rather burnt with the city, but that he will long, but flat at the nostrils—his lips give every protection to our persons, are not thick-his eyes, except when and we have the most perfect confi- in a rage, rather small, but quickdence in his promises.' And they his forehead, which gives so much added,' we hope the Admiral will character to his countenance, highsend a man of war frequently to pay when I saw him last, his hair was us a visit; it gives us consequence gray, and until he remarked it to rr
himself (for I thought he wore powder), before you judge too severely of him I did not observe that it is now grown for this, think who he has to govern quite white. I am told by those who a set of slaves, brought up without have seen him in one of his gusts of any principle of either religion or mopassion, that it can only be compared rality, and who have, in the sanguito a hurricane for its fury; but fortu- nary and dreadful contest for liberty, nately the fit now comes very seldom, been accustomed, by the example of and does not last long. A friend, their enemies, to all sorts of butcherous who has seen a great deal of him, and dreadful crimes. And well did told me he one day saw him in one their cruel and faithless masters, ge-his form absolutely dilated, his nerally speaking, deserve their fate countenance changed, and his eyes Till this spirit, by time, &c. dies away, became enlarged and rolled in his I think he is the only man who can head. He looked like a demon-it was govern them, to do them real and lastover in five minutes, expending it- ing good. self in words, and he was then as quiet The gentleman before mentioned, as a child. None but the queen dare who has certainly had the best opporgo near him in those paroxysms. tunity of seeing him in private life,
Since my last visit, he has entered says he is a most affectionate father of into a close and intimate alliance with a family, and that his children in his Mr Wilberforce and his party. His presence are under no fear or restraint. three great advisers for the improve- He has in his palace several little chilment of his subjects are Messrs Wil- dren, the orphans of old officers of his berforce, Steevens, and Clarkson. He they are always running about the has many others, amongst whom is room, when he has no business, and Sir John Sinclair.
feeling his pockets for bon-bons. His avowed intention is a religious, When Dr Burt was bleeding the moral, and political change. How princess royal, he came into the room far he is sincere, and how far he and took the bason, and when Dr possesses talents capable of bringing Burt wished to relieve him from it, he about so great a change, time will best said, remember I am a father. There show. He appears to me a man pos- are many other little traits of a good sessing strong powers of mind, attend- and an affectionate heart in domestic ed with strong passions. He is wholly life. I only give those trifling anecwithout education, and even now can dotes to show you that the man is read very badly, and can only write not a devil in a human shape. He is enough to sign his name. But to very much attached to the Queen, make up for that, he has been brought who, by what every person says of up in the school of danger, difficulties, her, deserves it. She is said to be of and intrigue, where his deep policy and a most amiable character, and her chaknowledge of human character have rities are most extensive-she is plain in shone as conspicuously as his courage her manners, and quite jet black. Her and talent as a soldier.
two daughters, as the lady told me It is his mind, and his alone, that that attended them as preceptress for governs all; he has the ablest men of a year (an American lady), are very his kingdom employed about his per- accomplished, speaking English well son, but they are mere executors of -in their manners particularly enhis will. One proof of his being nei- gaging and affable to all about them ther a very changeable or cruel man, they are 16 and 18. is, that almost all the great officers When I left Port Royal this last of the palace, who were there four time, I was told by a Captain of a man years ago, are there now; and they of war, that the strangers were confined bear, generally speaking, the characters to within the Barriers, except on Sun. of good and just men. And if he is day, and then they were allowed to go in himself cruel to his subjects, he out to dinner to a small place they had takes care to punish with the greatest about 4 miles from town. What did severity that crime in others. I find?-that strangers were allowed to
There is one striking part of his go out at all times as far as 18 miles character,—he never forgives a fault
. without a passport ; they were allowHe even sent his own son, the prince ed to go out shooting ; in short, that royal, a prisoner to the citadel, to show they did as they liked. They asked he paid no regard to high rank. But the king for permission to take a house