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and his desire to learn, yet he made ceeding ; when it came out that he had but slow advances. He certainly did no objection to seeing the doctor ; improve, however, in all that he un “ but," added he," doctor say—John, dertook, particularly in drawing. He you no eat fish (Yakees* man no like, was easily pleased, and took great de- no eat fish)— I go out buy little fishlight in relating his adventures with doctor come~ I make fry fish on fire the Northmen, as he called the people no like doctor see fish-lock door !" recently discovered in Baffins Bay. His dying moments were soothed by Speaking of the barbarism of these the anxious attendance of his friends. people, he once adverted, with great He felt and acknowledged this attengood humour, to his own igno- tion, but said it was of no use, for rance on first landing in this country. his sister had appeared to him and He imagined the first cow which he called to him to come away. It must saw to be a wild and dangerous ani- not be supposed, however, that this mal, and instantly retreated to the arose from superstition, or was any boat for his harpoon, that he might thing more than the effect of the fever defend himself and his companions under which he was then suffering ; from this ferocious looking beast !-- for he was unaffectedly pious; and His curiosity was lively, and he sought having been early instructed in the for information with great perseverance. Christian faith, continued to derivesupBut he never expressed any of that port and consolation from this source, idiotic surprise which savages some to the last hour of his life. He held in times evince, on seeing any thing very his hand an Icelandic catechism,t till different from what they have been ac- his strength and sight failed him, when customed to. When he was placed, for the book dropped from his grasp, and the first time, before a large mirror, he he shortly afterwards expired. gazed at it for several minutes with He was followed to the grave by evident satisfaction, and then turning a numerous company, among whom round, exclaimed, fine, fine! two were not only his old friends and papair rooms !” He played on the flute, trons from Leith, but many gentlemen and danced very well, so that wherever of high respectability in this city. he went he was a most welcome guest. It is pleasing, in every point of view, He looked forward with the utmost to see such attentions, and honours, keenness and anxiety to the sailing of paid to so humble and insulated an the expedition, now fitting out; being individual as John Sackeouse. It is perfectly aware, at the same time, of also worthy of remark, as affording a his own value upon the occasion.

striking example of the distinction beDuring the height of his first ille tween a civilized, and a savage state of ness, he was very obedient; but when society. To thé rude tribe to which he was freed from pain, and began to this man belonged, all this might gain strength, he by no means liked appear very insignificant ;-but with the discipline to which he was subject- what satisfaction should we not hear ed, but more than all the rest the pre- (what, alas, we can never hope to scribed regimen displeased him. One hear !) that our unfortunate country= day when the surgeon called, John's man, the enterprising--the philosodoor was found locked. No intreaties phical Park, had been cheered in his could prevail upon him to open it. last moments, or honoured after his 66 No, no,” said he ; no want more death, with half the attention which physicno want doctor-not sick now.” was here so freely bestowed upon a After a time, finding him resolute, the poor Esquimaux Indian. doctor took John at his word, and went away. One of his friends called

* His name for the Esquimaux nation. to remonstrate with him on this pro

+ Copenhagen, 1777.

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In the year 1695, Jacob Tonson published the sixth edition of Paradise Lost, in folio, and to this edition were added a very large collection of " annotations," or notes, by P. H. PiaootinTNS. This P. H. was Patrick Hume, a Scotsman, of whom very little is known; but judging by his notes, which are exceedingly curious and learned, he appears to have been a man of cultivated

taste, and very extensive erudition. In the 1750, the Foulis' of Glasgow puba lished the First Book of Milton's Paradise Lost, with notes by Mr Callender of Craigforth. This gentleman, who was certainly also an accomplished scholar, has however borrowed, without the slightest acknowledgment, a great deal from these annotations of his countryman, Hume. A plagiarism so close in its nature, yet so concealed in its origin, is worthy of notice. I shall mark some of the passages of Hume's notes, in which Callender has evidently bors rowed his illustrations from this older commentator. PATRICK HUME.

CALLENDER. Thus, in annotations on verse 11th, Callender begins: “ This was a small " And Siloa's brook that flowed,”—Hume brook rising from the east of the temple. says:

“Siloa was a small brook, as appears Possibly the tower mentioned by our Sa. by Isaiah 8. 6. arising on the east side of viour might have taken its name from the temple in Jerusalem, of which the tower thence. After which he proceeds to make our Saviour mentions, Luc. 13. 4. probably some additional observations on the invocatook its name.”

tions made by the poets to the deities of

classical mythology, Verse 16. “Things unattempted yetin proseor rhyme.” Callender, after remarking the parallel

“ In prose or rhyme, either in prose or line in Ariosto, poetry, prosa. lat. for that free and easy

“Cosa non detta in prosa mai, ne in rima," way of writing and speaking, unshackled and unconfined in its parts and periods, word rhyme not in the common acceptation,

proceeds thus :" Milton here uses the used by orators, historians, and men in common conversation, styled soluta oratio,' word he means verse in opposition to prose;

in contradistinction to blank verse, but by this as opposite to rhyme, derived of the Greek

this being its ancient and original significaPubpos, consisting of a more exact measure and quantity of syllables, of which Aristotle tion, as derived from Pubpos, denoting a line

consisting of a more exact measure and prosays, ρυθμα δε χαιρομεν δια το γνωριμόν, και

per quantity of syllables, of which Aristotle τεταγμενον αριθμον εχεις και κινειν ημας τε. Teypesuws. in prob. xavovixm autem longitu. says, de xulgames, &c. dines et altitudines vocis emetitur longior inclusi, numeros ille, hic pede liber.”

In the same sense, Perseus : “ Scribimus "mensura vocis Poθμος dicitur, altior μελος.

Aul. Gell. b. 15. c. 18. Scribimus inclusi, - numeros ille, hic pede liber. Pers. Sat. 1.”

Another similarity will be found in the “ Serpent. The devil, who, entering coincidence between the notes of Hume and into the serpent, made use of this form to of Callender, on verse 33. 6. Who first deceive Eve. Hence he is called, by St seduced them to that foul revolt.”-Again, John, the Old Serpent. Moses, in his rein verse 34. “ Th’ infernal serpent,' lation of the fall of man, takes no notice of Hume's note is as follows:

the arch fiend. He relates barely the mat“ Th’infernal serpent. The devil, who ter of fact.” entered into the serpent, and, actuating his organs, deceived our Mother Eve. Therefore called the • Old Serpent. Rev. 12. 9. Moses, in the relation of Satan's attempt, takes no notice of the arch fiend, but barely reports the matter of fact, the serpent entertaining and tempting Eve, who discovered not the sly seducer. Gen. 3. F."

In his notes on verse 48. “ In adaman. In Callender the exact same passages are tine chains,” Hume adverts to the passage quoted (with the addition of one from Æsof Lucan, b. 6. “ Durum vinclis adaman. chylus) in illustration of the same epithet. ta paratque pænam victori ;” and to that of Horace, Figit adamantinos dira Necessitas clavos.”

Verse 50. “ Nine times the space. A certain for “ Nine times. The poets seem particu. an uncertain time is usual with the poets, larly fond of this number; whether because who are fond of the number nine, whether it was that of the Muses, or because it was in respect to that of the Muses, or as being imagined to be a perfect number, containthe square of the ternary, made famous bying the beginning, middle, and end, we Pythagoras, and by Arist. and Plut. styled shall not determine. Homer has often the most excellent of all numbers, as con mentioned it. taining in itself the beginning, middle, and

Eννημαρ. μεν, &c. end ; to Christians much more renowned,

Eννημαρ. ξεινισσε. &c. as expressive of the Mysterious Trinity.

Eννημα. μεν. ομως. &c.


CALLENDER. Eννημας μεν ανα στρατον οχετο κήλα θεοίο. .

Il. a'. Eννη μαρ μεν ομώς πλεομεν, νυκτας τε και ημαρ.

Od. '. Έννημαρ ξεινισσε, και εννεα βες ιερεύσεν. ΙΙ. ζ.

Verse 77. «« Whirlwinds of tempestuous fire.”

“ Tempestuous fire.”

This is a noble expression, and conveys A noble expression of the flaming hurricane of hell, taken, doubtless, from Psalm 11. 6. a very strong idea of what the poet before “ Fire and brimstone, and an horrible tem

calls a fiery deluge. The phrase seems

borrowed from these words of the Psalmist: pest.”

“ Upon the wicked the Lord will rain fire

and brimstone, and an horrible tempest.”. Verse 74.

Verse 74. Callender remarks, that the “ As from the center thrice.”

thought is originally Homer's, though it Hume remarks, that this is an imitation has been carried farther by Virgil and Mil.. of Homer :

ton, and he quotes the same passages. σοσσον ενερβ. Αιδεω, οσον ερανος εξ' απο γαιης.

And of Virgil : «« Tam Tartarus ipse. Bis patet in præceps tantum, tenditque sub

Quantus ad Ætherium Cæli suspectus 0.

Æneid 6.
Verse 84.

“ If thou beest he.”
Here the same parallel passage from
“ Hei mihi qualis erat, quantum mutatus
ab illo.”

Æn. b. 2. is quoted by both authors.

Verse 99.
To contend."

Contend. To strive. This is properly To strive with. Contendo, Lat. to make a Latinism; the Romans using the word earnest opposition ; so contention for strife, in the same sense, contendere, applying it encounter.

to war. Thus Virgil : Quis talia demens

Quis talia demens Abnuat aut tecum malit contendere bello.

Abnuat aut tecum malit çontendere bello.

Æneid 4.
Verse 105.
His throne. His royal seat; his king His throne. Heaven; his royal seat;
dom, povos. Heaven is called Acos épovos. his kingdom. So Theocritus calls heaven
Jove's throne.

Zavos agovor, “ Jove's throne.”
Ζανος επι θρονον αγαγε φαμα. .


Τα πε και Ζανος επι θρονον αγαγε φαμα. . Idyll, S. But more truly, by our Saviour,

Our Saviour uses the same expression. the throne of God. Mat. 5. 34.

“ Swear not by heaven, for it is God's Verse 116.

throne.” Rapvos $50 T8 bes. (6.) Mat. 5. 34. “ Since by fate.”

Fate. Our poet here uses fate in the “ Fate, by the ancients, was used to ex. sense of the ancient heathens, who, by this press that unchangeable and eternal series word, expressed that eternal and unchangeof things, which the gods themselves could able series of events, which the gods them. not disturb or alter." Thus Juno:

selves could not reverse. This is Virgil's * Hoc regnum dea gentibus esse, si qua meaning when he makes Jupiter say, fata sinant."

Æn. 1.

“ Fata viam invenient."
And again,

“ Hoc regnum dea gentibus esse,

fata sinant."
And a little below,

Mene incepto desistere victam
Nec posse Italia Teucrorum avertere Règem.

Quippe vetor. Fatis."
Verse 126.

« Vaunting aloud.”
Compare Hume's note on this with Cal.
lender's. The same passage of Virgil is

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CALLENDER. employed by both, as illustrative of Milton's text. Compare also the note on the 129th verse, “ Th’ imbattled seraphim,” where Callender borrows a scriptural quotation from 104th Psalm.

In some instances, Callender, making full use of the note of Hume, transposes or changes some of the words, retaining the same classical illustrations, but destroying and diluting the fine nervous style of the old commentator by his own interpolations. Thus Hume, in note on

Verse 141.
“ Tho' all our glory extinct."

Extinct. As a flame put out and ex. “ Notwithstanding all our glory be de- tinguished for ever. This word is very cay'd and lost. Extinct, extinctus, Lat. properly applied to their irrecoverable loss put out as a flame, or any thing that burns of that angelick beauty which accompanied and shines ; a word well expressing the loss them when in a state of innocence. The of that angelick beauty, which, like a glory, Latins have used the word extinctus in the attended on their innocency, which, by their same metaphorical sense: foul rebellion, they had forfeited, covered

“ Te propter eundem now with shame and black confusion.-Ex

Extinctus pudor et qua sidera adibam tinctus is used in the same etaphorical Fama prior." manner by Virgil :

And Apuleius" Restinqueres pudoris ig. Te propter eundem

naviam.” Met. I. 2. Extinctus pudor.

Æn. 4. In note on verses 149, 157, and 169; in one, the same obsolete phrase ; in another, the same English expressions ; in the third, the same Latin quotation is em. ployed.

Verse 175.
“ Wing'd with red lightning.”

“ Wing'd with red lightning." The poets give the thunder wings to de "Tis common for the poets to give thunnote its swiftness and suddenness. Ful- der and lightning wings. Thus Virgil : minis ocyor alis. Æn. 5.

And Virgil,

Fulminis ocyor alis. describing the Cyclops forging a thunder. The same poet gives us a noble description bolt:

of thunder in another place :

Radios, &c.
Addiderant, rutili tres ignis, et alitis austri.
Folgores nunc terrificos, sonitumque, me-

Miscebant operi, flammisque sequacibus iras.
A noble description-yet is our poet very
short, and very significant.

Callender, in his note of explanation upon v. 182. “ livid flanies ;” in the note on v. 186. “ Our afflicted powers ;” and in that on verse 199. “ Briareos,” has evidently been indebted to the three corres sponding notes on the same passages by Hume.Again, in

Verse 200.
“ By ancient Tarsus,"

“ By ancient Tarsus." Hume remarks : " By ancient Tarsus, Our poet here alludes to a fable we find the chief city of Cilicia, in Asia the Lesser, in Homer, that in the mountain Aremus, bear which, in the mountain Aremus, was near Tarsus, was a cave said to be Typhon's a cave called Typhon's Den."

Den. Ειν' Αριμοις οθι φασι Τοφωτος εμμεναι ευνας.

E1 Agojuos, &c.

Il. f'. Which verse Virgil has thus translated : Translated by Virgil :

“ Durumque cubile, &c. Durumque cubile.

In the same way, Æschylus calls him,
Inarime, Jovis Imperiis, Imposta Typhoëo. Κιλικιων οικητορα αντρών, ,

Æneid 9. inhabitant of the Cilician dens.
Verse 102.
“ Th' ocean stream.

“ Ocean stream.” The sca; the vast mass of water that en In imitation of Homer, who uses the



compasseth the earth, and with it makes one same expression in describing a flight of
globe. 12xsayos, Greek. Επ. Ωκεανοιο. .
Poawy ad oceani fluenta. Iliad .

Compare also the corresponding notes of Callender then subjoins additional illustra.
these two authors on verse 203. “ On the tions from the poet Memnermus, Quintus
Norway foam.”

Calaber, and Virgil.
Verse 204.
“ Night-founder'd skiff.”

Some little boat, whose pilot dares not Some little boat, whose pilot dares not
proceed in his course, for fear of the dark proceed in his course, amid the darkness of
night ; a metaphor taken from a foun- the night, for fear of sinking ; or, to use
der'd horse, that can go no farther ; or the sea term, foundering at sea. Milton
night-founder'd, in danger of sinking at , here alludes to some stories told by seamen,
night ; from fondre, Fr. to sink to the bot- of their mistaking whales, when lying asleep
tom ; the meaning of a ship's foundering on the waters, for rocks. Sir W. Monson,
at sea. I prefer the former, as being our in his naval tracts, speaks of such an acci.
author's aim. Skiff, from the Greek onamn, dent that happened to himself, by which he
a little boat.

had near been drowned. Verse 205. Deeming These parallel passages shew how very frequently, even in the small part of the first book which we have examined, the modern commentator has, without any acknowledgment whatever, been indebted for his etymologies, his classical illustrations, his general criticisms, and, in several instances, his very language, to the older annotator, Patrick Hume. Who Hume was, I have not been able to discover. His notes are always curious; his observations on some of the finer passages of the poet, evince a mind deeply smit with an admiration for the sublime genius of their author; and there is often a masterly nervousness in his style, which is very remarkable for this age. He was the first who published notes on the Paradise Lost, to which, with much modesty, he has subjoined only the initials of his name, P. H. Qiaotoinins. He is mentioned by Warton in his notes to the edition of Milton's lesser poems, and in the following passage by Tod, in his preface to his edition, published in 1801. “ The first annotator on the poet was Patrick Hume, a Scotchman. He published, in 1695, a copious commentary on the Paradise Lost; to which some of his successors, in the same province,” says Mr Warton, “ apprehending no danger of detection from a work rarely inspected, and too pedantic and cumbersome to attract many readers, have been often amply indebted, without even the most distant hint of acknowledgment.

Tod also mentions the publication of the first book of Paradise Lost, with notes by Mr Callender, in the following passage. “ In the year after the publication of Dr Newton's edition of Paradise Lost, there was published, at Glasgow, the first book of that poem, with a large and very learned commentary, from which some notes are selected in this edition. They who are acquainted with this commentary will concur with the present editor in wishing that the annotator had continued his ingenious and elaborate criticisms on the whole poem.” It is evident, from this passage, that Tod was not aware that the author of this commentary was one of those annotators mentioned by Warton, “ who, apprehending no danger of detection from a work rarely inspected, and too pedantick and cumbersome to attract many readers, have been often amply indebted to the notes of Patrick Hume, without even the most distant hint of acknowledgment."

The truth is, that this now-unknown and forgotten individual, who would not even place his name before his work, deserves, in point of erudition, good taste, and richness of classical illustration, to be ranked as the father of that style of comparative criticism, which has been so much employed, during these later days, in illustrating the works of our great poet.


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