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Dear Wife, I have dispatched this are those so entirely satisfied with messenger away to-night to save you the their shares in this world, that theire trouble of rising early, hoping you wishes and theire thoughts have not a have no concern to communicate to farther prospect of felicity and glory; me of your own. The D. of B. came I'll tell you, were that man's soule hither to-night and stays two days, I tac't in a body fitt for it, hee were a must lend him my coach half way dogg that could count any thing a back, therefore pray send it me. My benefitt obtained with Aattery, feare, condition of health alters I hope for and service. the better, though various accidents Is there a man, yee gods, whom I do hate, succeed, my pains are pretty well over, Dependance and attendance be his fate, and my rheumatism begins to turn to Let him bee busy still, and in a crowde, an honest gout; my pissing of blood, And very much a slave, and very proude. Dr Wetherby says, is nothing, my I would not have
leteyes are almost out, but that, he says, ter, it is not fitt for every body to will not do me much harm ; in short, find. he makes me eat flesh and drink dyet. drink, God bless you.
To my Wife. My duty to my mother, thank her Run away like a rascal, without for her cordials.
taking leave, dear wife, it is an un
polight way of proceeding which a Dear Wife,-I recover so slowly, modest man ought to be ashamed of. and relapse so continually, that I am I have left you a prey to your owne almost weary of myself; if I had the immaginations, amongst my relations, least strength, I would come to Ad- the worst of damnations, but there derbury, but in the condition I am, will come an hour of deliverance, till Kensington and back is a voyage I can when, may my mother bee merciful hardly support; I hope you excuse unto you, soe I commit you to what my sending you no money, for, till I shall ensue, woman to woman, wife am well enough to fetch it myself, to mother, in hopes of a future apthey will not give me farthing, and pearance in glory,-the small share I if I had not pawned my plate, I be- could spare you out of my pockett, lieve I must have starved in my sick. I have sent as a debt to Mrs Rowse, ness. Well, God bless you, and the within a week or ten days I will rechildren, whatever becomes of,-your turn you more, pray write as often as bumble servant, RochesTER. you have leisure to your
ROCHESTER. The alteration of my mother's for Remember me to Nan and my Ld. mer resolutions, (who is now resolved Willmott.
You must present my against ever moving from hence,) puts service to my cousins. I intend to be mee upon some thoughts which were at the wedding of my niece Ellen if almost quite out of my head; but you I hear of it. Excuse my ill paper, may be sure I shall determine nothing and very ill manners to my mother, that does not tend to your real hap- they are both the best the place and piness as lies in my power. I have, age could afford. therefore, sent you this letter to prepare you for a remove, first hither, My Wife,–The difficulties of please and afterwards as fate shall direct, ing your ladyship doe increase soe which is, (I find,) the true disposer fast upon me, and are growne so nu. of things, whatever wee attribute to merous, that, to a man less resolved wisdom or providence-bee, therefore, than myself never to give it over, itt in a readinesse upon the first notice would appear a madness ever to atfrom mee to put that in execution tempt itt more, but through your frailwhich I shall first inform you parti- tys myne ought not to multiply; you cularly of,- let me have an answer, may, therefore, secure yourself that it and dispatch this messenger quickly. will not be easy for you to put me God bless you,--yours, Rochester. out of my constant resolutions to satis
fy you in all I can ; I confess there Fragment.
is nothing will so much contribute to Soe great a disproportion betwixt my assistance in this as your dealing our desires and what it has orilained freely with mee, for since you have to content them ; but you will say thought it a wise thing to trust inee this is pride and madness, for there less and have reserves, it has bin out
of my power to make the best of my son as well in this place as att Adder proceedings effectual to what I intend- bury, but, dear wife, one of my coach. ed them ; at a distance I am likeliest mares is dying, or I had sent my coach to learn your mind, for you have not instead of my compliment. a very obliging way of delivering itt by word of mouth, if, therefore, you
We find these two little notes ad. will let me know the particulars in dressed to his son. which I may be usefull to you, I will I hope, Charles, when you receive shew my readiness as to my own part, this, and know that I have sent this and if I'fail of the success I wish, it gentleman to be your tutour, you will shall not be the fault of,—your húm. be very gladde to see I take such care ble servant,
ROCHESTER. of you, and be very gratefull, which I intend to be at Adderbury some
is best shown in being obedient and time next week.
dilligent. You are now grown big
enough to bee a man, and you can be You have ordered the matter soe wise enough ; for the way to be truely well, that you must of necessity bee wise is to serve God, learne your book, att the place you intend before I can and observe the instructions of your per give you an answer to your letter, yet rents first, and next your tutour, to meethinks you ought rather to hare whom I have entirely resigned you resolved in the negative, since it was for this seven yeare, and according as what I desired of you before ; but the you imploy that time, you are to bee happy conjunction of my mother and happy or unhappy for ever ; but I you can produce nothing but extreme have so good an opinion of you, that I good usage to mee as it has fore am glad to thinke you will never de merly done. You shew yourself very ceive me ; dear child, learn your booke discreet and kind in this and in other and be obedient, and you shall see matters. I wish you very well, and what a father I will be to you. You my mother, but assure you I will bee shall want no pleasure while you are very backwards in giving you the good, and that you may be soe are my trouble of your humble servant, constant prayers.
Charles, I take itt very kindly that I have, my dear wife, sent you some you write mee (though seldom), and lamb, about an oudce. I have sent to wish heartily you would behave yourmy mother one Westphalia ham, one self soe as that I myght show how joule of sturgeon, and on Christmas much I love you without being aday I will send her a very fatt doe. shamed. Obedience to your grandI feare I must see London shortly, mother, and those who instruct you and begin to repent I did not bring in good things, the way to make you you with me, for since these rake-hells happy here and for ever, avoyde idleare not here to disturb us, you myghtness, scorne lying, and God will bless have past your devotions this holy sea you.
ON THE MEANS OF EDUCATION, AND THE STATE OF LEARNING, IN THE
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
NOTWITHSTANDING the great number creasing in physical strength; and mere of books on America, little is known of power, unaccompanied by intellectual the means of education, or of the state refinement, never failed of being a of learning in that country. These scourge, wiether possessed by a despot subjects must certainly be interesting or a republic. Learning and science to Englishmen, from their connexion do not always check the ambition of with the spreading of the language, and nations, but they moderate and soften from the influence the people of Ame- its success; without them, the march rica must have in preserving it in its of dominion is wasting, and cruel, and purity, or in filling it with corruptions. brutal. There already exists in AmeBut they derive a higher and more rica a sufficient difference in this regeneral importance from another con spect, to prove the truth of the prinsideration ;-the nation is rapidly in- ciple; in those parts of it where learn.
ing is cultivated, it has smoothed off But in all that relates to classic learnthe roughnesses and subdued the pas- ing, they are totally deficient; there sions, which deform the rude state of is not one, from Maine to Georgia, social life ; and in those where it is which has yet sent forth a single first neglected, man is still a wild and fe- rate scholar ; no, not one sinee the rocious animal, and consequently dan- settlement of the country, equal even gerous in proportion to the number of to the most ordinary of the thirty or the herd. We cannot reason from his- forty, which come out every year from tory in regard to these people ; the ex Schule Pforta, and Meissen. It would periment, now performing in some not be unreasonable to say, that a boy parts of the new world, is the first, in America, who is put to learn the which ever exhibited man under pre- ancient languages, loses his whole time, cisely similar circumstances-intellec- from the first moment he begins the tually and morally savage, and at the Latin Accidence, till he takes his bachesame time powerful as a perfect know- lor's degree-a period of eight or nine ledge of all the artificial means of in- years, and those the most precious creasing physical strength can make years of life. They are not merely losthim. This would be a curious subject they do positive injury to the youth ; of speculation, but our present one those delectable studies, whose power directs us another way.
it is, when properly felt, to form a pure In the sketch we are about to give of and elegant taste, and polished mind, the state of education in this country, are looked upon as tasks, loathed, and the schools of the higher orders will be at length laid aside for ever. Thus principally considered; for the literary the voice of inspiration is heart, and character of a nation depends upon the awakens not, and the most powerful degree of knowledge among the few,
means of intellectual regeneration, upon the universal diffusion of it among which learning can employ, leave the the many; and our enquiry now is, if mind in a state of hopeless insensir the Americans have learning, and not if bility. This arises from bad masters, they can read and write. It is proper and a bad method of study. It is imhowever to remark, that the latter possible for a man to teach what he kind of knowledge is as generally dif- does not understand himself, or to exfused, as it well could be among so scat cite in others a taste, which he has tered a population. In New England, never acquired. The remark may be and in the other early settled and wells applied to most of the instructors of peopled parts of the country, schools the classic schools in America ; they for instruction in reading, writing, and are mere language masters, not schoarithmetic, are established by law in lars ; miners, who know the art of getall towns and villages ; and it is rare, ting at the ore, but not of using it. that a child destined to live by the la- But they are not without excuse ; it bours of his hands, cannot find the cannot be expected that the masters means of acquiring quite as much should be good, as long as the system book learning, as will be useful to him of education, which they are required in his business, and often a great deal to follow, is wholly defective. The too much to allow him to remain con- object of learning is misunderstood in tented with his lot and place in life. America, or rather, it is valued only as
We begin then with that class of far as it is practically useful. That this schools, in which the foundation is is their view of it, is shewn by every laid for a liberal education, there com- literary institution of the country, in monly called academies; for the Ameri- which all kinds of knowledge, that are cans take a strange delight in high not to be turned to immediate account, sounding names, and often satisfy are either totally neglected, or very themselves for the want of the thing, imperfectly cultivated. We shall see, by the assumption of the name. These that the bad method of study adopted academies are not always exclusively in the schools, arises from this opiclassical schools ; some are partly ap- nion, and afterwards trace its influence propriated to education for the counter through all the stages of education. and the counting-room; and as far as When a boy begins his Latin, he is this object goes, there is no striking told, that the object of studying it is, defect in them; it not being a very dit- to prepare him for college ; and, acficult matter to teach a lad to count his cordingly, he does study just as much fingers and take care of his dollars. of it, as he is required to know upon
examination ; he never discovers that and polish, they have given to its manthere is an absolute good to be derived ners, and what a charm there is about from this exercise of the mind-that themselves : they are men, who would it can give expansion to his intellectual have been the companions of Atticus, faculties, and acuteness to his percep- had they lived at Rome in the Augustions. The business of preparation is tan age. all that he regards, and this consists It will readily be concluded that, in being able to construe, however slo- where the discipline and instruction of venly, the passages assigned him for the schools are defective, similar dethe task, and apply to them the rules of fects will be found in the higher instigrammatical construction. The amount tutions, which is the case in the coungone over being made of more impor try, of which we are now speaking. tance than the manner of doing it, en- Indeed, so long as the former remain couragement is given to resort to tranin their present state, it will be quite slations for assistance; hence, Virgil useless to attempt any thorough reform and Cicero are read in the miserable in the latter. If young men come to paraphrases of Davidson and Duncan. the universities without preparation, În this way the preparatory books they must leave them without improveare run through ; nothing is read but ment; they are not the places, where what is necessary for matriculation, and one should begin to learn, in any counthat so superficially as to be of no use; try, and least of all in America, where while metre, quantity, and all the nice they are upon so bad a system. The marks of a scholar, are neglected. The inhabitants of the colonies, from their effect of this loose mode of study is as first settlement, down to the period of injurious toa boy's habits, as to his taste. their separation from the mother counHe believes that what is to be learned try, always cherished such a praisebut imperfectly, may be learned with worthy pious reverence for her, that out labour; and hence, the power of they never thought of taking any other close, undivided, fixed application is models than such as she furnished, for never acquired. This neglect to disci- any institution they found necessary pline the mind, at the only period when to establish. Hence, without regard it is capable of being disciplined, pro- to the changes in human opinions, or duces a love of ease and of idleness, which to the different situations of the two extends through life.
countries, the old monastic Institutions Another great defect in the system of England were the models for all the is the practice of leaving boys too colleges, which were founded in the much to themselves. They live se new world in the seventeenth and eighparate from their masters, who know teenth centuries. And now copies of nothing of the use, which they make Oxford and Cambridge are seen in of their time, except when they every part of the country-copies upon are collected in the school-room; and a reduced scale indeed, it inust be said, that being but about seven hours and about as much like the originals, of the day, the residue of it is, of as the little sixpenny plaster casts of course, spent in idleness. Thus, early Antinous and the Belvidere Apollo, education is, in every respect, badly which are carried upon the heads of managed, and a loss of time occasion, the street hawkers in every town of ed by it, which no after diligence can Italy, are like those exquisite works of ever fully repair. It cannot be, that the chisel, which they profess to be the Americans are ignorant of the copied after. God forbid that we cause of the evil, which exists among should speak disrespectfully of these them; they have examples enough of two ancient seats of learning; he that what is done, when a system different could contemplate them without refrom their own is pursued. In the verence, could stand upon the plain of south part of the country, particularly Marathon without emotion. Like the in Carolina, it used to be the custom constitution with which they are conto send children across the Atlantic to nected, they have their imperfections, be ducated ; the city of Charleston but those imperfections are a mark of is still illuminated by a constellation their antiquity, and it is better, in of these European formed scholars; and both cases, to bear those, than to imevery one knows what an influence pair the veneration, which that inspires. they have had upon the society of that This reason, however, did not exist place--what an elegance, and grace, for admitting them into the new es
tablishments of America, nor has it are given, and those at such long inyet acquired force enough to make tervals, that they are next to useless. their continuance justifiable. Beside, Thus the colleges are in fact schools, the defects in the English universities and, for the reasons already given, are more than counterbalanced by their bad schools ; they knock off the fetpeculiar excellences, but those of the ters, but still keep the ring of slatransatlantic ones have nothing what- very upon the leg. They are also ever to redeem them. They are a schools in another respect; whatever kind of mongrel institution between a is taught in them is required to be school and à college, mixing up the learned by all. The four faculties, if modes of instruction and discipline they can be said to have four faculties, proper to each ; and an unlucky mis- when some of them have not four protake was made in forming the com- fessors, must be attended by every stupound, the bad parts of both being dent; but it must not be supposed, taken instead of the good. To give a that the knowledge acquired is in promore distinct idea of them, we may portion to that demanded. A boy of liken them to a single college of either twelve years of age, who has been two of the English universities. They years at Schnepfenthal, or in any have a principal, provost or president, other good school in Germany, might professors, and public, instead of pri- scorn a comparison between his learnvate, tutors, and if the inquiry is pur- ing, and that of most young men, when sued no farther, it is difficult to see they leave an American university; why they do not answer the purpose What a lamentable waste of time! of similar institutions in Europe ; but twenty is the average age of leaving a single glance upon their internal ad- the university, and they have not then ministration will explain the cause. acquired, what might have been acFirst, the system of government is bad; quired at twelve. Four years resiit is felt just enough to be irksome, dence is required for the bachelor's and, at the same time, it is too weak degree, but residence is all, there is no to operate as an effectual restraint. The examination for it, and it is scarcely docility of an American youth, it possible for any academic honour to be must be remembered, is not increased of less value; it has certainly been by the early and often wild notions of conferred upon some, who could neiliberty he acquires, and the period of ther write, reed, nor speak their moentering college is looked forward to ther tongue with propriety, and upon by most of them, as the time when the many, who could not translate the bad shackles of a master's and parent's au- Latin of their diplomas. To finish thority are to be thrown off, and that the picture of the seminaries of lear'nof freedom to commence. It is here ing of the first rank in America, we that the evil and danger lie; the youth must give a little sketch of the stuis given up to himself before he is old dent's manner of life. The time not enough to be safe in his own hands, spent at the classes, is divided between and for the completion of his ruin, eating and drinking, smoking, and sleepthe power of his governors is manifestó ing. Approach the door of one of their ed in inflicting punishment more than apartments at any hour of the day, in applying checks; in other words, it you will be driven back from it, as you is pretended to exercise discipline, would from the cabin of a Dutch which is ineffectual from its very na- smack, by the thick volumes of stinkture. It is the same with the system ing tobacco smoke, which it sends forth; of instruction ; tasks are imposed, and should you dare enter, you would find the boy's time left to his own disposal; half a dozen loungers in a state of orithe task, it is true, is required of him, ental lethargy, each stretched out upbut being a task, it is performed as on two or three chairs, with scarce such, and the excitement, which pride any other indication of life in them would furnish if the labour were vo than the feeble effort they make luntary, is wholly lost by its being to keep up the fire of their cigforced. Most of the instruction is in garrs. We know that th are this way; all the under graduates be- other countries besides America, in ing called together in classes, two or which the habit of smoking prevails, three times a-day, either by a profes- but there are surely no other Chrissor or tutor, to be examined in the ex tian ones, in which it is an employereise assigned. Very few lectures ment, and a substitute for all occupa