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We have add, that Yorkshire aWORTH; SUGGESTED BY WESTALL'S bounds also with ruins of the finest VIEWS OF THE CAVES IN YORK- specimens of Gothic and Norman ar

chitecture in the kingdom; and that

Mr William Westall and Mr M-KenMe William Westall has lately pub zie are at present employed in produclished some most striking and impres ing a series of views of these venerable sive “ Views of the Caves near Ingle remains, from which a work will be ton, Gordale Scar, and Malham Cove, published in the course of the spring. in Yorkshire. These caves, at once the most singular and sublime of any

I. scenes of the kind in England, were

PURE Element of Waters, wheresoe'er visited by the poet Gray, and have been

Thou dost forsake thy subterranean haunts, described generally by him, with those

Green herbs, bright flowers, and berry-bear.

ing plants, powerful and characteristic touches

Start into life, and in thy train appear ; which render his prose as truly poeti And, through the sunny portion of the year, cal as his verse. They were after Swift Insects shine thy hovering pursuivants, wards subjected to a visit from a Mr And, if thy bounty fail, the forest pants, Hutton, a Westmoreland Rector, we And Hart, and Hind, and Hunter with his believe, or Church-dignitary of some spear, sort or other, whose long and laboured Languish and droop together ! Nor unfelt account of them may be found in the

In Man's perturbed soul thy sway benign ; appendix to “ West's Guide to the And haply far within the marble belt

Of central earth, where tortured spirits pine Lakes.” Mr Hutton having read Vir

For grace and goodness lost, thy murmurs gil at Cambridge, more especially the

melt sixth book of the Æneis, seems to Their anguish, and they blend sweet songs have been perpetually haunted by the with thine ! image of the infernal regions; and the moment he found himself in a cave,

II.-Malham Cove. he imagined himself metamorphosed Was the aim frustrated by force or guile, into Æneas. This fancy pervades his When Giants scoop'd from out the rocky journal of his descent into the caves of ground Yorkshire ; and after having identifi- Tier under tier this semicerque profound. ed the great Trojan prince with the Giants—the same who built in Érin's Isle

That Causeway with incomparable toil ! parish minister of Burton, he found

Oh! had the Crescent stretched its horns, no difficulty in transforming the old

and wound, hostler of the inn at Ingleton into the With finished sweep, into a perfect round, Sybil. Accordingly, Virgil becomes No mightier Work had gained the plausive a' Yorkshireman—and he, the old smile hostler and Æneas Hutton, on their Of all-beholding Phæbus ! but, alas! reascent from the “inania regna," seek Vain earth ! false world! Foundations must out the “ Eagle and Child,” and get In Heaven; for, 'mid the wreck of is and was,

be laid rather more than social over a can of

Things incomplete, and purposes betrayed, stingo.

Make sadder transits o'er Truth's mystic Mr Westall, however, is a person of glass, a very different character—an excel- Than noblest objects utterly decayed ! lent artist and an intelligent man. He has described the various caves, very

III.-Gordale. shortly and simply, in the letter-press At early dawn, or when the warmer air that accompanies the “ Views ;" while Glimmers with fading light, and Shadowy Eve we do not recollect ever to have

Is busiest to confer and to bereave, scen the wild and fantastic wonders of To Gordale chasm, terrific as the lair

At either moment let thy feet repair Nature delineated by the pencil with Where the young Lions' couch ; for then, more vivid and intense truth. An ho

by leave nour has been conferred upon these Of the propitious hour, thou may'st perceive “ Views,” of which the greatest artist

The local Deity, with oozy hair in Englard might well be proud.

And mineral crown, beside his jagged urn They have received the praise of Recumbent !--Him thou may'st behold,

who hides Wordsworth, who has expressed the delight with which their poetical cha

His lineaments from day, and there presides

Teaching the docile Waters how to turn; racter inspired him, in three Sonnets, Or if need be, impediment to spurn, which we are now permitted, by their And force their passage tow'rel the salt sca illustrious author, to make public. tides. Vol. IV.

3 0

ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL OB- water, it is, I conceive, the simplest, SERVATIONS FOR THE YEAR 1818. as well as the most accurate, method

of finding the temperature of the MR EDITOR,

ground at that depth below the sur

face. Thermometers, of sufficient I BEG leave to present your readers length to reach the required depth, with an abstract of another year's me have been recommended, and, in one teorological observations, and to offer instance at least, have been actually a few remarks on some of the most employed for this purpose ; but besides interesting facts which it contains. the difficulty of constructing such in

At the commencement of last year, I struments, the method appears to me began, and continued regularly, to make to be liable to the objection of inaccura the following observations, in addition acy. If the thermometer be sunk into those that I had been in the habit to a sandy soil, heavy rains passing of making for some years before. Ist, through the cold surface in winter, T'he daily range of the thermometer, and the heated sand in summer, will or the number of degrees betwixt the reach the instrument more rapidly, highest point to which it rose, and and of course produce greater fluctuathe lowest point to which it sunk, tions, than would take place in a during the 24 hours. 2d, The daily loamy soil; and, on the other hand, range of the barometer, or the spaces if it be fixed in clay, it will be less between the points at which the mer. readily affected than it would be in cury was observed to stand at 10 o'clock soils of a different description. The morning and evening of the same method adopted in the following obday, and at 10 on the morning of the servations, is, I think, not liable to following day. The sum of these this objection. The water, before bewas entered in a column as the daily ing collected in the first or highest range, or the whole space through cistern, is brought in different direcwhich the mercury moved every 24 tions, and from a considerable dishours. The amount of course can on tance, in covered ditches, cut for the ly be an approximation to the truth, as purpose of draining a large field. Afthe mercurial column might have risen ter issuing from that cistern, it is conhigher, or sunk lower, during the in- veyed through the distance mentioned terval, than it was at the time of ob- above, before it flows from the stopservation. 3d, The temperature of cock where the temperature is taken; water issuing from a pipe, after pas- and at every observation it is allowed sing through a distance of several hun to run five minutes. By this means, alred yards, at the depth of about 3 the water, besides embracing a great feet below the surface. In one of the extent, passes through a considerable inonthly reports, the depth was stated variety of soil, and gives the mean at 3 feet; but I have since ascertain temperature, not of any particular ed, that the average is considerably spot, but of the general average of the less, hardly amounting perhaps to 3 ground in the neighbourhood. Of the feet. The temperature is taken three advantages to be derived from a series times every month, viz. about the 5th, of such observations, I shall make 15th, and 25th. The first two of the some remarks afterwards. The other above particulars, viz. the ranges of columns of the subjoined table conthe thermometer and the barometer, tain the same particulars as those of can hardly be called additional obser- the abstract for 1817, inserted in your vations, as they are merely the results tenth Number—the observations being arising from subtracting the lowest made with the same instruments, on observation from the highest. They the same spot, and precisely at the serve, however, to shew more readily, same hours. I need hardly remind as well as more distinctly, the extent your readers, that these hours are 10 of the changes that take place in the o'clock morning and evening, and that state of the atmosphere, and are there the day is supposed to begin at that fore, I apprehend, not the least valua- hour in the morning, and to terminate ble part of the abstract. With regard at the same hour next morning—thus to the 3d, the temperature of spring embracing an entire day and night.


Latitude 56° 25', Elevation 185 feet.

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42.1 32.1 37.8 35.4 37.1 36.6 9.9 37.740 29.372 40 29.369 . 100 Feb. 10.1 30.8 35.8 34.4 35.4 35.1 9.3 38.6 39 29.401 39 29.363.275 March 13.1 31.8 38.3 36.0 37.4 37.1 11.3 38.5 41 29.215 42 29.232.363 April 46.6 34.0 42.6 40.3 12.6 41.0 47 29.666 48 29.674.203 May 58.0 43.9 52.4 47.250.9 49.8 14.1 46.554 29.807 54 29.812.117 June

67.2 50.2 62.0 55.0 58.7 58.5 17.0 55.5 63 29.830 63 29.833.192 July 168.3 52.1 63.0 56.3 60.2 59.7 16.2 56.5 64 29.86764 29.894.175 Aug. 64.3 49.1 59.6 53.3 56.7 56.4 15.2 57.3 61 29.901 61 29.914.135 Sept. 59.1 46.5 55.5 50.352.8 52.9 12.5 54.258 29.581 59 29.595.221 Oct. 56.6 46.9 52.8 50.151.7'51.4 9.7 51.957 29.680 57 29.681.186 Nov. 50.5 42.9 47.2 46.6 46.7 46.9 7.6 48.652 29.638 52 29.634.191 Dec. 43.1 33.8 39.0 38.2 38.5 38.6 9.3 43.745 29.867 45 29.859.224

2.858) 1.031) 7.4 6.0 6.7 33.0 31.0 32.0 1.219

.650.7.9 6.1 7.0 30.129.8 29.9 2.199 1.310 12.8 8.3 10.6 29.129.9 29.5 2.462 2.280 20.0 12.1 16.0 28.7 29.2 28.9 2.786 1.850 17.1 10.2 13.6 45.5 42.443.9 1.725 3.170 34.5 18.6 26.5 50.3 47.4 48.9 3.985 2.610 25.4 13.1 19.3 54.5 51.5 53.0

.690 2.305 27.7 15.3 21.5 49.3 46.8 48.0 2.660 1.800 20.4 11.4 15.9 46.7 45.1 45 9 1.957 1.330 12.1 8.0 10.0 17.8 46.5 47.1 3.054) .930 7.8 7.5 7.7 45.3 42.7 15.0 1.804 .790 6.0 7.3 6.7 35.2 53.4 54.3

Aver. 53.2/41.2 48.8 45.1 47.2 46.9 12.1/47.4||52|29.652|52 29.655.223||27.397 20.056/ 16.6 10.3 13.4 41.1 39.7 40.4

Before proceeding to offer any remarks on the above table, I shall state, as on a former occasion, the extreme points to which all the instruments were observed to rise and fall, during each month, as well as their greatest and least range on any one day; the thermometer of course being the only instrument whose real extremes have been ascertained.

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| Highest.
O| Lowest


Jan. 52.0 22.0 52.0 27.5 46.5 22.5 20.0 4.5|| 30.135 28.688 30.090 28.824.975 .030 150 16
A Feb. 50.0 16.5 46.0 21.0 44.0 18.0 16.0 5.5 30.050 28.632 29.962 28.640 .750 .055 220 200

Moh. 51.5 25.0 47.5 32.5 46.5 29.5 18.5 6.030.342 28.029 30.340 28.328.804 .017|27 2 152
Apl. | 58.0 26.0 55.0 34.0 48.0 31.5 26.0 4.5| 30.493 28.957 30.533 29.045.539 .037 36 1 221
May 71.0 38.5 63.0 42.0 59.0 42.0 23.0 2.5 30.350 29.282 30.345 29.290.273 .005 50 1 400
June 79.5 45.0 74.0 51.0 66.0 49.0 25.0 11.0 30.408 29.300 30.355 29.190.510.014|789 434
July 80.5 38.5 77.0 50.5 67.0 48.0 27.5 5.0 30.200 29.595 30.230 29.620.423 .010 50 2 322
Aug. 75.0 43.0 69.5 54.0 64.0 49.0 22.5 7.5 30.200 29.292 30.200 29.400.463 .010 177 252
Sept. 68.5 36.0 61.0 49.0 59.0 41.0 20.5 3.5 30.125 29.285 30.100 29.100.500 .020 451 24
Oct. 62.5 36.5 58.0 46.0 58.0 40.0 17.0 2.5| 30.200 29.040 30.185 28.930 .660.033 263 180
Nov. 56.5 33.0 53.5 36.5 53.0 37.0 16.5 1.01 30.070 29.015 30.020 29.045 .647.000 200191
Dec. 150.0 24.0 47.5 26.5 48.0 28.0 18.0 3.030.523 29.175 30.495 29.120.540 .020 230 22

On comparing the first of the above The results of the last three columns tables with the corresponding one for last in the first table, afford another very year, it will be observed that the mean satisfactory proof of the accuracy of temperature of 1818, exceeds that of the principles so clearly laid down, 1817 only by about one degree and a and so ably investigated, by Mr Anhalf, and that the quantity of rain in derson, in his profound treatise on the former is only one inch and one Hygrometry. It is a well known fact, tenth less than in the latter. These that the atmosphere, whatever be its are results very different, I dare say, state with regard to moisture, providfrom what many would have expect- ed it be not absolutely dry, which is ed; but they are easily accounted for, perhaps impossible, may be. cooled from the character of the first four down till it becomes incapable of holdmonths of the year, which were ex ing, in a state of solution, the water ceedingly cold and wet.

The un

which it contained at a higher temusually high temperature of the sum perature, and will therefore begin to mer months naturally led us to look deposite a portion of its moisture. for a much higher average ; but it is This reduced temperature Mr Anderto be remembered, that it would re son calls the point of deposition ; and quire a very great increase indeed in he has found that, on an average, it the mean temperature of a few months, is between and degrees below the to make any material change in the mean temperature, or coincides nearmean of the whole year.

ly with the mean minimum tempera

ture of the place. In the above table, some for theoretical reasons sufficientMr Anderson's theory is again com- ly plausible, and some for no reasons pletely verified the result of his for- at all; but if a copious induction of inula, at 10 o'clock in the morning, facts be of any value in physical being only one tenth of a degree, and science, the periods that I am now refor both morning and evening eight commending are surely entitled to the tenths of a degree different from the consideration of meteorologists. mean minimum. The greatest differ The coincidence between the mean ence, as usual, is during the spring temperature of spring water and the months, which, however, may be ac mean temperature of the atmosphere, counted for, from the prevalence of is very remarkable, the difference bedry north and north-east winds. In ing only about two-tenths of a degree. assigning this as the cause of a similar During the years 1814 and 1815, I difference last year, I expressed my- kept a similar register of the temperself, I believe, somewhat inaccurately, ature of pump-water, raised from a when I stated, that the hygrometer in- depth of 25 feet, and found the mean dicated a greater degree of dryness to coincide very nearly with the anthan actually existed. This, strictly nual mean of the open air; but where speaking, is impossible ; for Mr Les- the depth is so small as three feet, and lie has satisfactorily shewn, that though the fluctuations, of course, greater, wind may quicken, it cannot possibly I was not prepared to expect such a augment, the depression of tempera- coincidence as that which the table ture of the moistened bulb of the hy- exhibits. I am aware, that

one year's grometer. Still, however, the pre- observations do not afford sufficient data valence of north and north-east winds for the establishment of any theory, may sufficiently explain the anomalies and shall not therefore venture to spein the above table, inasmuch as a con culate much on the subject. I may be tinued succession, for days together, allowed to remark, however, that a of dry cold air from the northern re series of observations on the tempergions, must augment the dryness of ature of water near the surface of the the atmosphere beyond what is nat- ground, may in time furnish results ural to this climate, a new wave, as it of considerable importance to agriculwere, flowing in before the preceding ture, not only in giving the average one can receive any sensible augment- heat of the ground for the whole year, ation of moisture.

but in marking more distinctly, as At the risk of being thought a little well as more correctly, the gradual hobby horsical, I must beg leave again progress of the seasons.

The farmer, to draw the attention of your readers it is true, can neither hasten nor to a fact which I have on former oc retard these ; but the observation of casions laboured to establish, and years might enable him to ascertain which is amply confirmed by the pre- more correctly than he can at present ceding table. In my observations on do, how far ány season is really forthe abstract for 1817, I stated, that on ward or otherwise, and teach him so an average of fifty-two months, the to regulate his operations, as to take mean, of the daily extreme tempera- advantage of favourable, and prevent tures, differed, from the mean of 10 in some degree the consequences of o'clock morning and evening, little unfavourable circumstances. more than three tenths of a degree. In the averages of the barometer The difference of the same two means, and hygrometer, there is nothing defor the whole of 1815, is exactly three serving of particular notice. The tenths—a quantity so very inconsider mean height of the former during the able, especially when the nature of the year is one hundreth of an inch higher subject is taken into the account, that than that of 1817; the average of the I may now, I think, venture to re latter is nearly the same for both years. commend, with still more confidence In a former communication to your than formerly, these hours (10 in the Magazine, I proposed and explained at morning and 10 in the evening) for some length a contrivance for conthe observations of temperature, as the structing Leslie s hygrometer so as to hours that will certainly give the ave- register the extreme points to which rage of the whole year correct to a it rises or falls in the absence of the small fraction. Other hours, indeed, observer. Of the practicability of the have sometimes been recommended, contrivance I have no doubts, and with

regard to its value, it must obviously a superficial audacity of unbelief, an be to the hygrometer in its original overflowing abundance of uncharitableform, what a self-registering thermo ness towards almost the whole of his meter is to one of the common kind. race, and a disagreeable measure of As it has been satisfactorily shown, assurance and self-conceit-each of however, by Mr Anderson, that any these things is bad, and the comobservation of the hygrometer, unac

bination of the whole of them in the companied by a contemporaneous ob- character of any one person might, at servation of the thermometer, is in first sight, be considered as more than reality useless; and as the self-regis- sufficient to render that one person uttering hygrometer which I formerly terly and entirely contemptible. Nor proposed does not afford the means of has the fact, in general, been otherascertaining the temperature at the wise. In every age, the sure ultimate moment the hygrometer reaches its reward of the sophistical and phantasextreme points, I have been led to tical enemies of religion and good orabandon my purpose of constructing der among mankind, has been found the instrument in that form, for a con in the contempt and disgust of those atrivance which I apprehend will be gainst whose true interests their weamore useful. I propose to employ pons had been employed. From this two self-registering thermometers, doom the most exquisite elegance of graduated so as to coincide as exactly wit, and of words, the most perfect as possible with the two that I pre- keenness of intellect, the most flatter. sently make use of for ascertaining ing despotism over contemporary opithe extreme temperatures, and to cover nion-all have not been able to prethe bulbs of both with wet silk. The serve the inimitable Voltaire. In this whole four being adjusted, the two doom, those wretched sophists of the that are dry will stand higher than the present day, who would fáin attempt to others, in proportion to the dryness of lift the load of oppressing infamy from the air, and at the next period of ad- off the memory of Voltaire, find their justment the difference between the own living beings already entangled, maximum thermometers, reduced from “ fold above fold, inextricable coil.” Fahrenheit to the millesimal scale, will Well may they despair :-we can alshew the state of the hygrometerat, or at most pardon the bitterness of their disleast very near, the momentof the max- appointed malice. Their sentence was imum temperature, and the difference pronounced without hesitation, almost between the minimum ones will shew without pity-for there was nothing the state of the hygrometer at or near in them to redeem their evil. They the moment of the minimum tempera- derived no benefit from that natural, ture. It may happen that the results universal, and proper feeling, which thus obtained will not indicate the influences men to be slow in harshly, state of the hygrometer, at the precise or suddenly, or irrevocably condemning moment of the extreme heat and cold, intellects that bear upon them the but they must in general be so very stamp of power,—they had no part in near it, I conceive, that there will be that just spirit of respectfulness which no sensible error in supposing them to makes men to contemplate, with an be contemporaneous with these tem- unwilling and unsteady eye, the abperatures. I hope to be able, at no errations of genius. The brand of invery distant period, to carry my plan expiable execration was ready in a mointo effect. Meantime I remain, Sir, ment to scar their fronts, and they have your obedient servant, R. G. long wandered neglected about the January, 13th, 1819.

earth-perhaps saved from extinction, like the fratricide, by the very mark of their ignominy,

Mr Shelly is devoting his mind to the same pernicious purposes which

have recoiled in vengeance upon so A PERNICIOUS system of opinions con many of his contemporaries; but he cerning man and his moral government, possesses the qualities of a powerful

and vigorous intellect, and therefore * The Revolt of Islam; a poem, in his fate cannot be sealed so speedily as twelve cantos.

By Percy Bysshe Shelly. theirs. He also is of the “ COCKNEY London, C. and J, Ollier. 1818.

SCHOOL,” so far as his opinions are



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