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person bears, as high as the neck, thin house. At the time when their ships pieces of wood, images, and such like arrive in their haven, every one goes things. The

their out, and takes bread, flesh, leaves, and breasts with a case made of iron, cop- "palm wine (grape wine) with him ; per, silver, or gold, according to the and they proceed until they come to a means of their husbands. On each of long piece of a tree raised upright, these cases there is a ring, in which which has a face resembling that of a there is a knife, which is likewise fas, human being. Around this there are tened to the breast. Round their small images, and behind these long necks they wear silver and gold trees (pieces of wood) raised in the chains; for when the husband pos- ground. When one to the sesses 10,000 dirhems, he gets a chain large image, he falls down before it made for his wife; and if 20,000, and says, O Lord, I am come from two; and, in like manner, for every a far distant land, and bring girls that 10,000 dirhems the wife gets a new are so and so in the head, and marchain, so that some of them occasion- téns that are so and so in the skin. ally have a great number. The neck. He thus reckons up all his articles of laces, or ornaments of the women, are trade, and then says: 'Now I come made of the greenest shells (conche), to thee with this present (he then which are upon the shore. They have lays it down), between the hands of a great value for them, and pay a dir- (near to) the piece of wood. I wish hem for each of them, and thus they that thou wouldst provide me a mercompose their necklaces. The Rus- chant who has plenty of dinars (monsians are the dirtiest creatures God ey in gold); who will buy from me has created ;. they never wash the filth according to my terms, and will say from their heads,

nothing against any thing that I say.'

He then goes away; but in case his They live from

trade does not succeed favourably, and their lands, and moor their ships in the time appears too tedious, he rethe river Atel, which is a large river; turns with a second and third present. on the banks of which they build If his affairs should not yet succeed to large wooden houses. They meet fre- his wishes, he carries a present to one quently in one house, to the number of the small images, and entreats them of ten or twelve, more or less ; have for their intercession, saying, ' are not each of them a couch to sit upon, and these our Lord's sons and daughters ?' beside each there are girls that are He continues in this manner, subbeautiful, for «sale (so beautiful that missively and constantly, to call upon they might be sold).

and implore one image after the other,

until it once appears that he can disSometimes a great number of them pose of his goods to advantage. He collect together,

then says: Now has my Lord fulfilled my wishes ; I cannot therefore do better than reward him for it.' He then takes a number of cows and sheep, kills them, and gives away

a part of the Aesh in alms. He

Every morning lays down the remainder near the they regularly wash their faces and great piece of wood, and the smaller heads in the dirtiest and filthiest water ones surrounding it, and hangs the that can be found. A girl comes

heads of the cattle and sheep upon the every morning early with a large cask tree which is raised in the ground. of water, which she carries to her mas Next night the dogs come and eat the ter. He washes therein his face, flesh; but the person who had laid it hands, and hair, and then combs him- there, says : ‘My lord loves me, for self; blows his nose and spits into it; he has eaten my gift. in short, performs in it every possible “When one of them falls sick, they sort of uncleanliness. When he has erect a tent for him, lay him in it, finished, the girl carries the cask to and give him some bread and water; the person who is nearest to him, and but they never approach him them he does the same. She carries it, in selves, excepting once a-day, especially like manner, from one to the other, if he is a poor wretch, or a slave. if until she has brought it to all in the the sick person recovers, he returns


home; but if he dies, they burn him, fast) four supporters, of the chaling unless it be a slave, for such they and other trees, and around these aleave, without any ceremony, to be gain, wooden images of men and gidevoured by dogs and birds of prey. ants. They then drew it so far, so as

“ When they catch a thief or a to place it upon this wood (the four robber, they lead him to a large thick supporters). "They walked up and tree, bind a strong rope round his down, came and talked together in a neck, and strangle him by this cord, language I did not understand. The which at last falls to pieces by the dead person was in the back part of rain and the wind.

his grave, from which they did not I have said that they shewed great take him out, until an old woman regard for their chiefs after their death, came, whom they called Death's angel, of which the least instance was, that and placed herself upon the beforethey burned them. I wished to learn, something more accurately on this sub mentioned couch (s. mw). She unject, and at last I was informed that a derstood the sewing of the clothes that mighty man had just died, whom they were to be put upon the deceased chief, laid in his grave, and built a roof over and the preparations that should be for ten days, until they had finished made. It was her business also to cutting and sewing his clothes. If a kill the girl. She had the appearance poor man dies, they make for him a of a thick, yellow, wrinkled witch. small ship, place him in it, and set it When the men came to the grave, on fire. But the rich man's property which was near the pieces of wood, they collected together, and divided they took the body out and wrapped ly received the third; his clothes, it in the shirt ( 34;Y1) in which he which they cut, formed a third part; had died. I saw him ; he was black and for the remaining third they on account of the cold of the country. bought palm wine, which they drank They had placed by him in the grave, on the day when his girl killed her- palm wine, fruits, and a musical instruself, and was burnt along with her ment; now all this was taken out. As master. They are extremely addicted the body had not been in the least changto wine, which they drink day and ed except in colour, they put upon it night ; and it may easily happen that breeches, boots, a vest (waistcoat), and one of them may die with the glass in a warrior's cloak of embroidered work, his hand. When one of their chiefs with clasps of gold ; they farther placdies, the family asks his girls and fa- ed upon his head, and dressed him in vourites, whether any of them will die embroidered work with martens' skin, with him? if one of them answers yes, and carried him away in order to place it is necessary to do so, for it is no him in the tent, which was on the matter of indifference to them to mourn ship, in which they placed him on the

But if one of them will matrass, and drew him up upon the mourn for ever,

do so; and cushions. They now brought forward the greatest number that do this are the palm wine, fruits, and the fragrant girls. When, therefore, so eminent a herbs, which they placed beside him, personage died, they asked his girls and brought bread, flesh, and leaves, which of them would die with him. and placed them beside him; they One answered that she would. Her then brought a dog, which they cut in they committed to the care of two two pieces, and threw into the ship; girls, who watched her, and attended they brought afterwards all his weaher wherever she went, and sometimes pons, which they laid by his side. washed her feet with their hands. They now took two beasts of burden, The men now began to cut her clothes, which they caused to run until they and set in order whatever was neces were covered with perspiration; they sary; and the girl, in the meantime, then killed them with a sword, and lived every day in great joy, and de- cast the flesh into the ship. The girl lighted by drinking and singing. When who was to be killed came and went, the day arrived, on which he and the and at last entered one of their tents, girl were to be burnt, she went down where her comrade (friend, lover) laid to the river where the ship was. When himself beside her, saying to her, say it was drawn out of the river, they to thy master, I have done this most placed about it (that it might stand assuredly for love to thee.' When

for ever.

she may

Friday afternoon arrived, they brought rope, which she gave two men to pull. the girl to a thing which they con She then brought a large dagger cealed in the earth, resembling in the (knife), having a broad point, which mouth a milk pail. She placed her she thrust in between her ribs, and feet upon men's saddles, looked down then drew out. The two men sure upon the milk pail, and spoke to them. rounded her with the rope (drew it on They made her go down, then turned each side) until she was dead. The her face a second time, and she did as nearest of the men then approached the first time. The same took place with the dead bodies, took a piece of wood her the third time. They then gave her and set fire to it; then went backwards a hen, the head of which she cut off and to the ship with the firebrand in one cast away, but they took the body and hand, whilst the other lay upon his laid it in the ship. I asked the inter- back. He was naked whilst he set fire preter what she did ? He answered, to the wood, which was far under the * The first time she said, lo! I shall ship. The other men who were presee my father and mother; the second sent came immediately with wood and time, lo! I shall see all my deceased firebrands. Each had a piece of wood, relations; the third time, I shall see the end of which he lighted and then my master sitting in paradise, and par- threw it among the other wood. The adise is beautifully green, and with wood immediately caught fire, then him are men and young swains. He the ship, the tent, the man, girl, and calls me; go with me to him! They every thing in it. A most vehement went with her to the ship. She took wind then blew, so that the fire flamthe two bracelets which she had oned violently, and a large flame set the her arms and gave them to the woman whole in a blaze. À Russian was who was called Death's angel, and was standing by me, whom I heard conversthe person appointed to kill her; in ing with the interpreter, who stood by like manner, she took off her garters, him. I asked the interpreter what the and gave them to the two girls who other said ? He answered, that he had had watched her, and were the daugh- said, the associates of the Arabians ters of her who was called Death's an are certainly great fools, for you give gel, They then made her ascend the yourselves a great deal of trouble, that ship, but did not make her go into the man should love and honour you, and tent. The men came with shields and you throw him into the earth, where pieces of wood. They gave her a large worms and vermin devour him; but cup full of palm wine. She sang over we burn him in a moment, and he it, and drank it. The interpreter told goes into paradise instantaneously, and me, that she thereby took leave of her at once. He then laughed very hearti. comrades (female friends). Another ly, and said, “from love for him, his cup was then presented to her, which lord sends him a wind, which may she took, and sang a long time over. take him away speedily ;' and indeed, The old woman encouraged her to scarcely an hour had passed, before drink it off, and go in to the tent, the ship, the wood, the girl, and the where her master was. - I saw her; dead prince, were reduced to ashes. she appeared to be out of her senses They afterwards built over the place, from fright and agitation. In the mo- where the ship (which they had taken ment when she wished to go into the out of the river), lay, something retent, she placed her head between the sembling a round hill, erected in the tent and the ship. The old woman middle of it a large piece of a tree, laid hold of it, and dragged her into wrote upon it the name of the man the tent. One of the men went in and that of the Russian king, and with her, while they beat their shields went away.” with the pieces of wood, that the sound He says, likewise, “ that it is of her cries might not be heard, and a rule among the Russian kings, for lest other girls should be dispirited and each of them to have with them 400 frightened, and refuse to die with their of his bravest chiefs, in war and peace, masters. Six men then entered the men whom he can depend upon. tent, shewed great kindness to the girl, They die with his death (with him), laid her close to the side of her master, and fall next him. Each of them has and held fast both her hands and her with him a girl, that washes his head, feet, whilst the woman, called Death's and prepares every thing he eats and angel, fixed about her neck a twisted drinks; they have another to sleep VOL. IV.

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6. The coun

with. These 400 men sit under his the author of the geographical dictionthrone (couch), which is large and ary, extends from Andalusia and ornan ented with pearls. Beside him Tangier to the north, until opposite sit on the throne forty girls, whom he the country of the Slavi, and to the lies with, and he sometimes amuses north of this country there issues from himself with one of them, in presence it a large bay.” But towards the of the companions just mentioned. south reached to the Caspian sea, as He does not come down from his Cazwini expressly says. throne, and when he wishes to yield try of the Slavi,” says the same auto the necessities of nature, he does it thor, “ is large and widely extended in a cask ; when he wishes to ride, in the northern regions, having towns, they bring his beast (horse) to the villages, and arable land.

It has a throne, from which he mounts bin, sea of fresh water, flowing from west and when he wishes to dismount, he to cast (the Baltic); another river approaches so close to the throne, that flows on the side of Bulgaria. They he can dismount upon it. He has a have no salt sea, for their country is vice roy (successor), who leads his ar far removed from the sun. Upon this mies, fights his enemies, and is des sea are towns, provinces, and fortified tined to succeed him in the govern- places.” ment."

Thus unsatisfactory are the accounts “ I have copied all this from Ibn the Arabian geographers can give us Fodhelan's letter, with some few al- respecting that immense extent of terations and abbreviations. He must country, comprehended under the be responsible for the truth of what he name of the country of the Slavi. has related. God knows it it be true. Even Sherif Edrisi, although he knew -Now it is known that the Russians more of the north than any other Arabian are Christians.”

geographer, does not give us, on the We shall here refrain from making whole, a much better account. Ingeneany observations upon this relation, ral, the farther we proceed to the north, leaving it to the antiquarians of the the knowledge of the Arabians benorth; we shall only deduce from it comes more indeterminate and uninthe following results: the Russians, telligible, particularly as most of the or perhaps the principal people only names of the countries are either at among them, must have had, under present changed, or from the dissimithe Varigians, no small resemblance larity of the languages, and different to our forefathers in religion and cus- pronunciation, cannot be recognised, toms; the Arabians must have visited so that we wander, as it were, in the Russia, in such a degree, as to have dark, whilst we search for similar gained a considerable acquaintance names in the farthest north, and frewith the nation, and to have been ac- quently have a difficulty of knowing customed to see them; the Russians in what country we are. Neverthea received commodities from the south less, however obscure the accounts of Asia, traded upon the Volga (if may be, which the Oriental geograthe Baltic or White Sea be not here phers can give us of the north, it canmeant), and sold girls, martens, &c. not be uninteresting to be acquainted to the southern nations.

with them. Cazwini, Edrisi, and AbTo the west and south-west the darrahman Yacuti (according to De Russians were surrounded by the Guignie), shall be our guides in this Slavi, whose country was three months' intricate path. We shall commence, journey in extent. They inhabited, from the east, with that wonderful according to the Arabian geographers, people Yajouge and Majouge, whom the present Poland, Prussia, the north the Arabs have placed in northern Sieastern part of Germany, as far as beria. Since Cazwini is, at all times, the Baltic, which countries were, by extremely inclined to enlarge upon all the ancients, called Sarmatia, a name kinds of fabulous narrations, it is not to which does not occur in history after be wondered at, that he avails himself the year 471; and the inhabitants were of this opportunity of exalting the afterwards called by the general name credibility of the Koran. We shall of Sclavi or Slavi. The country of here adduce the most important of his the Slavi, on the north, did not reach

“ the mountain that surthe ocean, but to a large bay of it rounds Yajouge and Majouge, and (the Baltic), for “ the ocean,” says called Carnana, has its sides so steep


and precipitous, that no one can as districts where there is constant snow cend it. Deep and thick snow, which and rain.” never diminishes, lies upon its sum “ It is reported, that the interpreter mit, on which grow plants that never (dragoman), Salam, who understood fail. It extends itself from the sea of more than forty languages, travelled darkness to the remotestinhabited land; so far, that he saw the wall. The but no one is able to ascend it. Be- princeof the faithful, Al-Vattek-billah, hind this mountain, dwell an innu, chalif of the race of the Abbessidæ, merable multitude, Yajouge and Ma- sent a message to him, desiring him to jouge. Upon the mountain there are travel thither to see the wall, and acvery large serpents and lizards. Some- curately to inform him in what mantimes fire ascends from this moun ner it was built. He travelled, and tain. He who will see what lies be- returned after an absence of two years yond it, neither comes to it, nor can and four months, and reported tha return, but perishes. Sometimes out he and his companions travelled until of a thousand one returns, who tells, they came to the lord of the throne that he saw, on the other side of the (Sarir) with the letter from the prince mountain, a large fire. It is said, of the faithful. He received it very that Yajouge and Majouge were full graciously, and gave them a guide. brothers, who made marauding expe- They went on, until they came to the ditions to plunder their neighbours borders of the country of Sahrat (the before the arrival of Alexander. They country of the fascinators), and thence plundered many countries, and de- to a very extensive country, where stroyed many men, who were not on there was an abominable smell. They their guard. Yet there was & portion of passed over this in the space of ten them, who refrained from what was days. They carried with them someforbidden, and were displeased with thing to smell, in order to prevent the the conduct of the others. When the bad consequences of the smell of the two-horned (Alexander) came to them country, which attacked the heart. with his army, those who had refrain. They 'hastened therefore from this ed from acting unjustly complained country, and came to the land of Chaof Yajouge and Majouge, and of the rab (Destruction), where no sound injury they had done to the countries was heard, or any human being seen and their neighbours, and said, that for a month's journey. They thence they were opposed to their party, and went to the fortifications near the barwished to be delivered from their in- rier mountain (obex). The inhabijustice. Many tribes, likewise, gave tants of these castles spoke Arabic and testimony in favour of them. Alex- Persian ; and there was a large town, ander heard their prayer, caused them whose king's name was Chakan Atato remove out of the mountain, and kosh. These people asked how we pointed out to them a land to dwell did. We mentioned to them, that

These people were, Alcharchalih, the prince of the faithful, the chalif, Albanisih, Charchirih, Alboghazghih, had sent us in order to examine the Alkaimakih, Algaidgianih, Alatcos, wall, and bring him back a descripAtlurcos, Alhakshah, Alshalick, Al- tion of it. The king, and they who ghuz, Albulgar, and many others, too were with him, were astonished, when numerous to be here described. He they heard us speak of the prince of then raised a wall, (obex) to repress the faithful and the chalif, of whom the disorderly. These people were they knew nothing. The wall was very small; none of them was higher two parasangs distant from this town. than three spans. Their face was very We and some others, whom they had large in circumference ; their hair rea given us as companions, travelled thisembled the down that grows about ther, until we came to a pass between the mouth (lanugo); their ears were two large mountains, which was 150 round, and so long, that they fell down ells in breadth, in which was a gate of upon their shoulders. Their colours iron 150 ells long, provided with two are white and red; their voice is weak, pillars, each 25 ells broad and 150 and the mouth amazingly large and long. On these rested a cross-bar of wide. Their country abounds in trees, iron, 160 ells long. Over this crosswater, fruits, the necessaries of life, bar were two battlements (pinne) of and four footed beasts, excepting those iron, and on each side of these two


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