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nished in the least, on account of its as well upon the east and west as the steady supply and wide extension. north side of the Caspian sea, were When it falls into the sea, it preserves very early converted to Mohammedanits stream, for two days, distinct from ism. Cazwini relates, in the chapter it, but finally blends itself with it. It upon celebrated rivers, that the Arais frozen in winter, and its waters are bian Chalif Moctadir sent Ahmed Ben fresh.” Yacuti, in his Geographical Fodhalan as ambassador to the king of Dictionary, describes thus the course the Bulgarians. Faran in Tartary was of the Atel. “ There is no doubt re- the native country of the celebrated specting the magnitude and length of philosopher and musician Abunasr the Atel. It comes from the farthest Mohammed Ben Ahmed Tharchan, south (?), traverses Bulgaria, Russia, who was killed in Syria by robbers, and Chazaria, and flows into the sea A. D. 956 (A. H. 345). Besides him, Mergan. Merchants go up this river mention is made of two other distins as far as Uaisu, and bring thence, as guished men, who were born in the articles of sale, martins, sables, and country of the Moguls, and subsesquirrels. It is said that it comes out quently settled among the Arabians. of the country Charchir, and passes Cazwini informs us, that the Chalif between the two countries Kaimakia Alvatek Billah (who died A. D. 747, and Ghuzia, between which it forms A. H. 232) sent Salam, an interpreter, the boundary. It thence proceeds who was acquainted with forty lanwestward to Bulgaria, then in a con guages, to Yajuge and Majuge, that trary direction (to the east, or rather he might obtain information concernsouth-east), to Bertas and Chazaria, ing the character and condition of that until it empties itself into the Chaza- wonderful people, and the nature of rian sea. It is reported, that ten rivers the wall. (The interpreter gave him flow into the Atel,” &c. (The rest the information required, but it is very agrees with Cazwini's account.) That dubious whether it be true. I shall this great river must have considerably afterwards continue the whole account facilitated the communication between according to the MS.) Lastly, this the countries through which it flows, circumstance must be taken into conis so evident, that it requires no ex- sideration, that, according to the tesplanation.

timony of travellers, Arabian antiquiWhen voyagers, then, had had the ties and coins are frequently found in good fortune to reach the poșthern Russia. Strahlenberg (in his Beschriecoast of the Caspian sea, which could bung des Russischen Reichs, p. 316) be very easily effected if they waited speaks of a metallic medal, with an for the favourable wind, which blew ancient Cufic inscription, which was there regularly for a whole month, found among the Ostiacks, near Sathey were in the land of the Chaza- varoff. At Kafimov, near Oka, there rians. They there unleaded their is among the ruins a mosque, and in a merchandise, whether that consisted burying-ground a mausoleum, with an of dates and southern fruits from the Arabic inscription. At Tcherdyn, the

Persian provinces, or spices and per- old commercial town in Biarmeland, fumes from India, fine wines, linen, Arabic coins are frequently dug up. cotton, or silk cloths, ornaments of (Strahlenberg, p. 103.) Pallas informs pearls and precious stones, and other us, that not far from Simbirsk, on the articles of commerce, which the happy left side of the Wolga, where the caland of Persia either produces or ma- pital and staple city of Bulgarians nufactures. There is no doubt that was, there are still found in our times the commercial voyages over the Cas a great number of sepulchral monupian were numerous, and much more ments and silver coins, with inscripconsiderable than at present; and this tions in Cufic and in the modern is confirmed by the testimony of Arabic character. It is well known Edrisi and Ibn Haucal. There are, that many similar remains have been besides, many circumstances which found among us in the north. We lead to the conclusion, that, during shall afterwards speak more at large the time of the Chalifat, there existed on this subject. an extensive connexion and commerce On the northern and north western between the Mohammedans and the shores of the Caspian sea dwelt the porthern people.

Chazarians in the middle ages, a peoA great number of Tartar hordes, ple so great and powerful, that the


Arabians called that sea after them. (Chazaria), and refer the people to the It is probable that they removed Turkish race. Yacuti, according to thither in the first centuries of our Deguignes, informs us, that there are era, from the east; and after they had two nations, the one white, the other shaken off the dominion of the Hunns, white or red; that they have market extended themselves to the countries places and baths, and dwell on the bordering upon the Caspian Sea, and banks of the Abel; and that there are to the Crimea, by which means they among them Mahommedans, Jews, formed a connection with the Greek Christians, and Pagans. Ibn Haucal Emperors. According to the testi- says, that the king himself and his mony of Jornandes, they penetrated principal attendants are Jews, although far into Russia and Poland, and in these form the smallest part of the in, the sixth century carried on war a- habitants. Their capital was, accord. gainst the Danish king Frode, which ing to the same author, Samander, a circumstance, provided it be true, fair city, formerly large, and very awhich we cannot in this place deter- bundant in vineyards, but now laid mine, since the Arabian writers make waste by the Russians. Samander lay no mention of any thing of the kind, four days journey between populous would appear to show, that the Scan- towns, or twenty-four miles from Derdinavians and southern Russians had bend, and seven days journey from the an early connection with one maritime and commercial city Atel, ther. In the same century Chosroes the present Astracan. This ast is Anushirvan built, as we have already made the capital by Edrisi, who resaid, a great number of fortresses in lates of it, that it is composed of two Caucasus, and established a viceroy in well inhabited towns, lying on each Shirwan, to protect the country a side of the river, which derives its gainst the incursion of the Chazarians, name from it. The king resides on whence it appears that this country the west side of the river; the merextended itself to Derbend and Shir- chants and the common people dwell wan. In the seventh, eighth, and on the other. The town is nearly ninth centuries the Chazarians were three miles in length. Cazwini says in their highest degree of prosperity of it in his introduction, that Atelis They were so powerful, that they fre- an ancient race called after their river, quently rendered assistance to the which flows into this sea (the CasGreek Emperors against their enemies, pian); their city is likewise called and these, in return, procured the Atel. They have not much to live conversion of many of them to Chris- upon, and lead a miserable life (for tianity; they even commenced war they lived in a barren soil.) This against the Chalif Abdolarelek, but small province lay between Chazaria, being unsuccessful in the contest, Albachyakih, and Derbend ; and in many of them were obliged to embrace the succeeding part of the description Mahommedanism. They continued, he makes this remarkable addition, nevertheless, at different times, most that most of the houses were move frequently, in conjunction with the able felt-huts; from which it appears, Greek Emperors, to make war upon that the Chazarians lived as the prethe Chalits, who were enemies alike sent Tartar tribes in Russia, and had dangerous to them both. In the eighth the same kind of habitations as the century their king Bela, with a great Nogay nomadic tribes, the Bashkirs, number of his subjects, was converted and most of the others make use of at to Judaism ; but this fact rests only present. It is not therefore to be wonupon the authority of the fabulous dered at, that the city Atel or AstraRabbinical book Cosri, which Buxtorf can was three miles in length. Comedited. After the tenth century their merce has now made Astracan a fine power gradually declined, until the and regular city, and the Tartars of Moguls made themselves masters of Astracan, and likewise of Casan, have their country in the thirteenth cen ceased to dwell in yowrts, and build tury.

regular houses of stone or wood. Ibn The Arabian geographers call the Haucal relates, that near Atel there country on both sides of the Volga and were many tents, and in the adjacent between Bulgaria, the Caspian Sea, and country only a few houses of clay, such the territory of Derbend, Alchazr as baazars (market-places), and bath

ing houses. The king himself inhabite martins, the skins of which are made ed a stone house, which was the only into fur garments. The night (in one in the country.

summer) is very short, and continues Balangar, another city, which, be- only about an hour. Cazwini also sides Samander and others, was built speaks of a province of Chazaria, by Chosru, lay in longitude 85° 20', which lay along the Volga. He calls in latitude 46° 30', according to the it Borthas, and gives the following tables of Nascereddin of Toos, and description of it: “ Borthas is a long was also a residence of the king of the country to the extent of fifteen days' Chazarians. Sarai, a large commer- journey. The people are the Tehamcial town upon the Volga, for mer istes (inhabitants of the coast) of the chants and Turkish slaves, was situ- Chazarians. Their houses are moveable ated about two days journey from the huts of felt. The river Borthas comes Caspian Sea, towards the north, and from Albogazgaz, and on each side of had that sea to the south east of it. it are many inhabited and cultivated It was the residence of the Chan of the places. From the country of Borthas Uzbeck Tartars.

are exported many black fox-skins, Ibn Haucal mentions a town named which derive their name from it.Asnud, which had so many gardens, Masudi says, that black skins are that from Derbend to Sarir the whole brought thence to the value of 1000 country was covered with pleasure dinars. He adds, in conclusion, that grounds belonging to it. They were there is in Chazaria a mountain called said to have amounted to 40,000, and Batsrack, the direction of which is many of them produced grapes. In from the south to the north, which has this town there were many Mahom- in it silver and lead mines. Lastly, medans ; there were mosques in it, Nasireddin makes mention of a comand the houses were built of wood. mercial and staple town called AbusThe king was a Jew, who maintained kun, lying in longitude 89° 30', latia good understanding with the Chaza tude 37° 15', in the fourth climate. rians, and was on good terms with the To discover the precise situation of Prince of Sarir. The distance of this all these places appears to be extremetown from Sarir was two parasangs. ly difficult, or nearly impossible. One (It must have been directly north from hord dislodged another; some, from difDerbend.)

ferent causes, chose spontaneously other Abdarrashid Yacuti mentions like habitations; and tracts of country, by wise the town of Saksin, and describes this means, frequently changed their it thus: “It is a large town in Chazaria, names. The towns were generally of in longitude 86° 30', in latitude 43° 5'. as moveable a nature as the hordes The inhabitants, who are principally that inhabited them. They either Mahommedans, are divided into forty took to pieces their houses of felt, or tribes. They travel and carry on when they were obliged to preserve trade. The cold there is very intense. them entire for the sake of a covering, The roofs of their houses are of pine- they carried them away with them uptree. There is a river larger than the on a waggon, and the city vanished. Tigris, in which all sorts of fish The situation of such places could not are caught, and among others, one of easily be found again, unless it had the weight of a camel, from which been particularly recorded or preservthey extract a great deal of fat, and ed by report, where they lay, or any burn in lamps ; the flesh is tender. conclusion could be drawn from any This river is closed in winter, so that considerable ruins or antiquities found men may pass over it.

in them. The same author mentions likewise Thus it was, that two hordes of another part of Chazaria, which lay a Finnish race, the Biarmer and the Sirlong the Volga, and was called Borkas. janer, who dwelt on the western side The inhabitants are Mohammedans, of Ural in Great Permia, forsook, in and have a language of their own, the year 1372, their abodes in that which distinguishes them from all mild region, for fear that Bishop Steother people. Their houses are of phanus should convert them, and rewood. In these they dwell in winter, moved to a cold northern region near but in summer they disperse them- the river Ob. These Biarmer, Berasselves over the pasture lands. There are mier, or ancient Permiacks and Sirjaamong them beautiful foxes and red ner were, when they dwelt in Permia, VOL. IV.

2 P

very celebrated for their trade with the not describe it at all. The country of Persians and the kingdoin of the great the Kaimakians must have been exMogul. Merchandise was brought up tensive, as Edrisi (in the 7th part of the Volga and Cama from Balgaria to the 6th climate) says, that “the easTcherdyn, the ancient commercial tern branch of the river Atel flows out town on the Kolva. The Biarmer from the region of Carchir, between went with the commodities of south- Kaimakia and the country of the Ghuem Asia and their own to Petshora and zians, and divides these from one anothe frozen ocean, and received in ex- ther;" and, in another place, he says, change for them furs for the inhabi- that “ Kaimak has on the south, Bagtants of southern Asia. They met harghar, to the south-west, Chazalgin, there the Scandinavians, who sailed to to the west, the Chalachitians, and on Biarmeland, i.e. Permia, or Archangel. the east, the dark sea (the ocean).” It The ruins of towns that previously must, therefore, have extended itself existed in that northern region bear from the Volga or Cama towards the testimony to the ancient_flourishing east, over the whole of Siberia, as far as state of the inhabitants. Every where the ocean. This amazing extent, how, in the provinces of Astracan, Casan, ever, is considerably diminished, when Orenburg, Ural, Tobolsk, and else we consider, that the Arabians had no where, where those of Tartar extrac- acquaintance whatever with the northtion inhabit, are found the traces of eastern part of Asia, and had never ditches and walls of larger and smaller navigated that sea. They assigned, towns, that formerly existed, of castles therefore, the place of the sea to the and encampments, for instance, at interior of the continent. This is eKasinor on the Oka, near Astracan, vident also from the account of Yacuand higher up at Zarizyn, where there ti, in the preface to his geographical are upon the western side of the Vol- dictionary, where he says,

on the ga the ruins and walls of a large town, farther side of the country of the Bulverhaps of Saria. Farther, the ruins garians the direction of the sea is turne of the two Balgarian towns, and of the ed to the east, and between its shore famous city of Majar on Caucasus, and the remotest country of the Turks, are still standing. At Oufa there is a there are countries and inountains that burial ground, in which there is a great are quite unknown, being desert and number of tomb-stones,and some tombs unfruitful.” The assertion of Cazwi. built of stone. The inhabitants attri- ni in his introduction, when he speaks bute these to a people that dwelt there of the boundaries of Dailam (Ghilam), long before the Russian dominion, and that this country is conterminous with were quite different from the Bash- Kaimakia, does not seem to accord with kirs. In the vicinity of Oufa are seen this determination of the situation of two mosques built of brick, together Kaimakia; but it may be said, on the with many tomb-stones, on which are other hand, that this may be someArabic inscriptions. There are like thing related according to the authoriwise remains of great walls and strong ty of an older writer ; for an acquaintfortifications (Pallas Reise, vol. 2. p. ance with the Arabian geographers 10). Finally, considerable ruins of shows, that their usual method was, in large towns, and numerous sepulchres, order to give a more complete account, have been found at Irtish, near Tob- to copy from their ancient and modern olsk, at Baraba, at the mouth of the predecessors every thing that occurred river Ural, and especially in the Kirg- to them, whether it belonged to their hisian Steppe.

own times or not. At all events, we To the east of the Chazarians, the may easily suppose, that a number Arabian geographers place the Uzians, of people (perhaps the present Calwhose country, according to Cazwini, mucks) inay have, some time or other, lay between the Chazarians (to the been separated from the rest of their west), Chazalgih (to the east), Bulga- tribe and transplanted thither.—But ria (to the north-west), and Caimal we return to the Uzians. (Jar). What country this (Cai

This people was of Hunnish extracmal) is, 'I cannot discover ; but it tion, like the Turks, the Chazarians, ought undoubtedly to be read Kaimak bited first the country of the Cal

and Turcomans; they probably inha(sms), for, although Cazwini mucks, and

thence removed to the has mentioned it once before, he does mountains between the lesser Bucha

ria and the countries on the farther of the fifth climate) says nearly the side of the Oxus. They afterwards, same, but is more copious. He speaks, in conjunction with the Chazarians, as among other things, of the places Hywe are informed by the Byzantine wri- am and Giagan, situated upon the naters, expelled the Patzinacæ from the vigable river Rudha, which came from Yaik and the Volga, and stationed the east. He farther adds, that there themselves in their country. The were in the woods many beavers with Uzians are the same as the Chuzi of beautiful skins and fine hair, which the Arabians. They were bounded by were very dear, and that many of them the Chazarians on the west, by the ri- were caught and carried to the counver Yaik on the east, and extended tries of Roum and Armenia (over the towards the south (perhaps) as far as Caspian sea). the Caspian sea, and on the north-west According to the situation given to the to Bulgaria. They must have extend- country of the Uzians,it cannot be doubted far to the north, but how far can- ed but that they dwelt (nearly where not easily be determined. About the the Bashkirs are now found, namely, twelfth century they must have either in the government of Orenburg) about removed from their country between the river Balaya, between the Kama, the Volga and the Yaik, or have, at Volga, and Ural, in the southern part the same time, extended their power of the Ural chain of mountains; which as far as the Don, and farther to the district is now described as equally awest, as, at that time, they were found bounding in woods, metals, and fish, living there. The Moguls, at length, as the Arabians have represented the in the thirteenth century, deprived land of the old Uzians. This appears them of their national existence. Pro- to be confirmed by this remarkable bably, however, they were not entire- circumstance, that Edrisi (in the sely made extinct, for Güldenstedt con- venth part of the seventh climate) ceives, that the Ossetians, a small tribe speaks of a country called Basgiret, on Mount Caucasus, to the south of which extended itself far to the north, the great Kabasda, are the remnant of and was separated from Uzia by the the Uzians or Polovzians, who fled lofty snow covered mountain Morghan thither, when they were defeated by (or, as he calls it, Morghar), a branch the Russians in the year 1110. of the Ural chain, before mentioned.

Cazwini gives the following descrip- He adds, that in the remotest part of tion of the country of the Uzians: Basgiret there are two towns, Masira “ The country of the Uzians lies to and Casira, small places which merthe west of the country of Alodcosh chants seldom visit, for no one dares to


is widely extended, go to them, for the inhabitants kill all and has a cultivated country near it strangers. These two towns lie upon

a river which flows into the Atel. on the east, north and west. It possesses mountains that are difficult to by the Arabian geographers, another

To the east of the Uzians are placed, ascend, upon which there are great race of men called Alodcosh, who, as fortresses. There flows down to them Cazwini reports, were a kind of Turks (from the north) from the mountain (of the Turkish or Tartar branch), Morghan (one of the Ural mountains) with broad faces, large heads, small a river, in which is frequently found great quantities of gold dust, and from eyes, and thick hair. Their country whose bottom is often drawn the lapis advantages, and abundant means of

is wide and broad, and possesses many lazuli (blue Sapphire). In the woods

subsistence. It is bounded on the there is a great deal of pure gold (or west by the country of the Uzians. more properly, many beavers *), and foxes as yellow as gold. From these They have a vast number of four-footthe kings of this country derive their and great abundance of milk and hon

ed animals (horses, cows, and sheep), furs, which are very costly; and they allow no one to export them to any has often a difficulty in finding people

ey ; and when a man kills a sheep, he other country, but punish most severe

to eat it. Their principal food is horse ly, upon discovery, those who are found to have done so secretly." Thus flesh, and their principal beverage far Cazwini. Edrisi (in the eight part

mare's milk.

From what has been adduced, it

appears, that this horde must have * The transcriber has made a mistake here. been, like the restless and warlike


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