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no more in fashion, and will be still nians to assist him by mutual consultless while the least vicious of these ation, was looking on the port and cimen preserve only one principle which tadel of Munychia, considering it a they call honour;-a principle which while, he turned to his companion, exonly keeps them from not doing what claiming, “ How blind is man to fue they deem a low action, while they turity! For, did the Athenians foresee openly laugh at the love of country, what mischief this will do their city, ridicule those who are zealous for pub- they would even eat it with their own lic ends-and when a well-intentioned teeth to get rid of it;" a prediction man asks what will become of their verified more than two hundred years posterity? They reply, “ Then, as afterwards. A similar prescient view Now!" But it may happen to these was conceived by Thales, when he persons themselves to endure those evils desired to be buried in an obscure which they believe are reserved for others. quarter of Milesia, observing, that that If this epidemical and intellectual dis- very spot would in time be the Forum order could be corrected, whose bad of the Milesians. effects are already visible, those evils The same genius displayed itself in might still be prevented; but if it Charlemagne. As this mighty soveproceeds in growth, Providence will reign was standing at the window of a correct man by the very revolution castle by the sea-side, observing a Norwhich must spring from it. Whatever man fleet preparing to make a descent, may happen indeed, all must turn out tears started in the eyes of the aged as usual for the best in general at the monarch, and he exclaimed, “ If they end of the account; although this dare to threaten my dominions while cannot happen without the punishment I am yet living, what will they do of those who contribute even to general when I shall be no more !" a melangood by their evil actions.Leibnitz, choly prediction of their subsequent in the seventeenth century, foresaw incursions, and the protracted miseries what occurred in the eighteenth. The of the French nation during a century. passage reads like a prophetic inspira Erasmus, when at Canterbury, be tion, verified in the history of the actors fore the tomb of Becket, observing it in the late revolution, while the result, loaded with a vast profusion of jewels, according to Leibnitz's own exhilara- wished that those had been distributed ting system of optimism, is an educ- among the poor, and that the shritre tion of good from evil. Did not Rous- had been only adorned with boughs seau predict the convulsions of modern and flowers : For, said he," those wito Europe, while he so vividly foresaw have heaped up all that mass of treathe French revolution, that he serious- sure, will one day be plundered, and ly advised the higher classes of society fall a prey to those who are in power;" to have their children taught some use

a prediction literally fulfilled about ful trade ? This notion was highly ri- twenty years after it was made. The diculed on the first appearance of the unknown author of the Visions of Emile, but at its hour the truth struck. Piers Ploughman, who wrote in the He too foresaw the horrors of that re- reign of Edward III., surprised the volution, for he announced that Emile world by a famous prediction of the designed to emigrate, because, from the fall of the religious houses from the moral state of the people, a virtuous hand of a king. The event was rerevolution had become impossible. alised two hundred years afterwards,

Unquestionably there have been men in the reign of Henry VIII. The proof such political sagacity, that they have testant writers have not scrupled to anticipated events which have some- declare, that in this instance he was times required centuries to achieve; “divino numine afflatus.” But prethey have detected that principle in the diction is not inspiration; the one dark mystery of its gerin, which time may be wrought out by man, the other only could develope to others. comes from God. The same principle

When Solon, accompanied by Epic which led Erasmus to predict, that menides, who was sent by the Athe those who were “ in power” would

destroy the rich shrine, because no about the year 1700, household words with us.

other class of men in society were equal Leibnitz was struck by their significance, to mate with one so mighty as the and it might now puzzle us to find syno- monks, conducted the author of Piers nyms,

Ploughman to the same conclusion

and since power only could accomplish This strikingly appears in a little cuthat great purpose, he fixed on the rious yolume, entitled, “ Essai sur highest as the most likely; and the l’Histoire de la Reyolution Françoise, wise prediction was, so long after, li- par une Societé d'Auteurs Lạtins *." terally accomplished.

This “ Society of Latin Authors,” This spirit of foresight, in contem- who have so inimitably written the hiss plative minds, was evinced by our great tory of the French revolution, consists antiquary Dugdale. In 1641 he an, of the Roman historians themselves ! ticipated the scene which was preparing By extracts ingeniously applied, the to open, in the destruction of our an events of that melancholy period are cient monuments in cathedral churches. so appositely described, indeed so mi. He then hastened his zealous itinerant nutely detailed, that they will not fail labours, of taking draughts, and co to surprise those who are not accuspying inscriptions, to preserve them tomed to detect the perpetual parallels for future and better times." And which we meet in philosophical history. thus it was, that, conducted by his Many of these crisises in history are prescient spirit, posterity owes to Dug- close resemblances of each other. Comdale the ancient monuments of Eng- pare the history of “ the League,” in land. The next age will instruct it. French history, with that of our own self with the history of ours, as we do civil wars; we are struck by the simiby that of the last. Involved amid the lar occurrences, performed by the same most rapid reverses, those who only political characters which played their draw from the surface of history the part on both those great theatres of volatile pleasure of a romantic tale, or human action. A satirical royalist of deaden all its living facts by the tor- those times has commemorated the pedo touch of chronological antiqua- motives, the incidents, and the personrianism, will not easily comprehend ages, and has produced a Hudibras in the principles which terminate in cer prose. The author of the “ Satire tain political events, nor the characters Menippée de la Vertu du Catholicon among mankind who are the usual d'Espagne," discovers all the bitter riactors in those scenes. . The thing dicule of Butler, in his ludicrous and that hath been, is that which shall be. seyere exhibition of the “ Etats de The heart of man beats on the same Paris," while the artist who designed eternal springs. Whether he paces, or the satirical prints, becomes no conwhether he flies, his reasoning un- temptible Hogarth. So much are these reasonable being cannot escape out of public events alike, in their general the march of human thought and hu- spirit and termination, that they have inan passions. Thus we discover how, afforded the subject of a curious voz in the most extraordinary revolutions, lume, entitled, “ Essai sur les Revothe time and the place only have lutionst;" the whole work was modelchanged. Even when events are not led on this principle.

" It would be strictly parallel, the conducting prin- possible,” says that eloquent writer, ciples are the same.

to frame a table, or chart, in which When the French revolution recalled all the given imaginable events of the our attention to our own, the neglected history of a people would be reduced volumes which preserved the public and to a mathematical exactness.” The private history of qur Charles I. and conception is fanciful, but it is foundCromwell, were collected with eagered on truth. He who judges of the curiosity. How often the scene exist- present by the parallels which the past ing before us, nay the very personages furnishes, has one source opened to him themselves, opened on us in those for- of a knowledge of the future. We find gotten pages. But as the annals of how minds of large comprehension have human nature did not commence with been noticed for possessing this faculty those of Charles I., we took a still of prediction. Cornelius Nepos relates of more retrograde step; and it was discovered, in this wider range, that, in

Published at Paris 1801. the various governments Gre and † An extraordinary work, which soon Rome, the events of those times had sold, in the reprinting has suffered many been only reproduced. Among them castrations. It was printed here as a first the same principles had terminated in ed. I read with some surprise the single

volume, but probably remained unpublish.. the same results, and the same per- copy which was said to haye been saved from sonages had figured in the same drama. the entire editiori.

66

Cicero, that heremarkably exercised this wrote a history of the conspiracy of political prescience, so that, with him, Fiesco, with such vehement admiration it seemed a kind of divination ; for Ci- of his hero, that the Italian politician cero “ not only foretold events which having read it, predicted that the young happened in his own time, but had author would be one of the most turalso prophesied what has occurred in bulent spirits of the age. The father these days.” There is a remarkable ex- of Marshal Biron, even amid the glory pression employed by Thucydides, in of his son, discovered the cloud which his character of Themistocles, of which was to obscure it, invisible to other the following is given as a close trans men: Biron,” said he, “ I advise lation : “ By a species of sagacity pe- thee, when peace takes place, to go and culiarly his own, for which he was in plant cabbages in thy garden, otherno degree indebted either to early edu- wise I warn thee thou wilt lose thy cation or after study, he was superemi- head on a scaffold." The future chanently happy in forming a prompt judg- racter of Cromwell was apparent to two ment in matters that admitted but little of our great politicians: "This coarse, time for deliberation ; at the same time unpromising young man,” said Lord that he far surpassed all, in his deduc- Falkland, pointing to Cromwell, “will tions of the FUTURE, from the past;" be the first person in the kingdom, if or was the best guesser of the future the nation comes to blows." And Archfrom the past *. And assuredly our bishop Williams, on a visit Charles I. country has witnessed, among her ile paid him, told the king confidentially, lustrious men, many a rival in predice that “ there was that in Cromwell tion with Themistocles. Burke, Pitt, which forbode something dangerous ; and a noble statesman yet living, were and wished his Majesty would either often endowed with the faculty of po- win him over to him or get him taken, litical vaticination. The instances are off.” numerous and familiar. The eloquence Such are the facts which may estaof Burke is often oracular ; a speech of blish the existence of a faculty of forer Pitt, in 1800, painted the state of Eu- sight and vaticination possessed by rope, as it was only realised fifteen some great minds, which seems yet to years afterwards.

The Marquis of want a denomination ; yet this may Wellesley's incomparable character of be supplied to us; for the writer of the Bonaparte predicted his fall when high- life of Sir Thomas Brown, in claimest in his glory; that great statesman ing the honour of it for that philosothen poured forth the sublime language pher, mysteriously shadows out someof philosophical prophecy: "His eager. thing which he calls "The Stochastic," ness of power is so inordinate-his jea- or the faculty of political prediction, lousy of independence so fierce-his a term derived from the Greek, signikeenness of appetite so feverish in all fying “ shooting at a mark.” Sir that touched his ambition, even in the Thomas, it seems, was this intellectual most trifling things, that he must archer who then hit the white; for he plunge into desperate difficulties. He says, “ Though he were no prophet, is one of an order of minds that, by yet in that faculty which comes nearnature, make for themselves great re est to it, he excelled, i. e. the Stochas

Such are the statesmen of tic, wherein he was seldom mistaken genius : prescient moralists! who so as to future events, as well public, as happily succeed in their predictions of private." the fortune and the character of famous Aristotle, who collected all the cuindividuals. The revolutionary cha- rious knowledge of his times, affords racter of Cardinal de Retz was detected, us some remarkable opinions on this by the sagacity of Cardinal Mazarine, art of Divination. The passage is in even in the youth of de Retz. He then that “ Magazine of intellectual riches,".

as Mr Coppleston calls his “Rhetoric." A critical friend, who supplies me with The Stagyrite details the various subthis version, would have the original placed terfuges practised by the pretended diunder the eye of the learned reader. Οικεία γαρ ξυνεσει, και ούτε προμαξών ες αυτήν

vinors of his day, who found it much ουδεν, ούτ' επιμαθων, των τε παραχρήμα ή easier to say that such a thing would ελαχίστης βουλής κράτιστος γνώμων, και των happen, than to mark the time when μελλόντων επιπλϊστον του γενησομένου αριστος it is to happen. . They are never cirεικαστής. THUCYDIDES, Lib. 1. cumstantial, and, in all they predict,

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Bella, horrida bella,
Et Tybrim multo spumantem sanguinecerno.
Or, as honest Withers says of himself,

HECTOR MACNEILL was descended in a dark lanthrene offering a dim discovery on riddles and semi-riddles, sessed, for some centuries, a small he

from a respectable family, who posa &c., intermixed with cautions, remembrances, predictions,” &c.

reditary estate in the southernmost dis

trict of Argyllshire. His father, after And I perhaps among them may be several vicissitudes of fortune, obtain

ed a company in the 42d regiment of That was let loose for service to be done, Scotch Highlanders, with whom he In order to such kinds (as I believe

served several severe campaigns in I am, and when I'm gone, some will Flanders. Having been seized with a perceive,

dangerous pulmonary complaint, he Though none observe it now), I blunder out what worldly-prudent men

disposed of his commission, and retired Count madnesse.

with a wife and two children, to that

beautiful residence, Rosebank, near Human prediction must be for ever Roslin, where, on the 22d of October separated from divine prophecy; there 1946, the subject of this memoir was is nothing supernatural in the pre- born, who, to use his own words, “ science we are asserting; and Socra- midst the murmur of streams, and the tes, though he cajoled his heathens, shades of Hawthornden, may be said with the story of his “ Demon," was to have inhaled with life the atmosa great predictor.

phere of a poet.” The present contemplation of the

Captain Macneill possessed all the future, with the statesman or the generosity of a soldier, and all the hosphilosopher, is entirely derived from pitality of a Highlander, so that, in no that of the past, which includes the long time, he found himself in cirhistory of the present. An intimate cumstances somewhat embarrassed, and familiarity with the past, combined was forced to sell the delightful spot with natural sagacity and our own ex to which he had become most strongly perience, will be sufficient to form a attached. He then retired to a farm great predictor in human affairs. This on the banks of Loch Lomond, where, prophet may be liable to run too close for several years, he enjoyed the calmn those parallels in history which so pleasures of a rural life, with uninterfrequently appear ; but in all histori- rupted felicity to himself and his facal parallels much is to be dropped mily. But having lost a considerable and much to be substituted, before

sum of money by the failure of one their common principles can be made friend, and become involved in a to agree; the full comprehension, the lawsuit, in consequence of having fact of the future in the past, forms been security for another, the latter that prescient faculty, with which part of his life was darkened by missome great men have unquestionably fortune. An opulent relation in Brisa been endowed.

tol, having paid Captain Macneill a visit Absorbed in present views, care during his distresses, took a fancy for ried away by a sectarian presumption his little namesake, Hector, and proand egotism, the audacious revolu- mised to provide for him. Accordinga tionists of these times strike into a ly, after two years' preparatory educabye-path in pursuit of their empirical tion at a public seminary, the youth measures ; they dare to imagine that

was sent, at the age of fourteen, to their own inventions can suggest to Bristol. The cousin, to whose charge them all that is to be done and all he was committed, had been the Capthat is to be said ; a contempt, and tain of a West India trader, and finaleven an oblivion of the past, is the ly realised a considerable fortune, by glory of their ignorance ; and, therefore, we are perpetually discovering

* This sketch has been drawn from the that their new is old, while the old autobiography of the poet, now in possesremains for them still new, when we sion of one of his most esteemed friends ; take the pains to discover it, to this

a very entertaining and instructive work, unlessoned and stripling race of polic and which, we understand, will probably ticians.

be given to the public.

circle ;

tomed progress of human nature, the Kirkaldy of Grange, and the warning foresight of the predictors is unques- he solemnly gave to the Regent Murtionable. Hartley, in his “ Obser- ray not to go to Linlithgow, where he vations on Man," &c. published in was assassinated. Such predictions 1749, predicted the fall of the existing occasioned a barbarous people to ima. governments and hierarchies in these gine that Knox had some immediate two simple propositions :

communication with Heaven. One

Clerius, a Spanish friar and almanack“ Prop. 81. It is probable that all the maker, clearly predicted the death of civil governments will be overturned.

Henry the Fourth of France. Peiresc, PROP. 82. It is probable that the present as Gassendi tells us, although he gave forms of church government will be dis

no faith to the vain science of astrolosolved."

gy, alarmed for the life of a beloved We are told that Lady Charlotte monarch, consulted with two gentleWentworth, much alarmed at these men about the king, and sent the falls of church and state, asked Hart- Spanish almanack to his majesty. ley when these terrible things would That high-spirited prince thanked them happen? The predictor answered, “I for their care, but slighted the pream an old man, and shall not live to diction; the event occurred ; and, in see them; but you are a young won the following year, the Spanish friar man, and probably will see them.” spread his own fame in a new almanWe can hardly deny that the predic- ack. I have been occasionally struck at tion has failed ;-it has taken place in the Jeremiads of honest George Withers America, and it has occurred in France. the poet ; some of his works afford A fortuitous event has comfortably many solemn predictions. Some prethrown back the world into its old dictions are recorded of this sort, which corners; but we still revolve in a have been made after the event; but

what is dark and distant shall as certain is it, that many have prebe clear as we approach it; and these ceded it, which we may fairly account 81st and 32d propositions of our Va- for on mere human principles. The ticinator may again come round in a busy, spirits of a revolutionary

age, crisis.

the heads of a party such as Knox There is a spirit of political vatici- was, have frequently secret communination, which has been often ascribed cations with spies or friends; such a to the highest source of inspiration, constant source of concealed informaby the enthusiasts of a party ; but, tion, combined with a shrewd, confia

the language of prophecy” has dent, and enthusiastic temper, will ceased among them, such pretensions account for some mysterious predicare equally impious and unphilosophi- tions of this nature. Knox was uncal. Knox, the reformer, possessed questionably endowed with a consideran extraordinary portion of this bold able portion of our Stochastic faculty, prophetic confidence. He appears to as appears by his Machiavellian maxhave predicted several remarkable im, on the barbarous destruction of events, and the fates of some persons. the monasteries and cathedrals.Many of his "prophetical sayings," “ The best way to keep the rooks as they were called, esteemed wild at from returning is to pull down their the time, were afterwards remember- nests." The event of Henry the ed with awful astonishment. When Fourth's death, so clearly predicted by condemned to a galley in Rochelle, the Spanish friar, resulted either from he predicted that, “ 'within two or his being acquainted with the plot, three

years, he should preach the Gos or made an instrument in this case pel at St Giles's in Edinburgh ; an by those who were ; the report of improbable event which happened. the assassination, before it occurOf Mary and Darnley, he pronounced, red, was rife in Spain and Italy. that “as the king, for the queen’s Such as George Withers, will always pleasure, had gone to mass, the Lord, rise in disturbed times, which are fain his justice, would make her the in-vourable to a melancholy temperastrument of his overthrow.” Events ment, and sanguine imagination. Like not long afterwards realized. There the Sybil attending on Eneas, these are other striking predictions of the usually see nothing but horrid battles, deaths of Thomas Maitland, and of and the Tyber foaming with blood.

since

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