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and disobedient, which led to their daita, from datisfac to divide ; for, in ruin. He tells us, elsewhere, that fact, every thing was distributed in Æneas, one of the most sensible of the portions, even the wine. Upon these Trojans, being in that state, began to occasions the cook was called dailgos, boast of his valour, and to deride the because, after having dressed the supGreeks ; when exposing himself to the per, he divided it into equal portions." impetuosity of Achilles, he had well “ The guests in Homer never take nigh paid for it with his life.” away with them what remains of the
“ Homer makes Agamemnon inge- entertainment, it being left with the nuously confess, that he had erred, person who gives the repast. This and brought upon himself his misfor- the female servant takes charge of, tunes, by pernicious judgment, or be- and locks up, that if an unexpected 'cause he was intoxicated, or made in- guest should arrive, there may be sane by the anger of the gods.” something ready to lay before him.”
“ Thus putting drunkenness and “ Homer allows that the people of madness upon the same level; for so his time ate birds and fish. The the passage is read by Dioscorides, the companions of Ulysses, when in Sicily, disciple of Isocrates."
took birds, and likewise fish, with Amongst other reproaches which hooks. These hooks were not fabriAchilles makes to Agamemnon, he calls cated in Sicily, but brought with them him drunkard, and as having dog's in their ships. This shows that they eyes.”
understood the art of fishing, and em
ployed themselves in it. The poet “ Οινοβαρες, κυνος ομματ’ εχων.”+
compares the companions of Ulysses, “ Philemon mentions, that the an- who were taken by Scylla, to fish tients made four meals, azgatiopov, the taken with a long line, and drawn breakfast; agison, the dinner ; crégiopeceout of the water. Homer, indeed, the collation, or lunchion; and, diivov, speaks of the art of fishing with more the supper. I
knowledge than many authors who “ In Homer, the guests eat sitting. had written poems and treatises exSome critics have supposed that each pressly on the subject.” had his particular table, because a “ Homer says, that before each well-polished table is placed for Men- guest was placed xavcov xai apustega, rau tor when he came to visit Telemachus, demas, a basket, a table, and a cup. all the other tables being already oc- “ An extraordinary distinction was cupied. Such a conclusion is by no paid to particular persons. Diomede means warranted by the passage, as it had a greater quantity of food, and may be inferred, that Mentor, or Mi- more cups to drink out of. Ajax had nerva, ate at the same table with Tele- a chine of beef entirely to himself; machus.”
which, according to the simplicity of “ Bread was handed about to the the times, was a dish reserved for guests in baskets."S
kings." “ The supper was usually divided They had also a peculiar manner into as many portions as there were of drinking to each other. Ulysses guests; and, for this reason, it had drank to Achilles, presenting the cup. the name of pious, or equal, given to it, to him with his right hand. It was from the equality of the portions. likewise customary for the guests to These repasts were likewise called send certain portions from the table.
Thus Ulysses sends a part of the chine * Vide Clarke's note, II. b. i. 1. 119; of beef to Demodocus. and Casaubon's notes in locum.
“ Musicians and dancers usually at+ See a curious treatise on the scolding tended great entertainments. These of the ancients, in Dr Arbuthnot's Works, musicians were men of some considervol. i. p. 40.
ation and consequence. Agamemnon # The Swiss have a sort of repast exactly left one of them with his wife, Clyanswering to the lorépouce, which they call temnestra, when he went to the siege a goutè. Tea supplies it with us. & Vis tu consuetis audax conviva, canistris
of Troy, to protect and advise her. Impleri, panisque tui novisse colorem ?
Men of this sort, by reciting the praises Juv.
of virtuous women, excited a desire to Dant famuli manibus lymphas, cereremque imitate good examples; and at times, canistris
by holding out an innocent amuseExpediunt.
VIRG. ment to the mind, excluded evid VOL. IV.
thoughts from possessing it. Thus They who played at this game Egisthus was not able to corrupt the were particularly careful that all their virtue of Clytemnestra till he had re- motions should be attended with a moved from her this faithful guard- graceful display of their persons. It ian.”
is thus described by Demoxenus : Equally respectable was the mu- “ A youth of Cos, of about seventeen years, sician whom the suitors of Penelope Display'd his skill at tennis, (for this isle obliged to sing at their repasts, not- Produces youth like gods, and such he withstanding the imprecations he ute seem'd.) tered against them. For this reason,
First eyeing the spectators, he began ;
And whether he receiv’d, or serv'd the ball, says Horner, the Muses particularly
'Twas follow'd by a general shout. In all honoured the minstrels, and bestowed
He said or did, there was such polish'd on them the talent of music.”
grace, “ Demodocus sung to the Pheacians Such perfect harmony of voice and action, the amours of Mars and Venus; not That I ne'er saw or heard of such perfection. as approving of such irregularities; The more I gaz'd, the more I was delighted, but, knowing them to be a voluptuous And the remembrance of itcharmsme stillI.” people, he wished, by exposing the “ The philosopher Ctesibius, of consequences of vices so like their
Chalcedon, was an elegant performer own, to inspire them with the love of at this game. Many of the courtiers virtue, and to turn them from the im- of Antigonus were much pleased to moderate pursuit and gratification of exercise themselves with him. Timotheir licentious passions.
crates, the Lacedemonian, composed a “ Phemius sung to the suitors of treatise on the subject.” Penelope the return of the Greeks.” The author proceeds to give some
“ The Sirens sung to Ulysses what account of the Thracian and Persian they knew would give him the great modes of dancing. est pleasure; and, by increasing his “ After supper, when the guests knowledge, excite in his mind a de- were about to depart, they made libasire to excel, and to obtain glory.” tions to Mercury; and not, as at a
“ The dances that are mentioned subsequent period, to Jupiter, tasios, by Homer, are those of the tumblers, or the all-perfect. This honour was and others performed with a ball, the paid to Mercury, because he was said invention of which is ascribed by to preside over sleep. They likewise Agallis of Corcyra, to Nausicaa, in made libations over the tongues, which honour of a princess of her country. were burnt out of respect to him, Dicæarchus, however, gives the in- when they rose from table. Tongues vention to the Sicyonians, and Hip- were sacred to him, as the interpreter pasus to the Lacedemonians, who cer
of the gods." tainly excelled in this exercise. Nau- “ The custom of using a variety of sicaa is the only one among the he- food was known to Homer; and the roines of Homer, who had any skill magnificence which distinguishes the in this dance with the bal}.
present times was almost exceeded. The game of ball, which used to The palace of Menelaus was very be called pasvovde, now takes the name splendid. Polybius describes the paof αρπασον*. It is of all others that lace of the king of Iberia, of great exwhich is the most agreeable to me, tent and sumptuous grandeur, as he from the violence of the exercise, and imitated the splendid luxury of the the skill and agility necessary to pre- Pheasians. In the middle of it were vent missing the ball; as likewise, placed vessels of gold and silver, filled that from the continual exertion of with a wine made of barley. In dethe muscles of the neck, it contributes greatly to strengthen that part of the Demoxenus was an Athenian born, bodyt."
and seems to have been a voluminous writer. He was the author of a play called Heau.
tontimorumenos, or the Self-tormentor. Αρπασον genus pile grandius
Demoxenus poeta comicus, cum ait mox Pawvdo genus ludendi pila a pouw ostendo.
de Co insula, θεες γαρ φαινεθ' η νήσος φορείς, + The game which Galen extols so much, videtur deos appellare homines Coos, qui under the name of the small ball, porque virtute sua cælum sibi aperuerunt. Sic opurpu, bears a great resemblance to tennis.
propter Bacchum et Herculem dictæ olim Hygiene, by Hallé, from Encyclopedie Me Thebæ Ji8s Qegsiv...Casauboni Animud. in thodique.
Athen. p. 24.
scribing the palace of Calypso, Homer “ The suitors being 108, they plarepresents Mercury as astonished at ced the same number of pieces, equalits magnificence.
ly divided, in opposition to each other, “Speaking of the Pheacians, Homer leaving a space between them. In this says,
interval was placed another piece, which “ The friendly banquet, and the cheerful was called Penelope, or the queen. To harp,
obtain this, was the great object of the Are ever theirs.
contest. They drew lots who should “ Eratosthenes reads thus the fol- have the first throw or move. lowing passage in Homer :
one struck the queen, so as to remove “ In my opinion, life has not to boast her, his piece was to take the place A greater bliss, than when, reclin'd at ease, which she had occupied, and she conAnd free from worldly cares, the guests are
tinued in that to which she had been charm'd
driven. He then launches a second With the sweet warblings of the poet's lyre."'*
piece ; and if he strikes her again, “ In the text he has naxOTATOS ATOVONS ; without touching any of the other all malice or wickedness apart: but pieces, he wins the game ; and from the word here means only excess or this circumstance conceives the hope extravagance of any kind; as the of obtaining Penelope.” Pheacians, according to Nausicratus, Eurymachus, who had often conwere greatly beloved by the gods, and quered his rivals at this game, flattercould not be otherwise than sober and ed himself that he should succeed in discreet.”
the marriage. The suitors were in “ The suitors of Penelope entertain general so enervated by luxurious hathemselves by playing at a game bits, that none of them had strength (somewhat similar to chess) before to bend the bow of Ulysses. Their the court of the palace. They were very slaves were equally weak and efcertainly not instructed in this by feminate.” Diodorus of Megolopolis, the capital “ Homer was not unacquainted with of Arcadia, nor Leo of Mitylene, ori- the luxury of soft beds. “Arete orders ginally of Athens, who, according to such a one to be prepared for Ulysses: Phanias, was not to be conquered at and Nestor, speaking to Telemachus, this game.”
boasts of the number he possessed.”. “ Appian of Alexandria says, that Æschylus is censured for the inCteso of Ithaca had informed him pare delicacy of his descriptions, in repreticularly of the game which was played senting the Greeks in such a state of by the suitors, which he thus de- intoxication, as to throw urinals at scribes :
Sophocles, in the banquet of the * Clarke has the following note on this Greeks, exceeds the filthiness of Æsreading of Eratosthenes, κακοτητος απουσης
chylus on this subject. pro κατα δήμον απανία : “ Eratosthenes apud By a fragment of Eupolis, Palamedes Athenæum, l. i. c. 14, legendum vult appears to have been the inventor of XOXOTATOS arouons, sed malè, uti notant urinals. Barnesius et Casaubonus in Annotationibus “ When the chiefs in Homer are ad hunc Athenæi locum.'
entertained by Agamemnon, though Pope (for he was the translator of this Achilles and Ulysses dispute, they still book) omits the music, and gives the pas- preserve a certain decorum, and are sage in a very tame insipid manner, thus: “ How goodly seems it ever to employ
guilty of no breach of good manners. Man's social days in union and in joy,
The object of their contention was The plenteous board high heap'd with cates useful. It was to determine whether divine,
Troy should be taken by open force And o'er the foaming bowl, the laughing or by stratagem. Even the suitors of wine.”
Penelope, though they are represented Cowper, more in the spirit of Homer, gives it thus :
Fuit ille Græcorum sanè quàm turpis * The world, in my account, no sight affords et defædus mos quem tangit auctor hisce More gratifying, than a people blest
και τας αμιδας αλληλοις, &c. With cheerfulness and peace; a palace Aderant illis convivantibus, inter alia inthrong'd
strumenta perditi luxus, etiam matulæ, has With guests in order rang’d, listening to sæpe, ubi incaluissent, in capita invicem sounds
sibi illidebant.-Casauboni Animado in lo. Melodious.
cum, p. 26.
as riotous and drunken, do not pro- of our ancient literature, has lately pubceed to the vulgarity we read of in lished, at Chiswick, a truly exquisite Æschylus and Sophocles, with an ex- reprint of what he himself justly calls ception only, that one of them throws “one of the most beautifully simple the foot of an ox Fodce Boston at the head and impressive specimens of biographiof Ulysses."
cal writingt o be found in our own or « The heroes sat at table, and were any other language." not reclined on couches, as Douris re- We know not that there is any feapresents to have been the custom in the ture in the literary character of the age time of Alexander the Great. This which delights us more heartily, than prince, giving an entertainment to four the returning affection manifested in hundred officers of hisarmy, made them every direction by our educated counsit on chairs and couches of silver, trymen for those old English books, covered with purple cushions. Teges- which, although utterly neglected and ander writes, that it was not the cus- despised by our literati of the last centom for any one in Macedonia to re- tury, cannot fail to go down to the cline on couches at their meals, who most distant generations, and to be had not killed a wild boar beyond the prized, wherever they shall be read, toils; and that Cassander, though he by wise and good men, as containing was thirty-five years old, always sat at the portraits, and opinions, and hishis father's table, because he had not tories, of the most truly venerable and achieved this exploit, notwithstanding noble set of worthies which Christian his skill and agility in hunting.” Europe has ever had the glory to pro
“ Homer, always attentive to deco- duce. Of these worthies, one of the rum, makes his heroes dress their own chief was that Thomas More, the food. Ulysses was an excellent carver, memory of whose genius and virtue and unrivalled in the art of making a can never die, so long as England de-' fire; Patroclus and Achilles put their serves to keep her name. His “anhands to every thing. At the feast gelicall witt," as his son-in-law calls by Menelaus 'for Megapenthes, the it, has embodied itself in works not young bridegroom pours out the wine much to the taste of our time. But for the guests.
it would be indeed a bad sign of this, “But we are so fallen off from these or of any age, to contemplate, othergood old customs, that we luxuriously wise than with an ardent and reverent recline upon our couches.”
interest, the memorials of his personal “ Baths, too, are become common, character--the simplicity-the innowhereas formerly they were not per- cent cheerfulness-the manly unbendmitted within the precincts of the ing integrity-the piety, pure and pricity."
mitive, scarcely deformed by its small is Homer, who knew well the nature tincture of Catholic superstition—the of perfumes, does not allow them to heroic death, finally, of this martyr any of his heroes, except Paris.” to principle, cui pectus,
“ It is to be observed, that in the friend Erasmus has expressed it, Odyssey, Ulysses washes his hands be- rat omni nive candidius.” fore he eats. This the heroes of the The only objection we have to make Iliad never do. The Odyssey is the to the present edition of Roper's Life quiet picture of the private life of of this great and good man, arises out persons, whom peace had accustomed of its extreme beauty, and consequent to luxurious indulgence.”
high price. It would perhaps be too much to blame the elegant scholar, to whom we are indebted for the book,
for having done every thing he thought NOTICES OF REPRINTS OF CURIOUS most likely to make the book ac
ceptable to that portion of the public No III,
for whom almost all books are in our
time published. But we wish, on The Life of Sir Thomas More; by many accounts, that some person or his Son-in-Law, William Roper, persons, disposed to confer à benefit Esq. Chiswick, Whittingham. 1817. upon a yet more extensive circle of
readers, would give another reprint of Mr Singer, already well known, by the same work in a form as simple many excellent works, to the students and cheap as possible. Books like this
should not be allowed to remain in the biographical sketches contained in the hands of those alone, who can afford works of our old English authors, parto pay a large price for a small pocket ticularly the church historians and volume. They should be circulated as other ecclesiastical writers, we cannot, widely as coarse paper and plain types without sorrow, and some little anger can enable them to be. They should too, see funds which might do so be the manuals of youth; they could much good, condemned to do so little. not fail to be the comfort and delight We speak, in this matter, more with of the pious and the aged.
an eye to England than Scotland; for It is not, we confess, without some here so universally is education difemotions of pain, that we observe in- fused, so intimately are our peasantry to what miserable direction a great acquainted with the Pilgrim's Proportion of the charity of this country gress, and the rude but striking histories has fallen,—we allude, in particular, of the covenanting period,—but, above to those institutions whose professed all, so intensely familiar are they with purpose it is to promote the moral and the Bible, that they cannot endure to religious welfare of our own poorer see the ore of religion served up with countrymen by the distribution of the base alloy of these tract-mongers. tracts. The active management of They keep to their old manuals, and the funds of these institutions has, allow the flimsy presents of the itineit would appear, fallen, in a vast num- rant illuminators to blow where they ber of instances, into the hands of a list.-But to return to our text. set of persons, who, however good may The main incidents in Sir Thomas be their intentions, are in no respect More's life are so well known, that qualified to be the instructors, or to those who read the present tract for superintend the instruction of others. the first time, need not expect to acThese good people inundate the coun- quire much new information in regard try with a vast quantity of the most to them. But they may expect someexecrable trash that ever disgraced the thing much more valuable,press of any enlightened land, under plete view of the detail of his life, the name of cheap tracts. Whether it domestic and intimate acquaintance be that the conceit of the directors of with the manners of the man. The these institutions commonly leads book is written by the son-in-law of them to suppose that it is their duty More, who seems, according to the to write as well as to distribute, we primitive fashion of the times, not know not; but it is certain, that the to have withdrawn his wife, on his works they do distribute are the most marriage, from her father's house, but abominable outrages upon good taste to have established himself there with and good sense, and, in not a few in- her as an additional inmate of that stances, upon sound religion also, patriarchal dwelling. We have no inwhich have ever happened to come tention to analyze his narrative, but under our inspection. Vulgar, drivel- we shall enrich our pages with a few ling, absurd histories of the imaginary of the most interesting passages. The conversions of unreal milkmaids, boat- exquisite beauty of the style may be swains, drummers, pedlars, and pick- felt; it is not capable of being depockets ;--drawling, nauseous narra- scribed, any more than it is of being tives of the gossipings and whinings imitated, by a writer of these degeneof religious midwives and nurses, and rate days. Our language, rich and of children two or three years old al- powerful as it is, has lost at least as ready under concern;":-sickening much as it has gained within the last hymns composed by blacksmiths and two centuries. brewers, in whom poetry and piety " At this Parliament Cardinall Wolsey have been twin-births ;—horrible and founde himselfe muche greived with the blasphemous stories of sudden judg- Burgesses thearof for that nothinge was soe ments upon card-players and beer- soone donne or spoken thearin but that it drinkers, &c. &c. &c. ;-such are the was immediatelye blowne abroad in everie
It fortuned at that Parliament a greater part of the mystic leaves alehouse. which those doting sybils, the tract
verie great subsidie to be demanded, which societies, are perpetually dispersing Common house determined for the further
the Cardinall fearinge would not passe the over the surface of a justly thankless
ance thearof to be personallie theare himland.—When we reflect on the vast selfe. Before whose comminge after longe body of most interesting and instructive debatinge theare, whither it weare better but