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domestics had filed from the palace, lia, and married a Locrensian lady, leaving behind them the nobleman's whom he left pregnant. She was deson, now encircled by a legion of livered of a monster; and while the devils, who “ looked through the case senators were deliberating what to do ment, one with the head of a bear, with it, Policrates appeared among another a wolf, another a cat, a fourth them in a long black garment, sřatched a tiger, &c. They held the child over the creature from the arms of its nurse, the window, threatening to destroy it, ate it up all save the head, and ina when an intrepid servant rushed stantly vanished. The senators reamong them, and, in the name of solved to consult the oracle about the God, rescued his young master from meaning of this, when“ suddenly the the infernal crew, who, after carous infant's head, in the market-place, ing for a few days, went off, and “the began to move and speake, and in a lord entered into his ancient posses- grave solid speech predicted a great sion.”

slaughter to ensue; the which hapSeveral stories of “ Sylvans" are pened not long after, in a great war then recorded. Alexander de Alex. continued betwixt the Etolians and andro writes of a friend of his, who, Acarnenses.” with a companion, “ fell into desert A question is then started by Heyand uninhabited places, insomuch that wood, Whether spirits can take away the very solitude bred no small feare. a man's sense of feeling, or have the The sun being set, and darkness grow- power to cast men into long sleeps, ing upon them, they imagine they which is answered in the affirmative. hear men talking; and fix their eyes These effects are produced by oil exupon three strange human shapes, of tracted from opium, nightshade, &c.; a fearful and unmeasurable stature, in and, in many cases, by applications long loose gowns, and habited after the made of the small bones, the ashes, or manner of mourners, with black and fat of infants, or of men slain or exegrisly hair hanging over their shoul- cuted; or by swallowing a king of the ders, but of countenance most terrible bees, who is prime ruler of the hive, to behold.” The father of Adolisius, and bigger than the rest, &c. Lord of Immola, shortly after his de The treatise concludes with a sumcease, appeared to his secretary in the mary account of the violent deaths of shape of a sylvan spirit on horseback, many great magicians. Simon Magus, attired like a huntsman, with an hawk - after all his cheating, juggling, and upon his fist, and gave warning to his prestigion,” flying in the air, at the son of a fatal event that afterwards prayers of St Peter his spells failed, so befell him, namely, the capture of that, falling precipitate from on high, himself and city by Philip Duke of

“ he brake all his bones to shivers." Mediolanum. Another of these sylvan The magician Gilbertus, contending spirits appeared to a poor cottager, who in power with his master Catillus, the had been ordered by his lord to fell latter threw a short staff on the ground, and bring him a huge oak, under which the scholar taking up, presently penalty of ruin; and, throwing it over became stiff and hard; and being cona his shoulder, flung it down before the veyed into an island belonging to the gate of the castle, so that the lord, on Ostrogoths, was confined there for his return home, had to break a new evermore in a cavern. In a contest of door into the wall, for the huge tree power between other two magicians, thus deposited resisted both steel and the one put his head out of the winfire. Then follows a little pleasing dow, at the other's desire, when so anecdote of a familiar spirit, one of the huge a pair of horns grew on it, that Paredrii, who, falling in love with a he could not pull it in again. When

upon a time pretended the cornute was released, he drew the to be extremely angry with her, catched picture of a man on the wall, and orher by the gown, and tore it from head dered his rival to enter and hide himself to heel; which she seeming to take ill within that effigies. “ But he, seeing from his hands, he in an instant sewed before his eyes the terror of imminent it up so workmanlike, that it was not death, began to quake and tremble, and possible to discern in what place he beseech him on his knees to spare his had torn it.” This amiable spirit is life. But the other, inexorable, enstrongly contrasted with one who took joyned him to enter there, as he had the shape of Policrates, Prince of Eto- commanded; which he with great un VOL. IV.


young girl, “


« I propose

willingness being enforced to do, the of warfare, the time and patience of wall was seen to open and give way to the public, against the foolish, ignohis entrance, and shut again, but never rant, and dull, is an avocation not so returned his body back, dead or alive.” self-evidently meritorious. Neglect Zedechias the Jew delighted in " more and oblivion are sufficient punishment gentle ludifications.” He tossed a man for such offences--for, after all, the into the air, and dismembered him trespass on every man's time and papiecemeal, limb from limb, and after tience is of his own making. Pain, gathering them together, rejointed thoughtfully inflicted with bitterness him, and made him whole and sound, and scorn, might well be reserved, as at the first. He seemed also to de one would think, for offenders against vour and eat up at once a cart full of the well-being of society. It seems hay, the carter and horses that drew difficult to justify, or in any way acit, with their team-traces and all. But count, for such retributions on the in the end, for poisoning Charles the self-injuring weaknesses of men innoBald, he was drawn to pieces by four cently self-deceived. wild horses. But there would be no How far the existence of self-erecte end of this obituary; so, for the pre- ed literary tribunals is, in any way, sent, we take our leave of Thomas serviceable to the cause of literature, Heywood.

still remains to be made out. The arena of literature is open to all: and if any writer throw down his gauntlet to challenge the opinions, the belief, the laws that are recognised in the country, it is open for the champion

to take it up, and meet the challenger To erect one board for verse, and one for in the lists. But a self-incorporated prose.”

FRERE. body of champions, to come forth on

every deficiency, seems something The pleasure of communicating to monstrous in literary chivalry. Are others what fills our own breast, im- they judges, accusers, or pleaders? pels youth to write. The dawning of They are one and all. They have in thoughts and feelings, in the spirit of truth no definite character-no cons youth, seems to have all the beauty sistent purpose. Or have they been and all the glowing life of genius. To simply so good as to undertake the inthose who behold it, it is beautiful. Struction of the public upon all subWhat wonder that it should deceive jects which the occurrences of the him who feels it, into the belief that times, or the course of literature ita something stirs within him of the self, may happen to bring before them? power which gives birth to new crea The literature of a country is an tions. The power of conception--the important object, no doubt-but its mind's own delight-may well exist excellency does not depend on tria without the faculty that can make bunals of criticism : it depends on the them available for the general benefit. spirit of the people. It is the state of Why then should the Censors of Li- the mind of the whole nation that terature cry out upon those who have must determine the character of its too rashly trusted to their own im- literature. If that be sound, strong, pulses, and have stepped out from aspiring, and enlightened, there will their obscurity to offer to the pub- need no such small helps as these to lic the productions of their teeming keep its literature from weakness, minds? There seems to be no neces- taint, or degradation. The strength sity calling on these functionaries to of a nation's mind cannot depend upon administer chastisement upon those the ephemeral instructions of works whose sole error has been to listen too that start up and float away with the fondly to the suggestion of their hearts, current of the times, but upon mens and to believe that they could render serious studies--upon studies pursued, some service, or impart some pleasure, with toilsome application, by men to mankind. To defend either the whose choice or whose avocations have constituted or the innate laws of man given up their life to high sources of against assailants, able or unable, is an intellectual labour. It depends too, act that speaks its own vindication ; in a less degree, upon the studies of but to protect, with the same severity more ordinary minds, who are led by

the gea

a dignified nature to dignified plea- every warm and aspiring mind, that sures; and who, without any regular would impart to others its own treasystem of thought, apply themselves sures. We should encourage power. desultorily, though consistently, to It is not by repelling the weak, that the study of the standard works of we shall make way for the strong: literature and philosophy. It is the The strong are weak in their birth, and necessary tendency of periodical criti- it is the indulgence of the elements cism to limit the number of such men, that must nurse their first growth. and consequently to control the march They will soon make their own way. of knowledge.

It is the sun and the gentle rain that The present and proceeding litera- lifts up the young oak from the earth, ture of a country is as important to and woos him to unfold his stately its character as that which is past. strength. We cannot make power ; For living writers have a far more but we can cherish and invite its napowerful hold on the minds of men, tural growth-or we can repress it. than those of a former time. Not If a nation wills to be misled, inonly does the work itself awaken a jured, and corrupted, there is no promore vivid interest, but the mind of tection for it. But if a pure and upthe contemporary writer becomes more right sense is strong in their hearts, an object of admiration, and does, in they will defend themselves. Aggresthe eyes

every one, raise


sion on those principles, of which they neration itself to which he belongs. recognize the authority and momentous His contemporaries feel themselves importance, will call up from the boraised while they know he is among som of the nation prompt and powerthem. Men measure their own cha- ful defenders. That is the contention racter and their condition of being by a great nation would wish to see. It no absolute standard. But if, when does not fear even lawless genius they look around, the highest on whom and destructive power. Even in the their eyes can rest are low, they feel fields of literature there are combats on in themselves the general degradation which a nation may fix its eyes. But While they ran fix their regard on examine the case narrowly, and it will lofty heads, they share in the exulta- be found that the idea of protection, tion, and derive to their own bosoms in any kind, to those great causes which an elated consciousness of existence. may be considered as at stake in the

If we are to form wishes for the lia literature of a people, by a Board of terature of our country, we must de- of Criticism, is as repugnant to sense sire to see writers of genius and power as their protection by a legal censore perfectly bold and free,--submissive, ship. Such a Board, self-constituted, indeed, where all minds should sub- obtains authority (no matter how) over mit --but within that circumscription, the general mind: it protects or assails uncontrolled, impetuous, trusting to by force of that authority, and not by their own spirit, and by that light the real power of thought and knowfearlessly exploring and fearlessly ledge which it brings to each question. creating. A literature generous and in as much as such authority is exert

spiring, -yet guarded alike. wis- ed, there is a false and unnatural subdom and reverence from all transgres- stituted for a genuine power. There sion,-is alone worthy of England. is a reverse of that effect which literaSuch a literature is not, in any way, ture intends; there is a repression and to be advanced by the limited discus- subjugation, instead of an awakening sions and paltry feelings of tribunals of the nation's mind. To be strong in of criticism. T'he fountains that wa their freedom is the character of a great ter its roots must be deep, and flow nation in their literature, as well as in silently through the heart of the no- their polity. blest of her children. The best we The very nature of these temporary can expect from criticism is a refresh- ephemeral discussions is against the ing shower, or a stirring breeze. nature of thoughtful inquiry. Quese

It is the strong and genuine spirit tions of great magnitude of deep inof a people, then, that can alone give vestigation-of serious study are of birth to a high literature.

But we

necessity thrown into a slighter form. may do much to assist it, by a kind and They are worked up into palatable enloving welcome of all works of genius tertainment. 'Instead of sending the by a friendly regard to the efforts of mind into the depths of thought, that

it may return with strength and acqui- to each other, produce internally, in sition, they must comprise a whole man, sensations which are recognised question within small and convenient as having mutually the relation of limits, and satisfy their reader that he tune. The harmony of colours seems now knows all that can possibly be to depend entirely upon the agreement said upon a subject ; where a wise in- of the spectrum of one colour with structor would have told him, that he another which is viewed after it. could give him but the beginning and It has been a good deal disputed, first suggestion of knowledge, which whether we naturally experience much he must ascertain for himself, in years pleasure in hearing isolated sounds, or of after thought, and in still-extending viewing isolated colours. With regard investigation. A literary Intelligencer to colours, the eyes of all mankind is an unpretending, moderately in seem to be charmed with pure and teresting, moderately useful, but a con brilliant ones, probably because the sistent and a natural character, which common routine of colours which preworks of the class of which we are sent themselves in nature is dull and speaking have sometimes been con- turbid, and because a pleasing surprise tented to bear. The character of a is generated when we meet with hues Literary Tribunal is arrogant, useless, which exceed the generality in clearinjurious, and has never been consist- ness and brightness. All pure colours, ently maintained. Those who have taken separately, are beautiful. The assumed the character have made isolated sensation of colour (setting themselves interesting indeed, but de- aside harmony) seems to be most va structive to the public, by masking lued by every person when presented under it the office of political par- unmixed. There are few children who tizans.

would not cry out for joy, if the prismatic hues were made to pass vi. vidly before them.

With regard to isolated sounds, there is no such thing in nature, Every sound generates others. A single prolonged musical sound must

afford some pleasure to a person with In most disquisitions upon taste, we a musical ear, because it produces, at find too much of the beauty of sounds the same time, its own harmonics, and colours ascribed to association, and which bear musical relations to it. too little to those immutable relations An unmusical sound, passing through which nature has established among different degrees of gravity and acutethem. Although associations of every ness, without reference to musical insort were entirely effaced from the tervals, confounds the harmonical fahuman mind, there would still remain culty altogether. a source of pleasure in our naked per Upon the whole, the pleasure deceptions concerning sounds and col- rived from the relations of colours ours; but in many individuals these seems not to be intense. Untaught perceptions are so indistinct as to yield persons, in general, pay far more atlittle enjoyment; and with them the tention to the isolated beauty of colours pleasures of association constitute ale than to their combination ; but this most the only source of interest in mu. could not be the case, if the pleasure sic and painting

of looking upon co-related colours were That which renders colours and equal to that of hearing a musical sounds capable of being employed as concord. Few individuals are so stuthe subjects of their respective arts, is pid or unobservant, as not to feel grathe fixed and natural relation which tified if a musical concord were to they have among themselves. This occur amidst the common routine of relation subsists not only in the exter- sounds; but most persons would pass nal physical causes which produce over the best combination of co-related sounds and colours, but also in the colours, if there were isolated ones of human constitution, which recognises greater vividness exhibited at the same corresponding relations among the time. sensations Vibrations of the atmo If we examine sounds and colours sphere, which bear certain proportions as connected with passions and senti



ments, we shall find that sounds have chiefly from being free from harsh, much more expression than colours. ness, and not capable of giving much Few persons will maintain that the positive pleasure. It is the art exhiminor key has not a more sorrowful bited in reconciling harmonious colexpression than the major, antecedent ours with the other requisites of paintto all association ; and that a melody, ing, that constitutes a great part of the proceeding and moving about accord- merit of what is called good colouring. ing to those intervals which, in har. Besides, an eye habituated to examine mony, would form the perfect con the relations of colours, takes pains in cords of the key, has not a more joy- comparing the different hues exhibited ful and contented expression than a in a picture. These relations are beau. melody which introduces a flat third tiful when perceived, but they do not where a sharp one would have natu- force themselves so much upon the rally resulted from the fundamental attention relations of musical bass, or which in other respects follows sounds. In music, the sounds which constrained and forced intervals. Sic compose a chord are all heard at once; milar instances might easily be multi- and therefore melody bears a closer plied, to prove that music has a great resemblance than harmony to the redeal of expression within itself, and lation of colours, which are, in a great independent of all association. If col- measure, viewed successively. Yet ours have any natural expression, it is there is also a difference between the far more ambiguous and limited. Yet sequence of melody and colours. The there are some colours which it is succession in which colours are viewed difficult to persuade one's self, have not depends partly upon our own choice a gay expression, comparatively with in directing our eyes; but we must others. Yellow, pink, light green, take melody in the order in which it and scarlet, are surely cheerful; while is presented to us. In painting, howdeep transparent blue, rich crimson, ever, it must always be remembered, clear brown with a reddish tinge, are that only a small part of what is ingrave and solemn. Perhaps this de- cluded under the general name of pends upon the greater quantity of good colouring, depends upon the Îight which the first colours reflect, adaptation of the spectrum of one and the greater vivacity of the sensa colour to another colour. tion.

The number of original colours is What is strictly and properly called small, and the number of harmonies the harmony of colours, is perhaps that can be made out from them is exhibited in greater purity in a com consequently limited. The more that mon pattern of a carpet, or a border colours are mixed, the less decided for a papered room, than in the finest will be the relations they bear to each picture. That is to say, the colours other. are there more unmixed ; and as they The number of musical notes is also do not represent natural objects, they small; but modulation, by making have no law to follow in their arrange- every note in its turn a fundamental ment but that of their mutual rela- one, productive of a new series of tions; and consequently they are so sounds, renders the materials of music placed, that the spectrum of one col- almost infinite. Every relation of muour may fall upon another, and in- sical notes, whether concord or discrease its vividness. In paintings, all cord, is perfect of its kind, and gives colours must, in some measure, be pleasure when properly introduced. deadened and rendered impure by In painting, the mixture of colours mixture, in order to represent objects follows no certain law, but is varied with fidelity. The spectra which they through infinite degrees, according to produce must certainly be less vivid'; the taste of the artist. In music, the and the juxtaposition of the different composer may combine what notes he hues is, besides, much constrained by pleases, but the mutual proportions of other considerations than those of hare all the notes are determined by the mony. Therefore, if the merits of laws of nature. light and shadow, and of imitation, In the Lives of Haydn and Mozart, were withdrawn from a painting, how- by the author of the Sacred Melodies, ever meritorious, what remained would there is an ingenious though somepresent relations of colours, agreeable what fanciful parallel, in which a

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