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descend lower and lower from the summit “ I the undersigned, Joseph Woodward, of the mountains towards the plains and captain of the Adamant schooner of Hingvalleys.

ham, being on my rout from Penobscot to New Inflammable Gas.-Dr Thomson Hingham, steering W. N. W., and being has discovered a new compound inflammable about 10 leagues from the coast, perceived, gas, and has called it, from the nature of its last Sunday, at two P.M., something on the constitution, hydroguretted carbonic oxide. surface of the water, which seemed to me to Its specific gravity is, 913, that of common be of the size of a large boat. Supposing air being 1. It is not absorbed nor altered that it might be part of the wreck of a ship, by water. It burns with a deep blue flame, I approached it; but when I was within a and detonates when mixed with oxygen and few fathoms of it, it appeared, to my great fired. It is a compound of oxygen, hydro- surprise, and that of my whole crew, that it gen, and carbon ; and Dr Thomson con- was a monstrous serpent. siders it as being three volumes of carbonic proached nearer, it coiled itself up, instantoxide, and one volume of hydrogen, con- ly uncoiling itself again, and withdrew with densed by combination into three volumes. extreme rapidity. On my approaching again, See Annals of Philosophy, August 1818. it coiled itself up a second time, and placed

New Vegetable Alkali.-M. M. Pelletier itself at the distance of 60 feet at most from and Caventou have inserted the following the bow of the ship. note in the Annales de Chimie for July. “ I had one of my guns loaded with (The note was read to the Academy on cannon ball and musket bullets. I fired it the 10th August.)

at the head of the monster ; my crew and Whilst analysing the vomica nut, and the myself distinctly heard the ball and bullets bean of St Ignace, they extracted from these strike against his body, from which they two seels the substance to which they owe rebounded, as if they had struck against a their action on the animal economy. rock. The serpent shook his head and tail

This substance is white, crystalline, and in an extraordinary manner, and advanced very bitter. It crystallizes in the form of towards the ship with open jaws. I had quadrangular plates, or in four sided prisms, caused the cannon to be re-loaded, and pointterminated by an obtuse quadrangular py- ed it at his throat ; but he had come so ramid. It is very slightly soluble in water, near, that all the crew were seized with terbut very soluble in alcohol. It is formed ror, and we thought only of getting out of his like most vegetable substances, of oxygen,

way.

He almost touched the vessel ; and hydrogen, and charcoal. It is most distin- had not I tacked as I did, he would certainguished by its alkaline properties ; and ly have come on board. He dived ; but in though like morphium, is essentially differ- a moment we saw him appear again, with ent from it. It restores a reddened blue col. his head on one side of the vessel, and his our, and with acids fornis neutral salts, so- tail on the other, as if he was going to lift luble in water, and crystallizable. With us up and upset us. However, we did not weak nitric acid it forms a nitrate, but the feel any shock. He remained five hours concentrated acid acts on and decomposes it; near us, only going backward and forward: and forms a solution, at first red, but be- “ The fears with which he at first inspir. coming yellow, and yielding oxalic acid. ed us having subsided, we were able to exIts acetate is very soluble, the sulphate less amine him attentively. I estimate, that his. so, and crystallizable in rhomboidal plates. · length is at least twice that of my schooner,

This substance acts on animals in a simi- that is to say, 130 feet ; his head is full 12 lar manner to the alcoholic infusion of the or 14: the diameter of the body below the nux vomica, but more energetically. neck, is not less than six feet; the size of

The class of acid vegetable substances is the head is in proportion to that of his body. numerous ; on the contrary, that of alkaline He is of a blackish colour ; his ear-holes vegetable substances is confined to morphi- (ouies), are about 12 feet from the extremi. um. Nevertheless, M. Vauquelin has notic- ty of his head. In short, the whole has a ed the alkaline properties of a substance ob- terrible look. tained by him whilst analysing the dophne " When he coils himself up, he places alpine. The new body will form another his tail in such a manner, that it aids him genus in the class, which may become nu- in darting forward with great force : he merous, and which has first been observed

moves in all directions with the greatest faby M. Vauquelin. To recal these facts, cility and astonishing rapidity." and designate the substances by a name (Signed) JOSEPH WOODWARD. which will avoid circumlocution, they have Hingham, May 12, 1818. called it vauqueline. This name is better than one entirely insignificant, or that indi. This declaration is attested by Peter cates properties which may be found in other Holmes and John Mayo, who made affidabodies.

vit of the truth of it before a justice of American Sea Serpent.-Another sea ser

peace. pent, different to the one first seen near Cape The animal first seen, has, according to Anne, is said to have been seen, and the fol. accounts, been observed several times since "lowing declaration has been drawn up and that périod. On the 19th of June, he apattested in proper form.

peared in Sag Harbour, and rewards were these animals. Polyhalite.-M. Stromeyer has lately ana- Northern Herculaneum..We extract the lysed a substance found in the beds of rock following from a very excellent provincial salt, at Ischel, in Austria, and has found it paper, the INVERNESS COURIER. to be a peculiar mineral. It was before con- Lopness, in Sanda, 26th Sept. 1818. sidered, and called fibrous muriacite, but TO THE EDITOR, has now received the name of polyhalite. It SIR,-Having lately seen a notice in the is composed of

.

offered to the whalers to secure it. S. West, in the lungs, their extent, their state, and of Hallowell, master of the packet Delia, the nature and consistence of the matter describes it as seen on the 21st of June, en- within them, were ascertained. gaged with a whale ; and on July 2d, two Russian Voyage of Discovery.-A very persons, J. Webber and R. Hamilton, saw singular ice berg was fallen in with by the it about seven miles from Portland, between Russian ship Rurick, Captain Kotzebue, Cranch Island Point and Marsh Island. during its voyage. It was of great magni.

The Commercial Advertiser of June 9th, tude, and partly covered with earth and contains a letter from the captain of the brig mould, so that herbs and trees were growWilson, of Salem, bound to Norfolk, where- ing on it. On one part of its water line a in he states, that during his passage, offshore had been formed, by matter washed Cape Henry, he fell in with, as he at first down from above, and on this a landing was supposed, the wreck of a vessel, when he made good. A great quantity of the reordered his boat to be lowered ; but to his mains of a mammoth were found on it, in a great astonishment, he found it to be the very putrescent state. These had probably sea serpent; he says, he then examined it, been preserved for many ages in the cold and such an object he never before witness- regions of the north, and were no doubt coed; he believed it to be about 190 feet in equal in age to those remains which the gelength, and its mouth and head were of an ologist finds in his later strata, and merits, enormous size. After returning to the ship, therefore, in a geological sense, the name of they bore off, fearing the consequences that organic remains. The vessel brought away might result from its coming in contact with a number of the tusks and other parts of the vessel.

newspapers, &c. that vast remains of ancient Sulphate of lime (common), 28.74 buildings.' a city-two cities' had been Sulphate of lime (anhydrous), 22.36 disclosed to modern vision, by recent driftSulphate of potash,

27.40 ing of sand, I came here yesterday to ascerSulphate of magnesia (anhydrous), 20.11 tain, by actual inspection, the state of the Chloride of sodium (mixed), 0.19 fact. A party of us set out to-day after Oxide of iron,

0.32 breakfast, and took with us labourers, with

spades, &c. to assist in our researches into

99.12 this Northern Herculaneum ;-and having New Medical Instrument.-A new in- glanced over the scene, I, at least, was quite strument has been introduced into medical satisfied, that the stories which had gone ascience at Paris; and, from the favourable broad upon the subject were very great exreport which it obtained, on being submit- aggerations. A venerable native of this ted to the Academy of Sciences, would ap- unfrequented island of the north,' (which, pear to be somewhat more than a chimerical by the way, is a fiction) whom we saw on improvement.

the ground, told us, that he was threescore Dr Laennec, physician to the Necker and eighteen years of age, and that, for the Hospital, supposed it likely, that the various last sixty years, the sand, which rose in heaps sounds which are formed in the interior of at the headland now referred to, has been the body, as in the breast, &c. might be- gradually drifted away—that the whole surcome, from the variation induced on them face of the sand hillocks was green, being by disease, indications of the state of health; covered with grass and bent—and that, withand that the sounds produced by the action in these last twenty years, the whole area, or motion of any particular organ, as of the now laid nearly bare, with the exception of heart or lungs, would point out any change a small corner at the point of the promonin the state of that organ; and taking ad- tory), has been almost freed from its cover. vantage of the superior conducting power of ing of sand-hills. The respectable tenant of solid bodies, with regard to sound, he form- this farm tells me, that he remembers the ed an instrument which should convey these place for the last twenty-five years, and that indicatory sounds more readily and distincts during that period, the sand-hills, to the ly to the ear. This instrument is a cylinder height of perhaps twenty feet, or thereby, of wood, which, in some cases, according to have been dispersed. The space thus uncoverthe nature of the examination, is solid ; in ed, extends probably to about a square mile, others, perforated lengthways by a canal ; at the most northerly point of this island and in others, hollowed like a horn.

and exhibits evident marks of having been The voice, the respiration, sounds in the the scene of human operations, at a period throat, and pulsations of the heart, are ge- anterior to its being covered with the sand. neral indications to so many different kinds Nearly in a line with the sea-beach, as it of diseases; and by one of these, among sweeps round the head of Tofts Ness, and others, it is said, that the existence of ulcers about fifteen or twenty feet above the high

6

water mark, there is a ridge of loose large ends, so that the legs must have been fold. flag stones, tossed together in irregulared sideways across the broader end. The masses, and spread out to such a width, and coffins were in width about three feet, comhaving such an appearance as a row of cot- posed of thick slate, without top or bottom, tages in ruin might be supposed to exhibit. and about two feet deep. I am, &c. P.” Besides this range, there are several others Fascinating Power of Serpents.-A merunning off at right angles, and in various moir on the subject of the fascinating power directions, some of them perhaps the re- of serpents, by Major Alexander Garden, of mains of dwellings, or walls for defence, South Carolina, was read at a meeting of and others of them nothing more than old the New York Historical Society, in Sepdikes, such as are common in this country. tember 1817. There are still to be seen along the whole “ He attributed the phenomenon to an line of what may be supposed either fallen effluvium which the serpent voluntarily exhabitations, or fallen walls, the forms of hales at those times when it feels the desire round towers, crumbled down, some of them of food, and the effluvium is of so deleteconsiderably more elevated than the adjacent rious a nature as to cause convulsions in the ground, and one large mount, or tumulus, smaller and more sensitive animals, such as evidently artificial, within the range of the birds, mice, &c. He mentioned several enclosure, points it out as a post of some im- instances in which men had been powerfully portance in its day. There are various tu- affected by the effluvium. He had been muli or barrows, disposed on the outside of informed by the late Colonel Thompson of the rows of stones, which may have been out- Belleville, that whilst riding over his estate, works of defence. Some of them are evident- he came suddenly upon a snake of enorly of this description, while others are only mous size, at which, the moment he could places of sepulture. The latter fact I ascer- sufficiently collect himself, he fired. He tained by getting all the earth and sand tak- killed the reptile, but was at the same inen out of three stone coffins, which have been stant assailed by an overpowering vapour, exposed to view in one tumulus ; and in which so bewildered him that he could each of them we found human bones, some scarcely guide his horse home: that a deadly of which I have reserved to show to the cu- sickness at his stomach ensued, and a vomiting rious. There is one mass of stones, differ- more violently than he had ever experienced ent from the ordinary Picts' houses, as they from an emetic. He had been told by a are vulgarly called here; these are circular; lady, that the overseer of one of her plantabut it is oblong, and seems to have been tions being missed, was sought for by his constructed by laying flagstones overlapping family, and found in a state of insensibility. one another, the highest regularly sloping On recovering, he stated that he was watchinward until the opposite sides met. We ing for a deer, when he heard the rattle of meant to have explored it, but a dreadful a snake; and that before he could remove blast of wind and rain, from the south-east, from the threatened danger, he perceived a had already drenched us thoroughly, and sickening effluvium, which deprived him increasing, compelled us to desist. The instantly of sense. From John Lloyd, Esq. forms of ridges, freed from the sand which he had learned another case :- A negro had long covered them, are quite apparent; working in his field was seen suddenly to but whether their formation and culture are fall, uttering a shriek : on approaching him, of the same era with the broken down walls it was found that he had struck off the head and towers, it is quite impossible to ascer- of a very large rattlesnake, the body of tain. Those remnants may be the wreck of an which was still writhing. On recovering, ancient establishment of the most barbarous he said that he had shrieked with horror kind, but it could not have been any thing on discovering the snake, and at the same deserving the name of a city. The situa- instant had been overpowered by a smell tion of Toftness, on the very extremity of that took away all his senses. Mr Nathathese islands, protected on one side by the niel Barnwell, of Beaufort, had a negro tremendous Frith betwixt it and North who could, from the acuteness of his smell, Ronaldsay, and on the other by a fresh wa. at all times discover the rattlesnake within ter lake, pointed it out as a position easily a distance of two hundred feet, when in the capable of defence by the rude bulwarks and exercise of his fascinating power; and when towers, the vestiges of which still remain, in traced by this sense, some object of prey those predatory times when Orkney was the was always found suffering from this influscene of rapine and violence. Whether it To these facts Major Garden added has been a colony of Celts, of Picts, or of some anecdotes collected from Vaillant's Scandinavians, I leave to the sagacity of an- Travels and other sources, corroborating his tiquaries to discover. The subject might theory. When gorged with food, the serafford materials for controversy between our pent is supine: it is only when under the old and respected friends, Monkbarns and stimulus of hunger that he exerts this fasEdie Ochiltree. I must close these memo- cinating faculty. The cases mentioned by randa, however, by adding, that the stone Mr Pintard, at the last meeting of the so. coffins are only about four feet in length, ciety, are among the many evidences of the and that the bodies which they contained existence of the power in the serpent to inwere laid with the heads at the narrowest fluence birds to approach it, maugre their

ence.

of mag

relied on,

dread; and the circumstances related by the end of this journey, a stately white him do not militate with the hypothesis of pillar presents itself, which is about 15 feet Major Garden.”

in diameter, and from 20 to 30 in height, Mammoth Cave of Indiana.-- The Ken- regularly reeded from top to bottom. In the tucky Commentator contains a letter from a vicinity are several other smaller pillars of Mr Adams, giving an account of a cave the same description. Mr Adams was not which he had explored in Indiana. The certain what were the constituents of their editor of the Commentator, in his introduc- columns, but lime appeared to be the base. tion to the letter, says, this cave “ has Major Warren states that they are the satin never yet been fully explored, though seve- spar. ral individuals, whose testimony is to be The cave abounds in sulph

have penetrated from six to nine nesia or Epsom salts, which is found in a miles into this subterraneous region.” great variety of forms, and different stages

Mr Adams states that the cave is situated of formation-sometimes in lumps from one in the north-west quarter of section 27, in to ten pounds, from the surface to three feet Township No. 3 of the second eastern range below it,—the walls are covered with the in the district of lands offered for sale at same article. Mr Adams removed from a Jeffersonville. It was first discovered about spot in the cave every vestige of salt, and in eleven years ago, at which time the bottom four or five weeks the place was covered of the cave was covered with salts from six with small needle-shaped crystals resemto nine inches deep; the sides were also bling frost. coated in the same manner, and had the ap- The quality of salts is very superior, the pearance of snow.

worst earth yielding four pounds to the The hill in which the cave is situated is bushel, and the best from 20 to 25 pounds. 400 feet high, the top principally covered The cave also contains great quantities of with oak and chesnut. The entrance is nitrate of lime, or saltpetre earth ; nitrate of about half way from the base to the sum- alumina, or nitrate of argil ; each yielding mit, and the surface of the cave preserves an equal quantity of saltpetre. The sulabout that elevation.

phate of lime is seen variously formed, The entrance is by an aperture of 12 or ponderous crystallized, soft, or light and 15 feet wide, and three or four feet in spongy : there are also vestiges of the sulheight. With an easy descent, you enter a phate of iron, and small specimens of the room which continues a quarter of a mile, carbonate and nitrate of magnesia. The varying in height from 8 to 30 feet, and in rocks in the cave are principally of carbonate breadth from 10 to 20; the roof arched in of lime or common limestone. some places, resembling an inside view of Mr Adams closes his letter by stating, the roof of a house. At the extremity of that near the forks of the cave are two spen this room the cave forks, the right soon ter- cimens of painting, probably of Indian minates, the left rises by a flight of rocky origin. One appears to be a savage with stairs, nearly ten feet high, into another something like a bow in his hand, and furstory, and has a S.E. direction. In this nishes the hint, that it was done when that room the roof has a regular arch from 5 to instrument of death was in use. The other 8 feet high, and from 7 to 12 feet wide, is so much defaced that it is impossible to which continues to what is called the Creep- say what it was intended to represent. ing Place, where it becomes necessary to A full account of this remarkable cave, crawl 10 or 12 feet to get into the next with a drawing of it, previous to its having room, from which, to the distance of one been visited by Mr Adams, will be found in mile and a quarter, there are many large the Edinburgh Encyclopædia, conducted by and small rooms, variously situated. At Dr Brewster, art, KENTUCKY.

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