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Cornwall, Belcher Channel, and portions of North Devon. M'Clintock examined Prince Patrick Island, while Commanders Richards, Sherard Osborn, and others, explored the northern shores of Melville, Bathurst, and Cornwallis Islands. In 1851 and 1852 Captain Collinson sailed through Behring's Strait, through Dolphin and Union Strait, to Victoria Land, and proceeded in sledge to Gateshead Island, thus overlapping the furthest point reached by Sir John Franklin. In 1851 Dr. Rae made a more minute examination of Boothia Felix, fully established the fact that King William's Island was an island, and found numerous relics belonging to Sir John Franklin's crews at the same time that he collected the reports of the natives as to their fate, and fairly earned the Government reward of £10,000.

Independently of the geographical results which were achieved by Dr. Rae's journeys, an especial value attaches to them on other accounts. They stand out prominently in the annals of Arctic voyages as having been carried out at less comparative expense than almost any other, and yet as efficiently as any. They are good examples, out of several journeys which might be instanced, illustrative of the fact that Arctic voyages have been and can be successfully conducted by private individuals and private funds as well as



by Government officers, backed by the Government treasury. Dr. Rae was connected with the Hudson's Bay Company, and with less than a dozen voyageurs on each trip he made the following journeys on foot :

Miles. 1844-5. Red River Colony to St. Mary's 1180 1847. From Repulse Bay round Committee Bay

1200 1851. From Bear Lake and on Arctic coast . 1080 1851-2. Attrabosca to St. Paul's, assisted by dogs for 450 miles

1730 1854. From Repulse Bay to Castor and Pollux River.


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Of this, 1765 miles was through territory and along coasts which had not been previously explored.

In 1853 Dr. Kane went in the Advance up Smith's Sound, and succeeded in getting his ship into Rensselaer Bay, 78° 35' N., where he wintered. This is the highest latitude that any ship had wintered in. Expeditions were made on foot and in sledges, almost as far as 81° N., or past the Humboldt Glacier, Peabody Bay, and into Kennedy Channel. The furthest point seen by Mr. Morton was

Mount Parry, believed to be in 82° 14' N., which is the northernmost land yet discovered, and which, in the summer of 1854, was washed by an extensive open sea. In 1858 McClintock entered Pond Inlet. He explored portions of the coast line of North Somerset, proved the insularity of Prince of Wales's Island, and so traced the whole coast of King William's Island, where he heard of Sir John Franklin, and found both relics and documents appertaining to his party. Dr. Hayes, who had accompanied Dr. Kane, resumed the search up Smith's Sound in 1860. His ship reached Port Foulke, which is thirty miles south of Rensselaer Bay. He crossed to the west side of Smith's Sound, and followed the coast to 81° 35', and beyond this he saw a bold headland, Cape Union, which he placed in 82° 30' N. On May 17 there was very little ice to be seen in the ocean visible from the farthest point he reached. In 1867 Captain Wells, of the steam whaler Arctic, took his ship as far north as the Humboldt Glacier, that is beyond Kane's farthest by ship, and then, towards the end of June, there were no signs of ice to the north. In June, 1871, Captain Hall started for the north, in order to settle the question of this open sea, and to follow Grinnell Land to the Pole.

Having disposed of the discoveries north of the American continent, those made to the north of



Siberia, chiefly by ships passing through Behring's Strait, next call for attention. The Lena was discovered by Cossacks in 1630; and the Jana by Busa, in 1638, and in 1639 he proceeded east to the Tshendoma River. About this time, also, Ivanoio discovered the Indigirka, and followed the coast to the Alaseia, in 163° E. Staduchin coasted from the mouth of the Kolima to Cape Chelagskoi, which is in about 70° N. In 1648 Deschnew passed from Cape Chelagskoi to the Gulf of Anadyr. In 1710 Permäkow heard of the Liakhow Island off the Svätoi-Nos, and subsequently made an unsuccessful attempt to explore it. In 1770 Liakhow discovered the group of islands bearing his name, but their correct positions were first ascertained by Anjou in 1823. The largest islands are called Kotelnoi, New Siberia, and Fadejevkoi. The Herald Islands, in 71° 26' N. and 175° 16' W., were discovered by Capt. Kellett in 1849, but doubts were thrown on the facts. It is probably the land to which Wrangell had previously alluded as sometimes visible from Cape Yakan. In 1867 portions of this land were seen by several captains. Captain Bliven saw land north-west of Herald Island, extending as far north as 72° N. The coast has been distinctly traced for one hundred miles or more, and portions sighted, which would give it a length of more than five hun

dred miles. It is believed to be inhabited. How far north it extends has not been ascertained. This, then, is the most northern land known in this region, and is almost as northerly as the Liakhow Islands.

The voyages in search of the North-East Passage and in the Spitzbergen Sea may now be resumed. The last we noticed was Burrough's. Pet did little more than follow in his footsteps, the principal novelty being the discovery of the southern passage of Vaigatz, known as the Strait of Nassau, in 1580. About this time some English vessel had crossed the Sea of Kara, and had thus gained the mouth of the Obi. Barentz, in 1594, coasted along the west side of Nova Zembla, from Langenes to the islands of Orange. In 1596 he and Rijp discovered Bear or Cherie Island, in 74° 30' N., and soon after the Spitzbergen group of islands. They followed the south coast of North East Land, passed through the Hinlopen Strait, and doubled the north end of New Friesland and West Spitzbergen, in 80°N. In 1607 Henry Hudson attempted to sail straight across the Polar Sea. He struck the east coast of Greenland, in 67° 30' N., and after proceeding north for seven or eight leagues he saw a headland, which he named Young's Cape. He continued on a N.N.E. course, and at his farthest point, which he considered to be 73° N., he saw land, which he called

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