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was Cape Desolation, near the south end of Greenland. Here the Michael left Frobisher, who, notwithstanding his vessel had been much damaged by storms, determined to see whether he could not strike land by pursuing a north-west course. It should be remembered that at this time the discoveries of the Icelanders had been forgotten, and were hidden antiquarian lore not accessible. This was one of the most successful and ably-conducted Arctic voyages which had yet been made. He discovered the islands of North Devon, Cornwallis, Bathurst, Melville, North Somerset, Cape Walker, and Banks's Land, which forms part of Baring's Island. From 1819 to 1822 Sir John Franklin made extensive journeys in the Hudson's Bay territories. He went to the mouth of the Coppermine River, and from thence took a boat and surveyed the coast as far east as Point Turnagain, in 68° 19' N. In 1821 Sir W. E. Parry again went out, accompanied by Captain Lyon, and confirmed the discoveries of Middleton. He passed the first winter at Winter Island, and the second at Igloolik, and followed the Fury and Hecla Strait to its junction with Regent Inlet. In 1824 he again attempted to reach Regent Inlet, but without success. In 1825 a series of explorations were organised : Franklin, in this and following years, surveyed the coast from the Mackenzie River on the east to the

Return Reef on the west, or tu within one hundred and sixty miles of Point Barrow. Captain Beechey sailed through Behring's Strait to Point Barrow, in 71° 38' N. Dr. Richardson and Lieutenant Kendall

coasted in boats from the mouth of the Mackenzie

River eastward, doubling Cape Bathurst, in 70° 31' N., and Cape Parry, in 70° 6' N. They passed through the Dolphin and Union Strait, and thus reached the mouth of the Coppermine River. These discoveries rendered a North-West Passage almost certain, for, with the exception of one hundred and sixty miles, the north coast of America had been traced from Behring's Strait to Point Turnagain, in 109° 25' W.; while Parry had advanced in a higher latitude to about 116° W. The discovery of a connecting north and south passage would complete the search. In 1829 Captain John Ross commanded an expedition sent out at the expense of Sir Felix Booth. He discovered Boothia Felix, explored portions of the Gulf of Boothia, and determined the site of the magnetic pole. His stay was an unusually prolonged one, his return to England not occurring till 1833. His brother, James Clark Ross, made extensive sledge journeys, in the course of which he traced portions of King William's Island, Boothia Felix, and North Somerset ; but he crossed Brentford Bay without noticing Bellot's Strait,



which bounds the northernmost point of the continent in 72° N. Owing to the long absence of this expedition, Captain Back, supported by public subscription, was sent in search of it. He wintered in 1833 on Great Slave Lake, and in 1834 descended the Back River to its mouth, and explored the coast from Cape Britannia to Point Richardson, thus almost reaching the southern termination of James C. Ross's sledge journey. Back's voyage, in 1836, failed in accomplishing its object, but the work which it was proposed to do was in great part effected in the years 1837, 1838, and 1839, by Messrs. Dease and Simpson, who, in a series of boat-voyages, traced the coast from Point Barrow to the estuary of the Back River. They laid down portions of Wollaston Land, and of King William's Island. Thus, the only gap in the completion of the North-West Passage was a connection between Franklin's Channel and the Gulf of Boothia. Dr. Rae was selected to make this completion. He surveyed portions of the Gulf of Boothia, and found that the Boothia isthmus separated this gulf from the sea explored by Dease and Simpson. In 1845 Sir John Franklin was sent out in command of the Erebus and Terror to attempt the North-West Passage. In July the expedition reached Whale Fish Island, Baffin's Bay, from whence letters despatched, and the last that was seen of it was


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on July 26, when it was making for Lancaster Sound.

In 1858 Sir Leopold McClintock and his expedition found some documents, from which it appears that Franklin proceeded through Lancaster Sound, and up Wellington Channel, to the north of Bathurst and Grinnell Island; then they turned south, through Crosier Channels, Barrow's Strait, Peel's Sound, and Franklin Channel, thus completing the discovery of the long-sought-for North-West voyage. The crew must have explored or seen portions of North Somerset, Prince of Wales's Island, Boothia Felix, and King William's Island, on or near which most of the crew died in the spring of 1848. As no news could be gleaned, search parties were sent out, the first in 1847, and McClintock's, which was the fortieth, in 1857. Here, however, we can only notice those which proceeded over new ground.

In 1849 Sir J. C. Ross traversed Peel Sound, and examined the coast of North Somerset as far south as 72° 38' N. Parry surveyed Wellington Channel as far as Cape Beecher. Captain Austin examined portions of Bathurst's Island and Byam Martin's Island, as also portions of Prince of Wales's Island and Russell's Island. This latter work was chiefly done by Captain Sherard Osborn, who was then a lieutenant. Captain



Austin also entered Jones Sound. In 1850 Captain M'Clure proceeded through Behring's Strait, doubled Point Barrow, and continued into the south end of Banks's Land or Baring's Island. He then passed through Prince of Wales's Strait, and got stopped by the ice in Parry's Sound. He wintered in the strait, and explored portions of the northern part of Wollaston Land, which he named Prince Albert Land. Parties sent out by him travelled round most of the island, the only part of the coast not explored being about one hundred and sixty miles along McClintock's Channel. In 1851 the attempt to cross Parry's Sound was renewed, but without success. A more northern route was tried, but he was compelled to take shelter in the Bay of Mercy, on the north side of Baring's Island. The ship was ice-bound during the next two winters, being relieved by Captain Kellett, of the Resolute. The ship was abandoned, but Captain M'Clure and his crew were transferred to the North Star, which took them to England through Baffin's Bay, and they were consequently the first persons who had traversed the North-West Passage from end to end. Mr. Kennedy and Lieutenant Bellot discovered Bellot's Strait in 1852. In this year, also, Sir Edward Belcher went up Wellington Channel to Northumberland Sound in 76° 52' ; he also surveyed the south side of North

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