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mist, surprised the English on their march, attacked and dis- before St. John the Baptist's day, and the king's determinapersed them."-DALRYMPLE's Annals of Scotland, quarto, tion, with divine grace, to raise the siege. “ Therefore," the Edinburgh, 1779, p. 25.

summons further bears, "to remove our said enemies and rebels from such places as above mentioned, it is necessary for us to have a strong force of infantry fit for arms." And ac

cordingly the sheriff of York is commanded to equip and NOTE 3 K.

send forth a body of four thousand infantry, to be assembled

at Werk, upon the tenth day of June first, ander pain of the When Randolph's war-cry swelld the southern gale.—P. 456.

royal displeasure, &c. Thomas Randolph, Bruce's sister's son, a renowned Scottish chief, was in the early part of his life not more remarkable for consistency than Bruce himself. He espoused his ancle's party when Bruce first assumed the crown, and was made

NOTE 3 N. prisoner at the fatal battle of Methven, in which his relative's hopes appeared to be ruined. Randolph accordingly not only

And Cambria, but of late subdued, submitted to the English, but took an active part against

Sent forth her mountain-multitude.-P. 456. Bruce ; appeared in arms against him; and, in the skirmish Edward the First, with the usual policy of a conqueror, where he was so closely pursued by the bloodhound, it is said employed the Welsh, whom he had subdued, to assist him in his nephew took his standard with his own hand. But Ran- his Scottish wars, for which their habits, as mountaineers, dolph was afterwards made prisoner by Donglas in Tweeddale, particularly fitted them. But this policy was not without its and brought hefore King Robert. Some harsh language was risks. Previous to the battle of Falkirk, the Welsh quarrelled exchanged between the uncle and nephew, and the latter was with the English men-at-arms, and after bloodshed on both committed for a time to close custody. Afterwards, however, parts, separated themselves from his army, and the feud be they were reconciled, and Randolph was created Earl of Mo- tween them, at so dangerous and critical a juncture, was recray about 1312. After this period he eminently distinguished onciled with difficulty. Edward II. followed his father's erhimself, first by the surprise of Edinburgh Castle, and after- ample in this particular, and with no better success. They wards by many similar enterprises, conducted with equal could not be brought to exert themselves in the cause of their courage and ability.

conquerors. But they had an indifferent reward for their forbearance. Without arms, and clad only in scanty dresses of linen cloth, they appeared naked in the eyes even of the Scot

tish peasantry; and after the rout of Bannockburn, were Nort 3 L.

massacred by them in great numbers, as they retired in con

fusion towards their own country. They were under com-Stirling's towers,

mand of Sir Maurice de Berkeley. Beleaguer'd by King Robert's powers ;

And they took term of truce.-P. 456. When a long train of success, actively improved by Robert Bruce, had made him master of almost all Scotland, Stirling

NOTE 3 0. Castle continued to hold out. The care of the blockade was committed by the king to his brother Edward, who concluded

And Connoght pour'd from waste and wood a treaty with Sir Philip Mowbray, the governor, that he should

Her hundred tribes, whose scepire rude surrender the fortress, if it were not succored by the King of

Dark Eth O'Connor sway'd.-P. 456. England before St. John the Baptist's day. The King se- There is in the Federa an invitation to Eth O'Connor, chief verely blamed his brother for the impolicy of a treaty, which of the Irish of Connaught, setting forth that the king was gave time to the King of England to advance to the relief of about to move against his Scottish rebels, and therefore rethe castle with all his assembled forces, and obliged himself questing the attendance of all the force he could muster, either either to meet them in battle with an inferior force, or to re- commanded by himself in person, or by some nobleman of his treat with dishonor. “Let all England come, answered

These auxiliaries were to be commanded by Richard the reckless Edward ; " we will fight them were they more." de Burgh, Earl of Ulster. Similar mandates were issued to The consequence was, of course, that each kingdom mustered the following Irish chiefs, whose names may astonish the onits strength for the expected battle; and as the space agreed learned, and amuse the antiquary. upon reached from Lent to Midsummer, full time was allowed for that purpose.

" Eth O Donnuld, Duci Hibernicorum de Tyconil;

Demod o Kahan, Duci Hibernicorum de Fernetrew;
Doneval 0 Neel, Duci Hibernicorum de Tryowyn;

Veel Macbreen, Duei Hibernicorum de Kynallewan ;
NOTE 3 M.

Eth Offyn, Duci Hibernicorum de Turtery ;

Admely Mac Anegus, Duci Hibernicorum de Onehagh;
To summon prince and peer,

Neel O Hanlan, Duci Hibernicorum de Erthere ;
At Berwick-bounds to meet their Liege.---P. 456.

Bien Mac Mahun, Duci Hibernicorum de Uriel ; There is printed in Rymer's Fædera the summons issued Lauercagh Mac Wyr, Duci Hibernicorum de Lougherin; upon this occasion to the sheriff of York; and he mentions Gillys 0 Railly, Duci Hibernicorum de Bresseny ; eighteen other persons to whom similar ordinances were issued. Geffrey 0 Fergy, Duci Hibernicorum de Montiragwil; It seems to respeet the infantry alone, for it is entitled, De Felyn 0 Honoghur, Daci Hibernicorum de Connach; peditibus ad recussum Castri de Stryvelin a Scotis obsessi, Donethoth O Bien, Duci Hibernicorum de Tothmund; properare faciendis. This circumstance is also clear from the Dermod Mac Arthy, Duci Hibernicorum de Dessemound; reasoning of the writ, which states: “We have understood Denenol Carbragh; that our Scottish enemies and rebels are endeavoring to collect Maur. Kenenagh Mac Margh ; as strong a force as possible of infantry, in strong and marshy Murghagh O Bryn; grounds, where the approach of cavalry would be difficult, David O Tothvill; between us and the castle of Stirling." It then sets forth Dermod O Tonoghar, Doffaly : Mowbray's agreement to surrender the castle, if not relieved Fyn O Dymsy ;

race.

Souethuth Mac Gillephatriek ;

Buchanan, and adopted by Mr. Nimmo, the author of the Lyssagh O Morth ;

History of Stirlingshire, there appears nothing to have preGilbertus Ekelly, Duci Hibernicorum de Omany;

vented the English approaching upon the carse, or level ground, Mac Ethelau ;

from Falkirk, either from turning the Scottish left flank, or Omalan Helyn, Duci Hibernicorum Midie."

from passing their position, if they preferred it, without coming Rymer's Fædera, vol. iii. pp. 476, 477. to an action, and moving on to the relief of Stirling. And the

Gillies' Hill, if this less probable hypothesis be adopted, would be situated, not in the rear, as allowed by all the historians,

but upon the left flank of Bruce's army. The only objection NOTE 3 P.'

to the hypothesis above laid down, is, that the left flank of

Bruce's army was thereby exposed to a sally from the garrison Their chief, Fitz-Louis.--P. 458.

of Stirling. But, Ist, the garrison were bound to neutrality by Fitz-Louis, or Mac-Louis, otherwise called Fullarton, is a terms of Mowbray's treaty; and Barbour even seems to cenfamily of ancient descent in the Isle of Arran. They are said sure, as a breach of faith, some secret assistance which they to be of French origin, as the name intimates. They attached rendered their countrymen upon the eve of battle, in placing themselves to Bruce upon his first landing; and Fergus Mac- temporary bridges of doors and spars over the pools of water in Louis, or Fullarton, received from the grateful monarch a the carse, to enable them to advance to the charge.l 2dly, Had charter, dated 26th November, in the second year of his reign this not been the case, the strength of the garrison was proba(1307), for the lands of Kilmichel, and others, which still re- bly not sufficient to excite apprehension. 3dly, The adverse main in this very ancient and respectable family.

hypothesis leaves the rear of the Scottish army as much exposed to the Stirling garrison, as the left flank would be in the case sa pposed.

It only remains to notice the nature of the ground in front of NOTE 3 Q.

Bruce's line of battle. Being part of a park, or chase, it was

considerably interrupted with trees; and an extensive marsh, In battles four beneath their eye,

still visible, in some places rendered it inaccessible, and in all The forces of King Robert lie.-P. 458.

of difficult approach. More to the northward, where the natuThe arrangements adopted by King Robert for the decisive ral impediments were fewer, Bruce fortified his position against battle of Bannockburn, are given very distinctly by Barbour, cavalry, by digging a number of pits so close together, says and form an edifying lesson to tacticians. Yet, till commented Barbour, as to resemble the cells in a honey-comb. They a pon by Lord Hailes, this important passage of history has were a foot in breadth, and between two and three feet deep, been generally and strangely misunderstood by historians. I many rows of them being placed one behind the other. They will here endeavor to detail it fully.

were slightly covered with brushwood and green sods, so as not Two days before the battle, Bruce selected the field of action, to be obvious to an impetuous enemy. and took post there with his army, consisting of about 30,000 All the Scottish army were on foot, excepting a select body disciplined men, and about half the number of disorderly attend- of cavalry stationed with Edward Bruce on the right wing, ants upon the camp. The ground was called the New Park of under the immediate command of Sir Robert Keith, the MarStirling; it was partly open, and partly broken by copses of shal of Scotland, who were destined for the important service wood and marshy ground. He divided his regalar forces into of charging and dispersing the English archers. four divisions. Three of these occupied a front line, separated Thus judiciously posted, in a situation fortified both by art from each other, yet sufficiently near for the purpose of com- and nature, Bruce awaited the attack of the English. munication. The fourth division formed a reserve. The line extended in a north-easterly direction from the brook of Bannock, which was so rugged and broken as to cover the right flank effectually, to the village of Saint Ninians, probably in

NOTE 3 R. the line of the present road from Stirling to Kilsyth. Edward Bruce commanded the right wing, which was strengthened by

Beyond, the Southern host appears.-P. 458. a strong body of cavalry under Keith, the Mareschal of Scot- Upon the 230 June, 1314, the alarm reached the Scottish land, to whom was committed the important charge of attack- army of the approach of the enemy. Douglas and the Marshal ing the English archers ; Douglas, and the young Steward of were sent to reconnoitre with a body of cavalry : Scotland, led the central wing; and Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, the left wing. The King himself commanded the " And soon the great host have they seen, fourth division, which lay in reserve behind the others. The

Where shields shining were so sheen, royal standard was pitched, according to tradition, in a stone,

And basinets burnished bright, having a round hole for its reception, and thence called the

That gave against the sun great light. Bore-stone. . It is still shown on the top of a small eminence,

They saw so felea brawdynes baners, called Brock's-brae, to the southwest of Saint Ninians. His

Standards and pennons and spears, main body thus disposed, King Robert sent the followers of the

And so fele knights upon steeds, camp, fifteen thousand and upwards in number, to the emi

All flaming in their weeds, nence in rear of his army, called from that circumstance the

And so fele bataills, and so broad. Gillics' (i. e. the servants') Hill.

And too so great room as they rode, The military advantages of this position were obvious. The

That the maist host, and the stoutest Scottish left flank, protected by the brook of Bannock, could

Of Christendom and the greatest, not be turned ; or, if that attempt were made, a movement by

Should be abaysit for to see the reserve might have covered it. Again, the English could Their foes into such quantity." not pass the Scottish army, and move towards Stirling, without

The Bruce, vol. ii.

P.

111, exposing their flank to be attacked while in march.

If, on the other hand, the Scottish line had been drawn ap The two Scottish commanders were cautious in the account east and west, and facing the southward, as affirmed by which they brought back to their camp. To the king in private they told the formidable state of the enemy; but in public evening of the 230 of June. Bruce was then riding a pon a reported that the English were indeed a numerous host, but ill little palfrey, in front of his foremost line, putting his host in commanded, and worse disciplined.

1 An assistance which (by the way) could not have been rendered, had not the English approached from the southeast; since, had their march

been due north, the whole Scottish army must have been between them and the garrison.

9 Many.

8 Displayed.

order. It was then that the personal encounter took place be twixt him and Sir Henry de Bohun, a gallant English knight, the issue of which had a great effect upon the spirits of both

armies. It is thus recorded by BARBOUR :NOTE 3 S.

" And quhen Glosyster and Herfurd war With these the valiant of the Isles

With thair bataill, approchand ner, Beneath their chieftains rank'd their files.-P. 458.

Before thaim all thar come rydand, The men of Argyle, the islanders, and the Highlanders in With helm on heid, and sper in hand general, were ranked in the rear. They must have been nu- Schyr Henry the Boune, the worthi, merous, for Bruce bad reconciled himself with almost all their

That wes a wycht knycht, and a hardy ; chieftains, excepting the obnoxious MacDougals of Lorn.

And to the Erle off Herfurd cosyne :
The following deed, containing the submission of the potent Armyt in armys gud and fyne ;
Earl of Ross to the King, was never before published. It is

Come on a sted, a bow schote ner, dated in the third year of Robert's reign, that is, 1309.

Befor all othyr that thar wer:

And knew the King, for that he saw " OBLIGACIO Comitis RossENSIS PER HOMAGIUM FIDELI

Him swa rang his men on raw;

And by the croune, that wes set
TATEM ET SCRIPTUM.

Alsua apon his bassynet. "Universis christi fidelibus ad quorum noticiam presentes

And towart him he went in hy. litere peruenerint Willielmus Comes de Ross salutem in domi

And [quhen) the King sua apertly no sempiternam. Quia magnificus princeps Dominus Robertus

Saw him cum, foroath all his feris, 1 dei gracia Rex Scottorum Dominus mens ex innata sibi boni- In hy® till him the hors he steris. tate, inspirataque clemencia, et gracia speciali remisit michi And quhen Schyr Henry saw the King pure rancorem animi sui, et relaxauit ac condonauit michi om

Cum on, for owtyn abaysing, nimodas transgressiones seu offensas contra ipsum et suos per Till him he raid in full gret hy me et meos vsque ad confeccionem literarum presencium per

He thoucht that he suld weill lychtly petratas : Et terras meas et tenementa mea omnia graciose con

Wyn him, and haf him at his will, cessit. Et me nichilominus de terra de Dingwal et ferncroskry

Sen he him horsyt saw sa ill. infra comitatum de Suthyrland de benigna liberalitate sua heri

Sprent* thai samyn in till a ling. ditarie infeodare caranit. Ego tantam principis beneuolenciam

Schyr Henry myssit the noble King. efficaciter attendens, et pro tot graciis michi factis, vicem sibi

And he, that in his sterapys stud, gratitudinis meis pro viribus de cetero digne

With the ax that wes hard and gad, vite cu piens exhibere, subicio et obligo me et heredes meos et With sa gret mayner racht him a dynt, homines meos vniuersos dicto Domino meo Regi per omnia

That nothyr hat, na helm, nycht stynt -- erga suam regiam dignitatem, quod eri

The hewy dusches that he him gave, mus de cetero fideles sibi et heredibus suis et fidele sibi seruicium That ner the heid till the harynys clave. auxilium et concilium

--- contra omnes homi

The hand ax schaft fruschit in twa; nes et feminas qui vivere poterint aut mori, et super h --- Ego And he doune to the erd gan ga Willielmus pro me -

hominibus meis vni

All flatlynys, 10 for him faillyt mycht. uersis dicto domino meo Regi - -- manibus homagium

This wes the fryst strak off the fycht." sponte feci et super dei ewangelia sacramentum prestiti ---

BARBOUR's Bruce, Book viii, v. 684. --- In quorum omnium testimonium sigillum meum, et sigilla Hugonis filii et heredis et Johannis filii mei vna cum The Scottish leaders remonstrated with the King upon his sigillis venerabilium patrum Dominorum Dauid et Thome Mo- temerity. He only answered, “I have broken my good battleraviensis et Rossensis dei gracia episcoporum presentibus literis axe.”—The English vanguard retreated after witnessing this sunt appensa. Acta scripta et data apud Aldern in Moravia single combat. Probably their generals did not think it advisavltimo die mensis Octobris, Anno Regni dicti domini nostri ble to hazard an attack while its unfavorable issue remained Regis Roberti Tertio. Testibus venerabilibus patribus su pra

upon their minds. dietis, Domino Bernardo Cancellario Regis, Dominis Willielmo de Haya, Johanne de Strigelyn, Willielmo Wysman, Johanne de Ffenton, Dauid de Berkeley, et Waltero de Berkeley militibus, magistro Waltero Heroc, Decano ecclesie Mora

NOTE 3 U. uie, magistro Willielmo de Creswel eiusdem ecclesie precentore et multis aliis nobilibus clericis et laicis dictis die et loco con

What train of dust, with trumpet sound, gregatis."

And glimmering spears, is wheeling round

Our leftward flank?-460. The copy of this curious document was supplied by my While the van of the English army advanced, a detached friend, Mr. Thomson, Deputy Register of Scotland, whose re- body attempted to relieve Stirling. Lord Hailes gives the folsearches into our ancient records are daily throwing new and lowing account of this manæuvre and the result, which is acimportant light upon the history of the country.

companied by circumstances highly characteristic of the chiralrous manners of the age, and displays that generosity which

reconciles us even to their ferocity upon other occasions. NOTE 3 T.

Bruce had enjoined Randolph, who commanded the left

wing of his army, to be vigilant in preventing any advanced The Monarch rode along the van.-P. 459.

parties of the English from throwing succors into the castle of The English vanguard, commanded by the Earls of Glouces- Stirling. ter and Hereford, came in sight of the Scottish army upon the “Eight hundred borsemen, commanded by Sir Robert Clif

1 Comrades.--2 Haste.—3 Without shrinking-4 Spurred.-5 Line.

6 Strength, or foree.-7 Heavy- Clash.-9 Broke.-10 Flat.

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Pp. 44, 45.

ford, were detached from the English army; they made a cir- Scottish of this period certainly observed some musical cacuit by the low grounds to the east, and approached the castle. dence, even in winding their horns, since Bruce was at once The King perceived their motions, and, coming up to Ran- recognized by his followers from his mode of blowing. See dolph, angrily exclaimed, “Thoughtless man! you have suf- Note 2 T. on canto iv. But the tradition, true or false, has fered the enemy to pass.' Randolph hasted to repair his been the means of securing to Scotland one of the finest lyrics in fault, or perish. As he advanced, the English cavalry wheeled the language, the celebrated war-song of Burns,—"Scots, wha to attack him. Randolph drew up his troops in a circular hae wi' Wallace bled." form, with their spears resting on the ground, and protended on every side. At the first onset, Sir William Daynecourt, an English commander of distinguished mote, was slain. The enemy, far superior in numbers to Randolph, environed him,

NOTE 3 W. and pressed hard on his little band. Douglas saw his jeopardy, and requested the King's permission to go and succor him.

Now onward, and in open view, You shall not move from your ground,' cried the King ; 'let

The countless ranks of England drew.-P. 461. Randolph extricate himself as he best may. I will not alter Upon the 24th of June, the English army advanced to the my order of battle, and lose the advantage of my position.'- attack. The narrowness of the Scottish front, and the nature * In truth,' replied Douglas, ' I cannot stand by and see Ran- of the ground, did not permit them to have the full advantage dolph perish ; and, therefore, with your leave, I must aid of their numbers, nor is it very easy to find out what was their him.' The King unwillingly consented, and Douglas flew to proposed order of battle. The vanguard, however, appeared the assistance of his friend. While approaching, he perceived a distinct body, consisting of archers and spearmen on foot, that the English were falling into disorder, and that the perse- and commanded, as already said, by the Earls of Gloucester verance of Randolph had prevailed over their impetuous cour- and Hereford, Barbour, in one place, mentions that they age. Halt,' cried Douglas, 'those brave men have repulsed formed nine BATTLES or divisions ; but from the following the enemy; let us not diminish their glory by sharing it.'"

passage,

it

appears that there was no room or space for them DALRYMPLE's Annals of Scotland, 4to. Edinburgh, 1779, to extend themselves, so that, except the vanguard, the whole

army appeared to form one solid and compact body :Two large stones erected at the north end of the village of Newhouse, about a quarter of a mile from the south part of

“ The English men, on either party, Stirling, ascertain the place of this memorable skirmish. Tne

That as angels shone brightly, circumstance tends, were confirmation necessary, to support

Were not array'd on such manner : the opinion of Lord Hailes, that the Scottish line had Stirling

For all their battles samyna were on its left flank. It will be remembered, that Randolph com

In a schiltrum. But whether it was manded infantry, Daynecourt cavalry. Supposing, therefore,

Through the great straitness of the place according to the vulgar hypothesis, that the Scottish line was

That they were in, to bide fighting ; drawn up, facing to the south, in the line of the brook of Ban

Or that it was for abaysing ;4 nock, and consequently that Randolph was stationed with his

I wete not. But in a schiltrum left flank resting upon Milntown bog, it is morally impossible

It seemed they were all and some ; that his infantry, moving from that position, with whatever

Out ta'en the vaward anerly,6 celerity, could cut off from Stirling a body of cavalry who had

That right with a great company, already passed St. Ninians, 1 or, in other words, were already

Be them selwyn, arrayed were. between them and the town. Whereas, supposing Randolph's

Who had been by, might have seen there left to have approached St. Ninians, the short movement to

That folk ourtake a mekill feild Newhouse could easily be executed, so as to intercept the Eng

On breadth, where many a shining shield, lish in the manner described.

And many a burnished bright armour,
And many a man of great valour,
Might in that great schiltrum be seen:
And many a bright banner and sheen."
BARBOUR's Bruce, vol. 11. P.

137.
NOTE 3 V.
Responsive from the Scottish host,
Pipe-clang and bugle-sound were toss'd.-P. 461.

NOTE 3 X. There is an old tradition, that the well-known Scottish tune of “ Hay, tutti taitti," was Bruce's march at the battle of

See where yon barefoot Abbot stands, Bannockburn. The late Mr. Ritson, no granter of proposi

And blesses them with lifted hands.-P. 461. tions, doubts whether the Scots had any martial music, quotes “Maurice, abbot of Inchaffray, placing himself on an emiFroissart's account of each soldier in the host bearing a little nence, celebrated mass in sight of the Scottish army. He then horn, on which, at the onset, they would make such a horrible passed along the front barefooted, and bearing a crucifix in his noise, as if all the devils of hell had been among them. He hands, and exhorting the Scots, in a few and forcible words, observes, that these horns are the only music mentioned by to combat for their rights and their liberty. The Scots kneeled Barbour, and concludes, that it must remain a moot point down. "They yield,' cried Edward ; 'see, they implore merwhether Brace's army were cheered by the sound even of a cy.'— They do,' answered Ingelram de Umfraville, but not solitary bagpipe.- Historical Essay prefired to Ritson's On that field they will be victorious, or die.'"-Annals Scottish Songs.-It may be observed in passing, that the of Scotland, vol. ii. p. 47.

our.

1 Barbour says expressly, they avoided the New Park (where Bruce's srmy lay), and held "well neath the Kirk," which can only mean St. Ninians.

9 Together.

2 Schiltrum.---This word has been variously limited or extended in its signification. In general, it seems to imply a large body of men drawn up very closely together, But it has been limited to imply a round or circular body of men so drawn up. I cannot understand it with this limitation in the present case. The achiltrum of the Scottish army at Falkirk was un

doubtedly of a circular form, in order to resist the attacks of the English
cavalry, on whatever quarter they might be charged. But it does not ap-
pear how, or why, the English, advancing to the attack at Bannockburn,
should have arrayed themselves in a circular form. It seems more proba-
ble, that, by Schiltrum in the present case, Barbour means to express an
irregular mass into which the English army was compressed by the on-
wieldiness of its numbers, and the carelessness or ignorance of its leaders.

4 Frightening.
5 Alone.

p. 110.

NOTE 3 Y.

for the service proposed." of such little use is experience in

war, where its results are opposed by habit or prejudice.
Forth, Marshal, on the peasant foe!
We'll tame the terrors of their bow,

And cut the bow-string loose !--P. 462.
The English archers commenced the attack with their usual

NOTE 3 Z. bravery and dexterity. But against a force, whose importance

Each braggart churl could boast before, he had learned by fatal experience, Bruce was provided. A

Twelve Scottish lives his baldric bore !--P. 462. small but select body of cavalry were detached from the right, under command of Sir Robert Keith. They rounded, as I

Roger Ascham quotes a similar Scottish proverb, “ whereby conceive, the marsh called Milntown bog, and, keeping the

they give the whole praise of shooting honestly to Englishmen, firm ground, charged the left flank and rear of the English saying thus, 'that every English archer beareth under his girarchers. As the bowmen had no spears nor long weapons fit

dle twenty-four Scottes. Indeed Toxophilus says before, and to defend themselves against horse, they were instantly thrown

truly of the Scottish nation, • The Scottes surely be good men into disorder, and spread through the whole English army a

of warre in theyre owne feates as can be ; but as for shoot confusion from which they never fairly recovered.

inge, they can neither use it to any profite, nor yet challenge it

for any praise."—Works of Ascham, edited by Bennet, 4to. “ The Inglis archeris schot sa fast, That mycht thair schot haff ony last,

It is said, I trust incorrectly, by an ancient English historian, It had bene hard to Scottis men.

that the “good Lord James of Douglas" dreaded the superiBot King Robert, that wele gan ken!

ority of the English archers so much, that when he made any That thair archeris war peralouss,

of them prisoner, he gave him the option of losing the foretinAnd thair schot rycht hard and grewouss,

ger of his right hand, or his right eye, either species of matilaOrdanyt, forouth2 the assemblé,

tion rendering him incapable to use the bow. I have mislaid Hys marschell with a gret menye,

the reference to this singular passage.
Fyve hundre armyt in to stele,
That on lycht horss war horsyt welle,
For to pryks amang the archeris ;
And swa assaile thaim with thair speris,

NOTE 4 A.
That thai na layser haiff to schute.

Down! down! in headlong overthrow,
This marschell that Ik of mute,4

Horseman and horse, the foremost go.-P. 462.
That Schyr Robert of Keyth was cauld,
As Ik befor her has yow tauld,

It is generally alleged by historians, that the English men-at-
Quhen he saw the bataillis sua

arms fell into the hidden snare which Bruce had prepared for Assembill, and to gidder ga,

them. Barbour does not mention the circumstance. AccordAnd saw the archeris schoyt stoutly;

ing to his account, Randolph, seeing the slaughter made by With all thaim off his cumpany,

the cavalry on the right wing among the archers, advanced In hy apon thaim gan he rid;

courageously against the main body of the English, and enAnd our tuk thaim at a sid:

tered into close combat with them. Douglas and Stuart, who And ruschyt amang thaim sa rudly,

commanded the Scottish centre, led their division also to the Stekand thaim sa dispitously,

charge, and the battle becoming general along the whole lire, And in sic fusoun berand doun,

was obstinately maintained on both sides for a long space of And slayand thaim, for owtyn ransoun;7

time; the Scottish archers doing great execution among the That thai thaim scalyts euirilkane.

English men-at-arms, after the bowmen of England were dis-
And fra that tyme furth thar wes nane

persed.
That assemblyt schot to ma.10
Quhen Scottis archeris saw that thai sua
War rebutyt, 11 thai woux hardy,

NOTE 4 B.
And with all thair mycht schot egrely

And steeds that shriek in agony.-P. 462.
Amang the høres men, that thar raid ;
And woundis wid to thaim thai maid ;

I have been told that this line requires an explanatory note ;
And slew of thaim a full gret dele.”

and, indeed, those who witness the silent patience with which BARBOUR's Bruce, Book ix. v. 228. horses submit to the most cruel usage, may be permitted to

doubt, that, in moments of sudden and intolerable angoisk, Although the success of this maneuvre was evident, it is

they utter a most melancholy cry. Lord Erskine, in a speech very remarkable that the Scottish generals do not appear to made in the House of Lords, upon a bill for enforcing humahave profited by the lesson. Almost every subsequent battle nity towards animals, noticed this remarkable fact, in language which they lost against England, was decided by the archers, which I will not mutilate by attempting to repeat it. It was to whom the close and compact array of the Scottish phalanx

my fortune, upon one occasion, to hear a horse, in a moment afforded an exposed and unresisting mark. The bloody battle

of agony, utter a thrilling scream, which I still consider the of Halidoun-hill, fought scarce twenty years afterwards, was

most melancholy sound I ever heard. 80 completely gained by the archers, that the English are said to have lost only one knight, one esquire, and a few foot-soldiers. At the battle of Neville's Cross, in 1346, where David II. was defeated and made prisoner, John de Graham, observ

NOTE 4 C. ing the loss which the Scots sustained from the English bowmen, offered to charge and disperse them, if a hundred men-at

Lord of the Isles, my trust in thee arms were put under his command. " But, to confess the

Is firm as Ailsa Rock : truth," says Fordun," he could not procure a single horseman

Rush on with Highland sword and targe,

I, with my Carrick spearmen charge.-P. 464. 1 Know.-- Disjoined from the main body.-3 Spur.-4 That I speak of.—5 Set upon their flank.--6 Numbers.--7 Ransom, -- 8 Dispersed.

When the engagement between the main bodies had lasted 9 Every one.- 10 Make-11 Driven back,

some time, Bruce made a decisive movement, by bringing op

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