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And this fell in his time;
thynges, as well in clothyng as in other causes. Moche ado I And Christ them bless both farre and neare,
had at the fyrst to cause them to weare gownes of sylke, furAll that for solace list this to heare,
red with myneuere and gray; for before these kynges thought And him that made the rhime.
themselfe well apparelled whan they had on a mantell. They
rode alwayes without saddles and styropes, and with great Ralph Rokeby with full good will,
payne I made them to ride after our usage."-LORD BERNERS" The Fryers of Richmond he gave her till,
Froissart. Lond. 1812, 4to. vol. ii. p. 621.
The influence of these bards upon their patrons, and their
admitted title to interfere in matters of the weightiest concer, Would needs bring the fat sew hame,
may be also proved from the behavior of one of them at an i That rued him since full sare.
terview between Thomas Fitzgerald, son of the Earl of Kodare, then about to renounce the English allegiance, and the Lord Chancellor Cromer, who made a long and goodly oration
to dissuade him from his purpose. The young lord had come NOTE 3 C.
to the council "armed and weaponed," and attended by sevea
score horsemen in their shirts of mail; and we are assured that The Filea of O'Neale was he.-P. 334.
the chancellor, having set forth his oration “ with such a laThe Filea, or Ollamh Re Dan, was the proper bard, or, as mentable action as his cheekes were all beblubbered with teares, the name literally implies, poet. Each chieftain of distinction the horsemen, namelie, such as understood not English, began had one or more in his service, whose office was usually hered- to diuine what the lord-chancellor meant with all this long ciritary. The late ingenious Mr. Cooper Walker has assembled cumstance; some of them reporting that he was preaching a a curious collection of particulars concerning this order of men, sermon, others said that he stood making of some heroical! in his Historical Memoirs of the Irish Bards. There were itin- poetry in the praise of the Lord Thomas. And thus as every erant bards of legs elevated rank, but all were held in the high- idiot shot his foolish bolt at the wise chancellor his discourse, . est veneration. The English, who considered them as chief who in effect had nought else but drop pretious stones before supporters of the spirit of national independence, were much hogs, one Bard de Nelan, an Irish rithmour, and a rotten steepo disposed to proscribe this race of poets, as Edward I. is said to to infect a whole flocke, was chatting of Irish verses, as though have done in Wales. Spenser, while he admits the merit of his toong had run on pattens, in commendation of the Lord their wild poetry, as “ savoring of sweet wit and good inven- Thomas, investing him with the title of Silken Thomas, bieaus tion, and sprinkled with some pretty flowers of their natural his horsemens jacks were gorgeously imbroidered with silke : device," yet rigorously condemns the whole application of their and in the end he told him that he lingered there ouer long : poetry, as abased to "the gracing of wickedness and vice.” whereat the Lord Thomas being quickened,"I as Holinshed The household minstrel was admitted even to the feast of the expresses it, bid defiance to the chancellor, threw down conprince whom he served, and sat at the same table. It was temptuously the sword of office, which, in his father's absence, one of the customs of which Sir Richard Sewry, to whose he held as deputy, and rushed forth to engage in open insur charge Richard II. committed the instruction of four Irish rection. monarchs in the civilization of the period, found it most difficult to break his royal disciples, though he had also much ado to subject them to other English rules, and particularly to reconcile them to wear breeches. " The kyng, my souerevigne
NOTE 3 D. lord's entent was, that in maner, countenaunce, and apparel of clothyng, they sholde use according to the maner of Englande,
Ah, Clandeboy! thy friendly floor for the kynge thought to make them all four knyghtes: they
Slieve-Donard's oak shall light no more.-P. 335. had a fayre house to lodge in, in Davelyn, and I was charged Clandeboy is a district of Ulster, formerly possessed by the to abyde styll with them, and not to departe; and so two or sept of the O'Neales, and Slieve-Donard, a romantic mountain three dayes I suffered them to do as they list, and sayde noth- in the same province. The clan was ruined after Tyrone's yng to them, but folowed their owne appetytes : they wolde great rebellion, and their places of abode laid desolate. The sitte at the table, and make countenances nother good nor ancient Irish, wild and uncultivated in other respects, did not fayre. Than I thought I shulde cause them to chaunge that yield even to their descendants in practising the most free and maner; they wolde cause their mynstrells, their seruantes, and extended hospitality; and doubtless the bards mourned the varlettes, to sytte with them, and to eate in their owne dyssche, decay of the mansion of their chiefs in strains similar to the and to drinke of their cuppes; and they shewed me that the verses of the British Llywarch Hen on a similar occasion, usage of their cuntre was good, for they sayd in all thyngs which are affecting, even through the discouraging medium of (except their beddes) they were and lyved as comen. So the a literal translationfourthe day I ordayned other tables to be couered in the hall, after the usage of Englande, and I made these four knyghtes “Silent-breathing gale, long wilt thou be heard ! to sytte at the hyghe table, and there mynstrels at another borde, There is scarcely another deserving praise, and their seruauntes and varlettes at another byneth them, Since Urien is no more. wherof by semynge they were displeased, and beheld each other, and wolde not eate, and sayde, how I wolde take fro Many a dog that scented well the prey, and aèrial hawk, them their good usage, wherein they had been norished. Then Have been train'd on this floor I answered them, smylyng, to apeace them, that it was not Before Erlleon became polluted . honourable for their estates to do as they dyde before, and that they must leave it, and use the custom of Englande, and that This hearth, ah, will it not be covered with nettles! it was the kynge's pleasure they shalde so do, and how he was Whilst its defender lived, charged so to order them. When they harde that, they suffer- More congenial to it was the foot of the needy petitioner. ed it, bycause they had putte themselfe under the obesyance of the Kynge of England, and parceuered in the same as long This hearth, will it not be covered with green sod! as I was with them ; yet they had one use which I knew was In the lifetime of Owain and Elphin, well used in their contre, and that was, they dyde were no Its ample caldron boiled the prey taken from the foe. breches ; I caused breches of lynen clothe to be made for them. Whyle I was with them I caused them to leaue many rude
1 Hollinshed. Lond. 1808, 4to. volvi. p. 291.
This hearth, will it not be covered with toad-stools ! Around the viand it prepared, more cheering was The clattering sword of the fierce dauntless warrior.
The hall of Cynddylan is silent this night,
This earth, will it not be overgrown with spreading
brambles ! Till now, logs of burning wood lay on it, Accustom'd to prepare the gifts of Reged !
NOTE 3 E.
This hearth, will it not be covered with thorns ! More congenial on it would have been the mixed group of Owain's social friends united in harmony.
This hearth, will it not be covered with ants !
This hearth, will it not be covered with dock-leaves !
This hearth, will it not be turned up by the swine !
Heroic Elegics of Llywarc Hen, by Owex.
Lond. 1792, 8vo. p. 41.
M'Curtin's harp.-P. 336. “MacCurtin, hereditary Ollamh of North Munster, and Filea to Donough, Earl of Thomond, and President of Munster. This nobleman was amongst those who were prevailed upon to join Elizabeth's forces. Soon as it was known that he had basely abandoned the interests of his country, MacCurtin presented an adulatory poem to MacCarthy, chief of South Munster, and of the Eugenian line, who, with O'Neil, O'Donnel, Lacy, and others, were deeply engaged in protecting their violated country. In this poem he dwelt with rapture on the courage and patriotism of MacCarthy; but the verse that should (according to an established law of the order of the bards) be introduced in the praise of O'Brien, he turns into severe satire :— How am I afflicted (says he) that the descendant of the great Brion Boiromh cannot furnish me with a theme worthy the honor and glory of his exalted race!' Lord Thomond, hearing this, vowed vengeance on the spirited bard, who fled for refuge to the county of Cork. One day, observing the exasperated nobleman and his equipage at a small distance, he thought it was in vain to fly, and pretended to be suddenly seized with the pangs of death ; directing his wife to lament over him, and tell his lordship, that the sight of him, by awakening the sense of his ingratitude, had so much affected him that he could not support it; and desired her at the same time to tell his lordship, that he entreated, as a dying request, his forgiveness. Soon as Lord Thomond arrived, the feigned tale was related to him. That nobleman was moved to compassion, and not only declared that he most heartily forgave him, but, opening his purse, presented the fair mourner with some pieces to inter him. This instance of his lordship’s pity and generosity gave courage to the trembling bard; who, suddenly springing up, recited an extemporaneous ode in praise of Donough, and, re-entering into his service, became once more his favorite."-WALKER's Memoirs of the Irish Bards. Lond. 1786, 4to. p.
NOTE 3 F. The ancient English minstrel's dress.-P. 336. Among the entertainments presented to Elizabeth at Kenilworth Castle, was the introduction of a person designed to represent a travelling minstrel, who entertained her with a solemn story out of the Acts of King Arthur. Of this person's dress and appearance Mr. Laneham has given us a very accurate account, transferred by Bishop Percy to the preliminary Dissertation on Minstrels, prefixed to his Reliques of Ancient Poetry, vol. i.
The ball of Cynddylan is gloomy this night,
The hall of Cynddylan is gloomy this night,
The hall of Cynddylan pierces me to see it,
NOTE 3 G.
Litdecote Hall.-P. 340. The tradition from which the ballad is founded was supplied by a friend (the late Lord Webb Seymour), whose account I will not do the injustice to abridge, as it contains an admirable picture of an old English hall :
“ Littlecote House stands in a low and lonely situation. On three sides it is surrounded by a park that spreads over the adjoining hill; on the fourth, by meadows which are watered by the river Kennet. Close on one side of the house is a
The hall of Cynddylan is the seat of chill grief this night,
thick grove of lofty trees, along the verge of which runs one midwife was strongly agitated by the horrors of the preceding of the principal avenues to it through the park. It is an night ; and she immediately made a deposition of the facts irregular building of great antiquity, and was probably erected before a magistrate. Two circumstances afforded hopes of about the time of the termination of feudal warfare, when detecting the house in which the crime had been committed; defence came no longer to be an object in a country mansion. one was, that the midwife, as she sat by the bedside, had, with Many circumstances, however, in the interior of the house, a view to discover the place, cut out a piece of the bed-curtain, seem appropriate to feudal times. The hall is very spacious, and sewn it in again ; the other was, that as she had descended floored with stones, and lighted by large transom windows, the staircase she had counted the steps. Some suspicions fell that are clothed with casements. Its walls are hong with old upon one Darrell, at that time the proprietor of Littlecote military accoutrements, that have long been left a prey to rust. House, and the domain around it. The house was examined, At one end of the hall is a range of coats of mail and helmets, and identified by the midwife, and Darrell was tried at Salisand there is on every side abundance of old-fashioned pistols bury for the murder. By corrupting his judge, he escaped the and guns, many of them with match-locks. Immediately be sentence of the law; but broke his neck by a fall from his low the cornice hangs a row of leathern jerkins, made in the horse in hunting, in a few months after. The place where this form of a shirt, supposed to have been worn as armor by the happened is still known by the name of Darrell's Style,-a vassals. A large oak table, reaching nearly from one end of spot to be dreaded by the peasant whom the shades of evening the room to the other, might have feasted the whole neighbor- have overtaken on his way. hood, and an appendage to one end of it made it answer at "Littlecote House is two miles from Hungerford, in Berkother times for the old game of shuffleboard. The rest of the shire, through which the Bath road passes. The fact occurred furniture is in a suitable style, particularly an arm-chair of in the reign of Elizabeth. All the important circumstances I cumbrous workmanship, constructed of wood, curiously turned, have given exactly as they are told in the country ; some trifles with a high back and triangular seat, said to have been used only are added, either to render the whole connected, or to by Judge Popham in the reign of Elizabeth. The entrance increase the impression." into the hall is at one end, by a low door, communicating with To Lord Webb's edition of this singular story, the author a passage that leads from the outer door in the front of the can now add the following account, extracted from Aubrey's house to a quadranglel within ; at the other, it opens upon a Correspondence. It occurs among other particulars respecting gloomy staircase, by which you ascend to the first floor, and, Sir John Popham :passing the doors of some bedehambers, enter a narrow gallery,
"Sir Dayrell, of Littlecote, in Corn. Wilts, harwhich extends along the back front of the house from one end | ing gott his lady's waiting-woman with child, when ber iravell to the other of it, and looks upon an old garden. This gallery came, sent a servant with a horse for a midwife, whom he is hung with portraits, chiefly in the Spanish dresses of the was to bring hood-winked. She was brought, and layd the sixteenth century. In one of the bedchambers, which you woman, but as soon as the child was born, she sawe the knight pass in going towards the gallery, is a bedstead with blue fur- take the child and murther it, and burn it in the fire in the niture, which time has now made dingy and threadbare, and chamber. She having done ber businesse, was extraordinarily in the bottom of one of the bed-curtains you are shown a place rewarded for her paines, and sent blindfolded away. This where a small piece has been cut out and sewn in again,-a horrid action did much run in her mind, and she had a desire circumstance which serves to identify the scene of the follow- to discover it, but knew not where 'twas. She considered ing story :
with herself the time that she was riding, and how many miles " It was on a dark rainy night in the month of November, she might have rode at that rate in that time, and that it that an old midwife sat musing by her cottage fire-side, when must be some great person's house, for the roome was 12 foot on a sudden she was startled by a loud knocking at the door. high; and she should know the chamber if she sawe it. She On opening it she found a horseman, who told her that her went to a Justice of Peace, and search was made. The very assistance was required immediately by a person of rank, and chamber found. The Knight was brought to his tryall; and, that she should be bandsomely rewarded; but that there were to be short, this judge had this noble honse, parke and manner, reasons for keeping the affair a strict secret, and, therefore, she and (I thinke) more, for a bribe to save his life. must submit to be blindfolded, and to be conducted in that “Sir John Popham gave sentence according to lawe, but condition to the bedchamber of the lady. With some hesita- being a great person and a favourite, he procured a noli tion the midwife consented; the horseman bound her eyes, prosequi." and placed her on a pillion behind him. After proceeding in With this tale of terror the author has combined some cir silence for many miles through rough and dirty lanes, they cumstances of a similar legend, which was current at Edinstopped, and the midwife was led into a house, which, from burgh during his childhood. the length of her walk through the apartments, as well as the About the beginning of the eighteenth century, when the sounds about her, she discovered to be the seat of wealth and large castles of the Scottish nobles, and even the secluded power. When the bandage was removed from her eyes, she hotels, like those of the French noblesse, which they possessed found herself in a bedchamber, in which were the lady on in Edinburgh, were sometimes the scenes of strange and myswhose account she had been sent for, and a man of a hanghty terious transactions, a divine of singular sanctity was called up and ferocious aspect. The lady was delivered of a fine boy. at midnight to pray with a person at the point of death. This Immediately the man commanded the midwife to give him the was no unusual summons ; but what followed was alarming. child, and, catching it from her, he hurried across the room, He was put into a sedan-chair, and after he had been transand threw it on the back of the fire, that was blazing in the ported to a remote part of the town, the bearers insisted upon chimney. The child, however, was strong, and, by its strug- his being blindfolded. The request was enforced by a cocked gles, rolled itself upon the hearth, when the ruffian again seized pistol, and submitted to; but in the course of the discussion, it with fury, and, in spite of the intercession of the midwife, he conjectured, from the phrases employed by the chairmen, and the more piteous entreaties of the mother, thrust it under and from some part of their dress, not completely concealed by the grate, and, raking the live coals upon it, soon put an end their cloaks, that they were greatly above the menial station to its life. The midwife, after spending some time in affording they had assumed. After many turns and windings, the chair all the relief in her power to the wretched mother, was told was carried up stairs into a lodging, where his eyes were unthat she must be gone. Her former conductor appeared, who covered, and he was introduced into a bedroom, where he again bound her eyes, and conveyed her behind him to ber found a lady, newly delivered of an infant. He was comown home: he then paid her handsomely, and departed. The manded by his attendants to say such prayers by her bedside
as were fitting for a person not expected to survive a mortal i I think there is a chapel on one side of it, but am not quite sure.
disorder. He ventured to remonstrate, and observe, that her
safe delivery warranted better hopes. But he was sternly gleve in his hand, and called unto them, and bid them arise commanded to obey the orders first given, and with difficulty like men, for shame, for he had knowne there as great a smoake recollected himself sufficiently to acquit himself of the task in that hall upon Christmas-even.' In the end, seeing the house imposed on hiin. He was then again hurried into the chair; could noe longer defend them, being overlayed with a multibut as they conducted him down stairs, he heard the report of tude, upon parley betweene them, Howell ap Rys was cona pistol. He was safely conducted home; a purse of gold was tent to yeald himself prisoner to Morris ap John ap Meredith, forced upon him; but he was warned, at the same time, that John ap Meredith's eldest sonne, soe as he would swear unto the least allusion to this dark transaction would cost him his him to bring him safe to Carnarvon Castle, to abide the triall life. He betook himself to rest, and, after long and broken of the law for the death of Graff' ap John ap Gronw, who masing, fell into a deep sleep. From this he was awakened was cosen-german removed to the said Howell ap Rys, and of by his servant, with the dismal news that a fire of uncommon the very same house he was of. Which Morris ap John ap fury had broken out in the house of . * ", near the head Meredith undertaking, did put a guard about the said Howell of the Canongate, and that it was totally consumed; with the of his trustiest friends and servants, who kept and defended shocking addition, that the daughter of the proprietor, a young him from the rage of his kindred, and especially of Owen ap lady eminent for beauty and accomplishments, had perished in John ap Meredith, his brother, who was very eager against the flames. The clergyman had his suspicions, but to have him. They passed by leisure thence like a campe to Carnarmade them public would have availed nothing. He was timid; von: the whole countrie being assembled, Howell his friends the family was of the first distinction; above all, the deed was posted a horseback from one place or other by the way, who done, and could not be amended. Time wore away, however, brought word that he was come thither safe, for they were in and with it his terrors. He became unhappy at being the soli- great fear lest he should be murtbered, and that Morris ap John tary depositary of this fearful mystery, and mentioned it to ap Meredith could not be able to defend him, neither durst some of his brethren, through whom the anecdote acquired a any of Howell's friends be there, for fear of the kindred. In sort of publicity. The divine, however, had been long dead, the end, being delivered by Morris ap John ap Meredith to the and the story in some degree forgotten, when a fire broke out
Constable of Carnarvon Castle, and there kept safely in ward again on the very same spot where the house of • • • * had
untill the assises, it fell out by law, that the burning of Howformerly stood, and which was now occupied by buildings of ell's houses, and assaulting him in his owne house, was a more an inferior description. When the flames were at their height, haynous offence in Morris ap John ap Meredith and the rest, the tumult, which asually attends such a scene, was suddenly than the death of Graff' ap John ap Gronw in Howell, who raspended by an unexpected apparition. A beantiful female, did it in his own defence; wherea pon Morris ap John ap Merein a night-dress, extremely rich, but at least half a century old, dith, with thirty-five more, were indicted of felony, as appearappeared in the very midst of the fire, and uttered these tre- eth by the copie of the indictment, which I had from the recmendons words in her vernacular idiom: “ Anes burned, twice ords.”—Sir John WYNNE's History of the Grydir Family. barned ; the third time I'll scare you all!” The belief in this
Lond. 1770, 8vo. p. 116.
NOTE 3 I.
This custom among the Redesdale and Tynedale Borderers is
mentioned in the interesting Life of Barnard Gilpin, where
some account is given of these wild districts, which it was the As thick a smoke these hearths have
custom of that excellent man regularly to visit. At Hallow-tide or Christmas-even.-P. 341.
“ This custom (of duels) still prevailed on the Borders, Such an exhortation was, in similar circumstances, actually where Saxon barbarism held its latest possession. · These wild given to his followers by a Welsh chieftain :
Northumbrians, indeed, went beyond the ferocity of their an“Enmity did continue betweene Howell ap Rys ap Howell cestors. They were not content with a duel : each contending Vaughan and the sonnes of John
Meredith. After the party used to muster what adherents he could, and commence death of Evan ap Rebert, Griffith ap Gronw (cosen-german to a kind of petty war. So that a private grudge would often John ap Meredith's sonnes of Gwynfryn, who had long served occasion much bloodshed. in France, and had charge there) comeing home to live in the “ It happened that a quarrel of this kind was on foot when countrey, it happened that a servant of his, comeing to fish in Mr. Gilpin was at Rothbury, in those parts. During the two Styrllyn, his fish was taken away, and the fellow beaten by or three first days of his preaching, the contending parties ob Howell ap Rys and his servants, and by his commandment. served some decorum, and never appeared at church together. Griffith ap John ap Gronw took the matter in such dudgeon At length, however, they met. One party had been early al that he challenged Howell ap Rys to the field, which he re- church, and just as Mr. Gilpin began his sermon, the other fusing, assembling his cosins John ap Meredith's sonnes and entered. They stood not long silent. Inflamed at the sight of his friends together, assaulted Howell in his own house, after each other, they began to clash their weapons, for they were the maner he had seene in the French warres, and consumed all armed with javelins and swords, and mutually approached with fire his barnes and his out-houses. Whilst he was thus Awed, however, by the sacredness of the place, the tumult ir assaulting the hall, which Howell ap Rys and many other some degree ceased. Mr. Gilpin proceeded : when again thi people kept, being a very strong house, he was shot, out of a combatants began to brandish their weapons, and draw to crevice of the house, through the sight of his beaver into the wards each other. As a fray seemed near, Mr. Gilpin steppet head, and slayne outright, being otherwise armed at all points. from the pulpit, went between them, and addressed the leaders Notwithstanding his death, the assault of the house was con- put an end to the quarrel for the present, but could not effec tinued with great vehemence, the doores fired with great bur- an entire reconciliation. They promised him, however, tha thens of straw ; besides this, the smoake of the out-houses and till the sermon was over they would make no more disturbance barnes not farre distant annoyed greatly the defendants, for that He then went again into the pulpit, and spent the rest of th most of them lay under boordes and benches upon the floore, in time in endeavoring to make them ashamed of what they ha the hall, the better to avoyd the smoake. During this scene done. His behavior and discourse affected them so much of confusion onely the old man, Howell ap Rys, never stooped, that, at his farther entreaty, they promised to forbear all act bat stood valiantly in the midst of the floore, armed with a of hostility while he continued in the country And so muo
respected was he among them, that whoever was in fear of his the animosity of individuals. Colonel Briggs, a steady friend enemy used to resort where Mr. Gilpin was, esteeming his pres- to usurpation, resided at this time at Kendal, and, under the ence the best protection.
double character of a leading magistrate (for he was a Justice "One Sunday morning, coming to a church in those parts, of-Peace) and an active commander, held the country in awe. before the people were assembled, he observed a glove hang- This person having heard that Major Philipson was at his ing up, and was informed by the sexton, that it was meant as brother's house on the island in Windermere, resolved, if pos a challenge to any one who should take it down. Mr. Gilpin sible, to seize and punish a man who had made himself so ordered the sexton to reach it to him; but upon his utterly particularly obnoxious. How it was conducted, my author refusing to touch it, he took it down himself, and put it into ityl does not inform us-whether he got together the narigahis breast. When the people were assembled, he went into tion of the lake, and blockaded the place by sea, or whether the pulpit, and, before he concluded his sermon, took occasion he landed and carried on his approaches in form. Neither do to rebuke them severely for these inbuman challenges. I we learn the strength of the garrison within, nor of the works hear,' saith he, that one among you hath hanged up a glove, without. All we learn is, that Major Philipson endured a even in this sacred place, threatening to fight any one who siege of eight months with great gallantry, till his brother, the taketh it down : see, I have taken it down;' and, pulling out Colonel, raised a party and relieved him. the glove, he held it up to the congregation, and then showed “It was now the Major's turn to make reprisals. He put them how unsuitable such savage practices were to the pro himself, therefore, at the head of a little troop of horse, and fession of Christianity, using such persuasives to mutual love rode to Kendal. Here, being informed that Colonel Briggs as he thought would most affect them.''-Life of Barnard was at prayers (for it was on a Sunday morning), he staGilpin. Lond. 1753, 8vo. p. 177.
tioned his men properly in the avenues, and himself armed, rode directly into the church. It probably was not a regular church, but some large place of meeting. It is said he intended to seize the Colonel and carry him off; but as this
seems to have been totally impracticable, it is rather probable NOTE 3 K.
that his intention was to kill him on the spot, and in the midst
of the confusion to escape. Whatever his intention was, it A Horseman arm'd, at headlong speed.-P. 353.
was frustrated, for Briggs happened to be elsewhere. This, and what follows, is taken from a real achievement of “The congregation, as might be expected, was thrown into Major Robert Philipson, called, from his desperate and adven- great confusion on seeing an armed man on horseback make turous courage, Robin the Devil ; which, as being very inac- his appearance among them; and the Major, taking advantage curately noticed in this note upon the first edition, shall be of their astonishment, turned his horse round, and rode quietly now given in a more authentic form. The chief place of his out. But having given an alarm, he was presently assaulted retreat was not Lord's Island, in Derwentwater, but Curwen's as he left the assembly, and being seized, his girths were cut, Island, in the Lake of Windermere :
and he was unhorsed. “ This island formerly belonged to the Philipsons, a family " At this instant his party made a furious attack on the asof note in Westmoreland. During the Civil Wars, two of them, sailants, and the Major killed with his own hand the man who an elder and a younger brother, served the King. The former, had seized him, clapped the saddle, ungirthed as it was, upon who was the proprietor of it, commanded a regiment; the lat- his horse, and, vaulting into it, rode full speed through the ter was a major.
streets of Kendal, calling his men to follow him ; and, with “ The major, whose name was Robert, was a man of great his whole party, made a safe retreat to his asylum in the lake. spirit and enterprise; and for his many feats of personal bra- The action marked the man. Many knew him : and they who very had obtained, among the Oliverians of those parts, the did not, knew as well from the exploit that it could be nobody appellation of Robin the Devil.
but Robin the Devil." “After the war had subsided, and the direful effects of public opposition had ceased, revenge and malice long kept alive
1 Dr. Burn's History of Westmoreland.