Imágenes de páginas


tors." This regulation continued to stand unrepealed until in the stie. Thus, in process of time, they have all displeased 1771. A beggar, in an old play, describes himself as “born her, and she hath wished evil luck unto them all ; perhaps in Redesdale, in Northumberland, and come of a wight-riding with curses and imprecations made in form. Doubtless (at surname, called the Robsons, good honest men and true, length) some of her neighbours die or fall sick, or some of their saving a little shifting for their living, God help them!"- children are visited with diseases that vex them strangely, as a description which would have applied to most Borderers on apoplexies, epilepsies, convulsions, hot ferers, worms, &e, both sides.

which, by ignorant parents, are supposed to be the vengeance Reidswair, famed for a skirmish to which it gives name (see of witches. . Border Minstrelsy, vol. ii. p. 15), is on the very edge of the “ The witch, on the other side, expecting her neighbours' Carter-fell, which divides England from Scotland. The Roo- mischances, and seeing things sometimes come to pass accordken is a place upon Reedwater. Bertram, being described as ing to her wishes, curses, and incantations (for Bodin himself a native of these dales, where the habits of hostile depreda- confesses, that not above two in a hundred of their witchings tion long survived the union of the crowns, may have been, or wishings take effect), being called before a justice, by due in some degree, prepared by education for the exercise of a examination of the circumstances, is driven to see her impresimilar trade in the wars of the Bucaniers.

cations and desires, and her neighbours' harms and losses, to concur, and, as it were, to take effect; and so confesseth that she (as a goddess) hath brought such things to pass. Where

in not only she, but the accuser, and also the justice, are foully NOTE 2 B.

deceived and abused, as being, through her confession, and

other circumstances, perswaded (to the injury of God's glory) Hiding his face, lest foemen spy The sparkle of his swarthy eye.-P. 315.

that she hath done, or can do, that which is proper only to

God himself."'--Scot's Discovery of Witchcraft. Lond. After one of the recent battles, in which the Irish rebels 1655, fol. p. 4, 5. were defeated, one of their most active leaders was found in a bog, in which he was immersed up to the shoulders, while his head was concealed by an impending ledge of turf. Being de

NOTE 2 D. tected and seized, notwithstanding his precaution, he became

Of my marauding on the clorons solicitous to know how his retreat had been discovered. "I

Of Calverley and Bradford downs.--P. 317. caught," answered the Sutherland Highlander, by whom he was taken, “the sparkle of your eye." Those who are accus- The troops of the King, when they first took the field, were tomed to mark hares upon their form, usually discover them by

as well disciplined as could be expected from circumstances. the same circumstance,

But as the circumstances of Charles became less farorable, and his funds for regularly paying his forces decreased, habits of military license prevailed among them in greater exoess.

Lacy, the player, who served his master during the Civil War, NOTE 2 C.

brought out, after the Restoration, a piece called The Ow

Troop, in which he seems to have commemorated some real Here stood a wretch, prepared to change

incidents which occurred in his military career. The names His soul's redemption for revenge !-P. 317.

of the officers of the Troop sufficiently express their habits. It is agreed by all the writers upon magic and witchcraft, We have Flea-flint Plunder-Master-General, Captain Ferretthat revenge was the most common motive for the pretended farm, and Quarter-Master Burn-drop. The officers of the compact between Satan and his vassals. The ingenuity of Troop are in league with these worthies, and connive at their Reginald Scot has very happily stated how such an opinion plundering the country for a suitable share in the booty, AU came to root itself, not only in the minds of the public and of this was undoubtedly drawn from the life, which Lacy had an the judges, but even in that of the poor wretches themselves opportunity to study. The moral of the whole is comprewho were accused of sorcery, and were often firm believers in hended in a rebuke given to the lieutenant, whose disorders in their own power and their own guilt.

the country are said to prejudice the King's cause more than “ One sort of such as are said to be witches, are women his courage in the field could recompense. The piece is by no which be commonly old, lame, blear-eyed, pale, foul, and full means void of farcical humor. of wrinkles ; poor, sullen, superstitious, or papists, or such as know no religion; in whose drowsie minds the devil hath gotten a fine seat; so as what mischief, mischance, calamity, or slaughter is brought to pass, they are easily perswaded the

NOTE 2 E. same is done by themselves, imprinting in their minds an earnest and constant imagination thereof. .. .. These go from

Brignall's woods, and Scargill's pare, house to house, and from door to door, for a pot of milk, yest,

E'en now, o'er many a sister cave.-P. 318. drink, pottage, or some such relief, without the wbich they The banks of the Greta, below Rutherford Bridge, abound could hardly live; neither obtaining for their service or pains, in seains of grayish slate, which are wrought in some places to nor yet by their art, nor yet at the devil's hands (with whom a very great depth under ground, thus forming artificial carthey are said to make a perfect and visible bargain), either erns, which, when the seam has been exhausted, are gradually beauty, money, promotion, wealth, pleasure, honour, knowl- hidden by the underwood which grows in profusion upon the edge, learning, or any other benefit whatsoever.

romantic banks of the river. In times of public confusion, " It falleth ont many a time, that neither their necessities they might be well adapted to the purposes of banditti. nor their expectation is answered or served in those places where they beg or borrow, but rather their lewdness is by their neighbours reproved. And farther, in tract of time the witch

NOTE 2 F. waxeth odious and tedious to her neighbours, and they again are despised and despited of her; so as sometimes she curseth

When Spain waged warfare with our land.-P. 32. one, and sometimes another, and that from the master of the There was a short war with Spain in 1625-6, which will be house, his wife, children, cattle, &c., to the little pig that lieth found to agree pretty well with the chronology of the poem.

1 Sir Walter Scott continued to be fond of coursing hares long after he had more pleasure in being considered an excellent finder, than in su had Inid aside all other field-sports, and he used to say jocularly, that he reputation as a troureur.--Ed.


But probably Bertram held an opinion very common among the maritime heroes of the age, that "there was no peace beyond the Line." The Spanish guarda-costas were constantly employed in aggressions upon the trade and settlements of the English and French ; and, by their own severities, gave room for the system of bucaniering, at first adopted in self-defence and retaliation, and afterwards persevered in from habit and thirst of plunder.

every thing to judge by, then let him draw till he come to the couert where he is gone to ; and let him harbour him if he

still marking all his tokens, as well by the slot as by the entries, foyles, or such-like. That done, let him plash or bruse down small twigges, some aloft and some below, as the art requireth, and therewithall, whilest his hound is hote, let him beat the outsides, and make his ring-walkes, twice or thrice about the wood."--The Noble Art of Venerie, or Hunting. Lond. 1611, 4to. p. 76, 77.


Song- Adieu for evermore.-P. 322. The last verse of this song is taken from the fragment of an old Scottish ballad, of which I only recollected two verses when the first edition of Rokeby was published. Mr. Thomas Sheridan kindly pointed out to me an entire copy of this beautiful song, which seems to express the fortunes of some follower of the Stuart family :

" It was a' for our rightful king

That we left fair Scotland's strand,
It was a' for our rightful king
That we e'er saw Irish land,

My dear,
That we e'er saw Irish land.


Our comrade's strife.-P. 321. The laws of the Bacaniers, and their successors the Pirates, however severe and equitable, were, like other laws, often set aside by the stronger party. Their quarrels about the division of the spoil fill their history, and they as frequently arose out of mera frolic, or the tyrannical humor of their chiefs. An anecdote of Teach (called Blackbeard) shows that their habitual indifference for human life extended to their companions, as well as their enemies and captives.

“One night, drinking in his cabin with Hands, the pilot, and another man, Blackbeard, without any provocation, privately draws out a small pair of pistols, and cocks them under the table, which, being perceived by the man, he withdrew upon deck, leaving Hands, the pilot, and the captain together. When the pistols were ready, he blew out the candles, and, crossing his hands, discharged them at his company. Hands, the master, was shot through the knee, and lamed for life; the other pistol did no execution."'--JOUNSON's History of Pirates. Lond. 1724, 8vo. vol. i.


38. Another anecdote of this worthy may be also mentioned. “ The hero of whom we are writing was thoroughly accomplished this way, and some of his frolics of wickedness were so extravagant, as if he aimed at making his men believe he was a devil incarnate ; for, being one day at sea, and a little flushed with drink, ‘Come,' says he, let us make a hell of our own, and try how long we can bear it.' Accordingly, he, with two or three others, went down into the hold, and, closing up all the hatches, filled several pots full of brimstone and other combustible matter, and set it on fire, and so continued till they were almost suffocated, when some of the men cried out for air. At length he opened the hatches, not a little pleased that he held out the longest."- Ibid. p. 90.

« Now all is done that man can do,

And all is done in vain !
My love ! my native land, adieu !
For I must cross the main,

My dear,
For I must cross the main.

“ He turn'd him round and right about,

All on the Irish shore,
He gave his bridle-reins a shake
With, Adieu for evermore,

My dear!
Adieu for evermore !

« The soldier frae the war returns,

And the merchant frae the main,
But I hae parted wi' my love,
And ne'er to meet again,

My dear,
And ne'er to meet again.


my rangers go Even now to track a milk-white doe.-P. 321.

“ When day is gone and night is come, .

And a' are boun' to sleep,
I think on them that's far awa
The lee-lang night, and weep,

My dear,
The lee-lang night, and weep."


Rere-cross on Stanmore.-P. 323.

* Immediately after supper, the huntsman should go to his master's chamber, and if he serve a king, then let him go to the master of the game's chamber, to know in what quarter he determineth to hunt the day following, that he may know his own quarter ; that done, he may go to bed, to the end that he may rise the earlier in the morning, according to the time and season, and according to the place where he must hunt: then when he is ap and ready, let him drinke a good draught, and feteh his hound, to make him breake his fast a little : and let him not forget to fill his bottel with good wine : that done, let him take a little vinegar into the palme of his hand, and put it in the nostrils of his hound, for to make him snuffe, to the end his scent may be the perfecter, then let him go to the wood.

When the huntsman perceiveth that it is time to begin to beat, let him put his hound before him, and beat the outsides of springs or thickets; and if he find an hart or deer that likes him, let him mark well whether it be fresh or not, which he may know as well by the maner of his hounds drawing, as also by the eye.

When he hath well considered what maner of hart it may be, and hath marked

This is a fragment of an old cross, with its pediment, sur rounded by an intrenchment, upon the very summit of the waste ridge of Stanmore, near a small house of entertainment called the Spittal. It is called Rere-cross, or Ree-cross, of which Holinshed gives us the following explanation :

"At length a peace was concluded betwixt the two kings vnder these conditions, that Malcolme should enjoy that part of Northumberland which lieth betwixt Tweed, Cumberland, and Stainmore, and doo homage to the Kinge of England for the same.

In the midst of Stain more there shall be a crosse

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set up, with the Kinge of England's image on the one side, and Their baleful power: The sisters ever sung,
the Kinge of Scotland's on the other, to signifie that one is 'Shake, standard, shake this rain on our foes.'"
march to England, and the other to Scotland. This crosse was

Thomson and MALLET's Alfred. called the Roi-crosse, that is, the crosse of the King."-HOLINSHED. Lond. 1808, 4to. v. 280.

The Danes renewed and extended their incursions, and began Holinshed's sole authority seems to have been Boethius. to colonize, establishing a kind of capital at York, from which But it is not improbable that bis account may be the true one, they spread their conquests and incursions in every direction. although the circumstance does not occur in Wintouu's Chro- Stanmore, which divides the mountains of Westmoreland and nicle. The situation of the cross, and the pains taken to defend Cumberland, was probably the boundary of the Danish kingit, seem to indicate that it was intended for a land-mark of dom in that direction. The district to the west, known in an importance.

cient British history by the name of Reged, had never been conquered by the Saxons, and continued to maintain a precarious independence until it was ceded to Malcolm, King of Scots, by William the Conqueror, probably on account of its

similarity in language and manners to the neighboring British NOTE 2 L.

kingdom of Strath-Clyde. Hast thou lodged our deer ?—P. 323.

Upon the extent and duration of the Danish sovereignty in

Northumberland, the curious may consult the various authoriThe duty of the ranger, or pricker, was first to lodge or har- ties quoted in the Gesta et Vestigia Danorum citra Danian, bor the deer: i. e. to discover his retreat, as described at tom. ii. p. 40. The most powerful of their Northumbrian length in note, 2 H, and then to make his report to his prince, leaders seems to have been Ivar, called, from the extent of his

conquests, Widfam, that is, The Strider.

or master:

“ Before the King I come report to make,

Then husht and peace for noble Tristrame's sake
My liege, I went this morning on my quest,
My hound did stick, and seem'd to vent some beast.
I held him short, and drawing after him,
I might be hold the hart was feeding trym;
His head was high, and large in each degree,
Well paulmed eke, and seem'd full sound to be.
Of colour browne, he beareth eight and tenne,
Of stately height, and long he seemed then.
His beam seem'd great, in good proportion led,
Well barred and round, well pearled neare his head.
He seemed fayre tweene blacke and berrie brounde
He seemes well fed by all the signes I found.
For when I had well marked him with eye,
I stept aside, to watch where he would lye.
And when I had so wayted full an houre,
That he might be at layre and in his boure,
I cast about to harbour him full sure;
My bound by sent did me thereof assure ..

“ Then if he ask what slot or view I found,
I say the slot or view was long on ground;
The toes were great, the joynt bones round and short,
The shinne bones large, the dew-claws close in port :
Short ioynted was he, hollow-footed eke,
An hart to hunt as any man can seeke."

The Art of Venerie, ut supra, p. 97.

Beneath the shade the Northmen came,

Fir'd on each vale a Runic name.-P. 323.
The heathen Danes have left several traces of their religion
in the upper part of Teesdale. Balder-garth, which derives its
name from the unfortunate son of Odin, is a traet of waste
land on the very ridge of Stanmore ; and a brook, which falls
into the Tees near Barnard Castle, is named after the same
deity. A field upon the banks of the Tees is also termed
Woden-Croft, from the supreme deity of the Edda. Thorgill,
of which a description is attempted in stanza ii., is a beautiful
little brook and dell, running up behind the ruins of Egliston
Abbey. Thor was the Hercules of the Scandinavian mython
logy, a dreadful giant-queller, and in that capacity the cham-
pion of the gods, and the defender of Asgard, the northem
Olympus, against the frequent attacks of the inhabitants of
Jotunhem. There is an old poem in the Edda of Sæmund,
called the Song of Thrym, which turns upon the loss and re-
covery of the Mace, or Hammer, which was Thor's principal
weapon, and on which much of his power seems to have de
pended. It may be read to great advantage in a version
equally spirited and literal, among the Miscellaneous Transla-
tions and Poems of the Honorable 'William Herbert.


Who has not heard how brave O'Neale
When Denmark's raven soar'd on high,

In English blood imbrued his steel ?—P. 325.
Triumphant through Northumbrian sky,

The O'Neale here meant, for more than one succeeded to
Till, hovering near, her fatal croak

the chieftainship during the reign of Elizabeth, was Hugh, the Bade Reged's Britons dread the yoke.-P. 323.

grandson of Con O'Neale, called Con Bacco, or the Lame. About the year of God 866, the Danes, under their cele- His father, Matthew O'Kelly, was illegitimate, and, being the brated leaders Inguar (more properly Agnar) and Hubba, sons, son of a blacksmith's wife, was usually called Matthew the it is said, of the still more celebrated Regnar Lodbrog, invaded Blacksmith. His father, nevertheless, destined his succesNorthumberland, bringing with them the magical standard, so sion to him; and he was created, by Elizabeth, Baron of often mentioned in poetry, called Reafen, or Rumfan, from Dungannon. Upon the death of Con Baeco, this Matthew its bearing the figure of a raven :

was slain by his brother. Hugh narrowly escaped the same

fate, and was protected by the English. Shane O'Neale, his “Wrought by the sisters of the Danish king,

uncle, called Shane Dymas, was succeeded by Turlough Of furious Ivar in a midnight honr:

Lynogh O'Neale; after whose death, Hugh, having assumed While the sick moon, at their enchanted song

the chieftainship, became nearly as formidable to the English Wrapt in pale tempest, labor'd through the clouds, as any by whom it had been possessed. He rebelled repeatThe demons of destruction then, they say,

edly, and as often made submissions, of which it was usually Were all abroad, and mixing with the woof

a condition that he should not any longer assume title of

O'Neale ; in lieu of which he was created Earl of Tyrone.

NOTE 2 Q. But this condition he never observed longer than until the pressure of superior force was withdrawn. His battling the

The Tanist he to great O'Neile.-P. 325. gallant Earl of Essex in the field, and overreaching him in a Eudor. What is that which you call Tanist and Tanistry? treaty, was the induction to that nobleman's tragedy. Lord These be names and terms never heard of nor known to us. Mountjoy succeeded in finally subjugating O'Neale ; but it was * Iren. It is a custom amongst all the (rish, that presently not till the succession of James, to whom he made personal after the death of one of their chiefe lords or captaines, they submission, and was received with civility at court. Yet, ac- doe presently assemble themselves to a place generally appointcording to Morrison, “no respect to him could containe many ed and knowne unto them, to choose another in his stead, weomen in those parts, who had lost husbands and children in where they do nominate and elect, for the most part not the the Irish warres, from flinging durt and stones at the earle as eldest sonne, nor any of the children of the lord deceased, but he passed, and from reuiling him with bitter words; yea, when the next to him in blood, that is, the eldest and worthiest, as the earle had been at court, and there obtaining his majestie's commonly the next brother unto him, if he have any, or the direction for his pardon and performance of all conditions pro- next cousin, or so forth, as any is elder in that kindred or sept; mised him by the Lord Mountjoy, was about September to re- and then next to them doe they choose the next of the blood turne, he durst not pass by those parts without direction to the to be Tanist, who shall next succeed him in the said captainry, shiriffes, to convey him with troops of horse from place to if he live thereunto. place, till he was safely imbarked and put to sea for Ireland." Eudor. Do they not use any ceremony in this election, - Itinerary, p. 296.

for all barbarous nations are commonly great observers of ceremonies and superstitious rites ?

" Iren. They used to place him that shall be their captaine

upon a stone, always reserved to that purpose, and placed NOTE 2 P.

commonly upon a hill. In some of which I have seen formed

and engraven a foot, which they say was the measure of their But chief arose his victor pride,

first captaine's foot ; whereon hee standing, receives an oath When that brave Marshal fought and died.-P. 325.

to preserve all the ancient former customes of the countrey The chief victory which Tyrone obtained over the English inviolable, and to deliver up the succession peaceably to his was in a battle fought near Blackwater, while he besieged a Tanist, and then hath a wand delivered unto him by some fort garrisoned by the English, which commanded the passes whose proper office that is ; after which, descending from the into his country.

stone, he turneth himself round, thrice forwards and thrice " This captain and his few warders did with no less courage backwards. suffer hunger, and, having eaten the few horses they had, lived " Eudor. But how is the Tanist chosen ? pon hearbes growing in the ditches and wals, suffering all ex- Iren. They say he setteth but one foot upon the stone, tremities, till the lord-lieutenant, in the month of August, sent and receiveth the like oath that the captaine did."'--SpenSir Henry Bagnal, marshall of Ireland, with the most choice SER's View of the State of Ireland, apud Works, London, companies of foot and borse-troopes of the English army to 1805, 8vo. vol. viii. p. 306. victual this fort, and to raise the rebels siege. When the Eng- The Tanist, therefore, of O'Neale, was the heir-apparent of lish entered the place and thicke woods beyond Armagh, on his power. This kind of succession appears also to have reguthe east side, Tyrone (with all the rebels assembled to him) Jated, in very remote times, the succession to the crown of prieked forward with rage, enuy, and settled rancour against Scotland. It would have been imprudent, if not impossible, the marshall, assayled the English, and turning bis fall force to have asserted a minor's right of succession in those stormy against the marshall's person, had the successe to kill him, days, when the principles of policy were summed up in my valiantly fighting among the thickest of the rebels. Where- friend Mr. Wordsworth's lines :upon the English being dismayed with his death, the rebels obtained a great victory against them. I terme it great, since

"the good old rule the English, from their first arriual in that kingdome, neuer had

Sufficeth them; the simple plan, received so great an overthrow as this, commonly called the

That they should take who have the power, Defeat of Blackewater; thirteene valiant captaines and 1500

And they should keep who can." common soaldiers (whereof many were of the old companies which had serued in Brittany vnder General Norreys) were slain in the field. The yielding of the fort of Blackewater followed this disaster, when the assaulted guard saw no hope

NOTE 3 R. of relief; but especially vpon messages sent to Captain Wil

His plaited hair in elf-locks spread, &c.---P. 325. liams from our broken forces, retired to Armagh, professing that all their safety depended vpon his yielding the fort into There is here an attempt to describe the ancient Irish dress, the hands of Tyrone, without which danger Captaine Williams of which a poet of Queen Elizabeth's day has given us the professed that no want or miserie should have induced him following particulars :thereanto."-FYNES MORyson's Itinerary. London, 1617, fol. part ii. p. 24.

“ I marvailde in my mynde, Tyrone is said to have entertained a personal animosity

and thereupon did muse, against the knight-marshal, Sir Henry Bagnal, whom he ac

To see a bride of heavenlie hewe cused of detaining the letters which he sent to Queen Eliza

an ouglie fere to chuse. beth, explanatory of his conduct, and offering terms of sub

This bride it is the soile, mission. The river, called by the English, Blackwater, is

the bridegroome is the karne. termed in Irish, Avon-Duff, which has the same signification.

With writhed glibbes, like wicked sprits, Both names are mentioned by Spenser in his “ Marriage of the

with visage rough and stearne; Thames and the Medway." But I understand that his verses

With sculles upon their poalles, relate not to the Blackwater of Ulster, but to a river of the

instead of civill cappes ; same name in the south of Ireland :

With speares in band, and swordes besydes,

to beare off after clappes ; " Swift Avon-Daff, which of the Englishmen

With jackettes long and large, Is called Blackwater"

which shroud simplicitie,


Thongh spitfull darts which they do beare

View of the State of Ireland, apud Works, ut supra, viii. importe iniquitie. Their shirtes be very strange,

The javelins, or darts, of the Irish, which they threw with not reaching past the thie;

great dexterity, appear, from one of the prints already mer With pleates on pleates thei pleated are

tioned, to have been about four feet long, with a strong steel as thick as pleates may lye.

head and thick knotted shaft.
Whose sleaves hang trailing doune

almost unto the shoe ;
And with a mantell commonlie
the Irish karne do goe.

Now some amongst the reste

With wild majestic port and tone,
doe use another weede ;
A coate I meane, of strange devise

Like envoy of some barbarous throne.-P. 326. which fancy first did breade.

The Irish chiefs, in their intercourse with the English, and His skirts be very shorte,

with each other, were wont to assume the language and style with pleates set thick about,

of independent royalty. Morrison has preserved a summons And Irish trouzes moe to put

from Tyrone to a neighboring chieftain, which runs in the foltheir strange protactours out.'

lowing terms :Derrick's Image of Ireland, apud Somers' Tracts, “O'Neale commendeth him unto you, Morish Fitz-Thomas; Edin. 1809, 410. vol. i. p. 585.

O'Neale requesteth you, in God's name, to take part with him,

and fight for your conscience and right; and in so doing. Some curious wooden engravings accompany this poem,


O'Neale will spend to see you righted in all your affaires, and which it would seem that the ancient Irish dress was (the bon- will help you. And if you come not at O'Neale betwixt this net excepted) very similar to that of the Scottish Highlanders. and to-morrow at twelve of the clocke, and take his pari, The want of a covering on the head was supplied by the mode O'Neale is not beholding to you, and will doe to the utiermost of plaiting and arranging the hair, which was called the glibbe. of his power to overthrow you, if yon come not to him at for These glibbes, according to Spenser, were fit marks for a thief, thest by Satturday at noone. From Knocke Dumayne in since, when he wished to disguise himself, he could either cut Calrie, the fourth of February, 1599. it off entirely, or so pull it over his eyes as to render it very “O'Neale requesteth you to come speake with him, and hard to recognize him. This, however, is nothing to the rep- doth giue you his word that you shall receive no harme neither robation with which the same poet regards that favorite part in comming nor going from him, whether yon be friend or not, of the Irish dress, the mantle.

and bring with you to O'Neale Gerat Fitzgerald. “ It is a fit house for an outlaw, a meet bed for a rebel, and

(Subscribed) “O'NEALE." an apt cloke for a thief. First, the outlaw being for his many Nor did the royalty of O'Neale consist in words alone. Sir crimes and villanyes banished from the townes and houses of John Harrington paid him a visit at the time of his truce with honest men, and wandring in waste places far from danger of Essex, and, after mentioning his “fern table, and fern forms, law, maketh his mantle his house, and under it covereth him- spread under the stately canopy of heaven," he notices what self from the wrath of heaven, from the offence of the earth, constitutes the real power of every monarch, the love, namely, and from the sight of men. When it raineth, it is his pent- and allegiance of his subjects. " His guards, for the most house ; when it bloweth, it is his tent; when it freezeth, it is part, were beardless boys without shirts; who in the frost his tabernacle. In summer he can wear it loose, in winter he wade as familiarly through rivers as water-spaniels. With can wrap it close ; at all times he can use it; never heavy, what charm such a master makes them love him, I know never cumbersome. Likewise for a rebel it is as serviceable ; not; but if he bid come, they come; if go, they do go; if he for in his warre that he maketh (if at least it deserve the name say do this, they do it."-Nugo Antique. Lond. 1784, 8vo. of warre), when he still flyeth from his foe, and lurketh in the vol. i.


251. thicke woods and straite passages, waiting for advantages, it is his bed, yea, and almost his household stuff. For the wood is his house against all weathers, and his mantle is his couch

NOTE 2 T. to sleep in. Therein he wrappeth himself round, and coucheth himself strongly against the gnats, which in that country

His foster-father was his guide.-P. 326. doe more annoy the naked rebels while they keep the woods, There was no tie more sacred among the Irish than that and doe more sharply wound them, than all their enemies which connected the foster-father, as well as the nurse herself, swords or speares, which can seldom come nigh them : yea, with the child they brought up. and oftentimes their mantle serveth them when they are neere “ Foster-fathers spend much more time, money, and affecdriven, being wrapped about their left arme, instead of a tar- tion on their foster-children than their own; and in return take get, for it is hard to cut thorough with a sword; besides, it is from them clothes, money for their several professions, and light to beare, light to throw away, and being (as they com- arms, and, even for any vicious purposes, fortones and cattle, monly are) naked, it is to them all in all. Lastly, for a thiefe not so much by a claim of right as by extortion ; and they will it is so handsome as it may seem it was first invented for him ; even carry those things off as plunder. All who have been for under it he may cleanly convey any fit pillage that cometh nursed by the same person preserve a greater mutual affection handsomely in his way, and when he goeth abroad in the and confidence in each other than if they were natural brothnight in freebooting, it is his best and surest friend ; for, lying, ers, whom they will even hate for the sake of these. When as they often do, two or three nights together abroad to watch chid by their parents, they fly to their foster fathers, who frefor their booty, with that they can prettily shroud themselves quently encourage them to make open war on their parents, under a bush or bankside till they may conveniently do their train them up to every excess of wickedness, and make them errand; and when all is orer, he can in his mantle passe most abandoned miscreants ; as, on the other hand, the nurses through any town or company, being close hooded over his make the young women, whom they bring up for every exhead, as he useth, from knowledge of any to whom he is in- If a foster-child is sick, it is incredible how soon the dangered. Besides this, he or any man els that is disposed to nurses hear of it, however distant, and with what solicitude mischief or villany, may, under his mantle, goe privily armed they attend it by day and night."--Giraldus Cambrensis, without suspicion of any, carry his head-piece, his skean, or quoted by Camden, iv. 369. pistol, if he please, to be always in readiness."-SPENSER'S This custom, like many other fris! usages, prevailed till of


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