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formances; and has been read, we should imagine, with some prevent the tedium arising from the recurrence of rhyme. degree of disappointment even by those who took it up with Our language is unable to support the expenditure of so many the most reasonable expectations. Yet it is written with very for each stanza; even Spenser himself, with all the license of considerable spirit, and with more care and effort than most using obsolete words and uncommon spellings, sometimes faof the author's compositions ;-with a degree of effort, indeed, tigues the ear. They are also very wroth with me for omitting which could scarcely bave failed of success, if the author had the merits of Sir John Moore ;' but as I never exactly discornot succeeded so splendidly on other occasions without any ered in what these lay, unless in conducting his advance and effort at all, or had chosen any other subject than that which retreat opon a plan the most likely to verify the desponding fills the cry of our alehouse politicians, and supplies the gabble speculations of the foresaid reviewers, I must hold myself of all the quidnuncs in this country,--our depending campaigns excused for not giving praise where I was unable to see that in Spain and Portugal, --with the exploits of Lord Wellington much was due."-Scott to Mr. Morritt, Sept. 26, 1811. and the spoliations of the French armies. The nominal sub- Life, vol. iii. p. 328. ject of the poem, indeed, is the Vision of Don Roderick, in the eighth century; but this is obviously a mere prelade to the grand piece of our recent battles,--a sort of machinery devised " The Vision of Don Roderick had features of novelty, both to give dignity and effect to their introduction. In point of as to the subject and the manner of the composition, which fact, the poem begins and ends with Lord Wellington; and excited much attention, and gave rise to some sharp contro being written for the benefit of the plundered Portuguese, and versy. The main fable was indeed from the most picturesque upon a Spanish story, the thing could not well have been region of old romance; but it was made throughout the vehiotherwise. The public, at this moment, will listen to nothing cle of feelings directly adverse to those with which the Whig about Spain, but the history of the Spanish war; and the old critics had all along regarded the interference of Britain in Gothic king, and the Moors, are considered, we dare say, by behalf of the nations of the Peninsula ; and the silence which, Mr. Scott's most impatient readers, as very tedious interlopers while celebrating our other generals on that scene of action, in the proper business of the piece. .... The Poem has had been preserved with respect to Scott's own gallant counscarcely any story, and scarcely any characters, and consists, tryman, Sir John Moore, was considered or represented by in truth, almost entirely of a series of descriptions, intermingled them as an odious example of genius hoodwinked by the influwith plaudits and execrations. The descriptions are many of ence of party. Nor were there wanting persons who affected them very fine, though the style is more turgid and verbose to discover that the charm of Scott's poetry had to a great than in the better parts of Mr. Scott's other productions; but extent evaporated under the severe test to which he had exthe invectives and acclamations are too vehement and too posed it, by adopting, in place of those comparatively light frequent to be either graceful or impressive. There is no and easy measures in which he had hitherto dealt, the most climax or progression to relieve the ear, or stimulate the imagin- elaborate one that our literature exhibits. The production, ation. Mr. Scott sets out on the very highest pitch of his notwithstanding the complexity of the Spenserian stanza, had voice, and keeps it up to the end of the measure. There are been very rapidly executed ; and it shows, accordingly, many no grand swells, therefore, or overpowering bursts in his song. traces of negligence. But the patriotic inspiration of it found All, from first to last, is loud, and clamorous, and obtrusive, - an echo in the vast majority of British hearts ; many of the indiscriminately noisy, and often ineffectually exaggerated. Whig oracles themselves acknowledged that the difficulties He has fewer new images than in his other poetry--his tone of the metre had been on the whole successfully overcome ; is less natural and varied,--and he moves, upon the whole, and even the hardest critics were compelled to express unwith a slower and more laborious pace."--JEFFREY, Edin- qualified admiration of various detached pictures and pasburgh Review, 1811.

sages, which, in truth, as no one now disputes, neither he nor any other poet ever excelled. The whole setting or framework

--whatever relates in short to the last of the Goths himself“The Edinburgh Reviewers have been down on my poor

was, I think, even then unanimously pronounced admirable ; Don hand to fist; but, truly, as they are too fastidious to ap

and no party feeling conld blind any man to the heroic splenprove of the campaign, I should be very unreasonable if I ex

dor of such stanzas as those in which the three equally galpected them to like the celebration of it. I agree with them,

lant elements of a British army are contrasted."-LOCKHART however, as to the lumbering weight of the stanza, and I

Life, vol. iii. p. 319. shrewdly suspect it would require a very great poet indeed to

1 See Appendix, Editor's Note, T.

APPENDIX.

NOTE A.

still lingers among the vulgar in Selkirkshire. A copious founAnd Cattreath's glens with voice of triumph rung,

tain upon the ridge of Minchmore, called the Cheesewell, is And mystic Merlin harp'd, and gray-hair'd Llywarch tomary to propitiate them by throwing in something upon pass

supposed to be sacred to these fanciful spirits, and it was cussung !-P. 271.

ing it. A pin was the usual oblation; and the ceremony is This locality may startle those readers who do not recollect still sometimes practised, though rather in jest than earnest. that much of the ancient poetry preserved in Wales refers less to the history of the Principality to which that name is now limited, than to events which happened in the northwest of England, and southwest of Scotland, where the Britons for a

NOTE C. long time made a stand against the Saxons. The battle of

The rude villager, his labor done, Cattreath, lamented by the celebrated Aneurin, is supposed,

In verse spontaneous chants some faror'd name.--P. 271. by the learned Dr. Leyden, to have been fought on the skirts of Ettrick Forest. It is known to the English reader by the

The flexibility of the Italian and Spanish languages, and paraphrase of Gray, beginning,

perhaps the liveliness of their genius, renders these countries

distinguished for the talent of improvisation, which is found “ Had I bat the torrent's might,

even among the lowest of the people. It is mentioned by BaWith headlong rage and wild affright," &c.

retti and other travellers. Bat it is not so generally known that the champions, mourned in this beantiful dirge, were the British inhabitants of Edinburgh, who were cut off by the Saxons of Deiria, or Northum

NOTE D. berland, about the latter part of the sixth century.-TURNER's History of the Anglo-Saxons, edition 1799, vol. i. p. 222.

Kindling at the deeds of Greme.-P. 271. Llywarch, the celebrated bard and monarch, was Prince of Over a name sacred for ages to heroic verse, a poet may be Argood, in Cumberland ; and his youthful exploits were per- allowed to exercise some power. I have used the freedom, formed upon the Border, although in his age he was driven here and elsewhere, to alter the orthography of the name of into Powys by the successes of the Anglo-Saxong. As for my gallant countryman, in order to apprise the Southern Merlin Wyllt, or the Savage, his name of Caledonia, and his reader of its legitimate sound ;--Grahame being, on the other retreat into the Caledonian wood, appropriate him to Scot- side of the Tweed, usually pronounced as a dissyllable. land, Fordun dedicates the thirty-first chapter of the third book of his Scoto-Chronicon, to a narration of the death of this celebrated bard and prophet near Drumelzier, a village opon Tweed, which is supposed to have derived its name

NOTE E. (quasi Tumulus Merlini) from the event. The particular spot in which he is buried is still shown, and appears, from the

What! will Don Roderick here till morning stay, following quotation, to have partaken of his prophetic quali- To wear in shrift and prayer the night away ? ties :-" There is one thing remarkable here, which is, that And are his hours in such dull penance past, the burn called Pausayl runs by the east side of this church- For fair Florinda's plunder'd charms to pay?--P. 272. yard into the Tweed ; at the side of which burn, a little below

Almost all the Spanish historians, as well as the voice of the churchyard, the famous prophet Merlin is said to be bu- tradition, ascribe the invasion of the Moors to the forcible vioried. The particular place of his grave, at the root of a thorn

lation committed by Roderick upon Florinda, called by the tree, was shown me, many years ago, by the old and reverend

Moors, Caba or Cava. She was the daughter of Count Juminister of the place, Mr. Richard Brown; and here was

lian, one of the Gothic monarch's principal lieutenants, who, the old prophecy fulfilled, delivered in Scots rhyme, to this

when the crime was perpetrated, was engaged in the defence purpose

of Ceuta against the Moors. In his indignation at the ingrati• When Tweed and Pausayl meet at Merlin's grave,

tude of his sovereign, and the dishonor of his daughter, Count Scotland and England shall one Monarch have.'

Julian forgot the duties of a Christian and a patriot, and,

forming an alliance with Musa, then the Caliph's lieutenant * For, the same day that our King James the Sixth was in Africa, he countenanced the invasion of Spain by a body of crowned King of England, the river Tweed, by an extraordi- Saracens and Africans, commanded by the celebrated Tarik ; nary flood, so far overflowed its banks, that it met and joined the issue of which was the defeat and death of Roderick, and with the Pausayl at the said grave, which was never before

the occupation of almost the whole peninsula by the Moors. observed to fall out.”—PENNYCUICK's Description of Tweed Voltaire, in his General History, expresses his doubts of this dale. Edin. 1715, iv. p. 26.

popular story, and Gibbon gives him some countenance ; but the universal tradition is quite sufficient for the purposes of poetry. The Spaniards, in detestation of Florinda's memory.

are said, by Cervantes, never to bestow that name upon any NOTE B.

human female, reserving it for their dogs. Nor is the tradi

tion less inveterate among the Moors, since the same author Minchmore's haunted spring.--P. 271.

mentions a promontory on the coast of Barbary, called “The A belief in the existence and nocturnal revels of the fairies | Cape of the Caba Rumia, which, in our tongue, is the Cape

of the Wicked Christian Woman ; and it is a tradition among new locks, concluding, that, though a King was destined to the Moors, that Caba, the daughter of Count Julian, who was open it, the fated time was not yet arrived. At last King Don the cause of the loss of Spain, lies buried there, and they think Rodrigo, led on by his evil fortune and unlucky destiny, opened it ominous to be forced into that bay; for they never go in oth- the tower; and some bold attendants, whom he had brought erwise than by necessity."

with bim, entered, although agitated with fear. Having proceeded a good way, they fled back to the entrance, terrified with a frightful vision which they had beheld. The King was

greatly moved, and ordered many torches, so contrived that the NOTE F.

tempest in the cave could not extinguish them, to be lighted.

Then the King entered, not without fear, before all the others. And guide me, Priest, to that mysterious room,

They discovered, by degrees, a splendid hall, apparently built Where, if aught true in old tradition be, His nation's future fate a Spanish King shall see.-P. 273.

in a very sumptuous manner; in the middle stood a Bronze

Statue of very ferocious appearance, which held a battle-ase The transition of an incident from history to tradition, and in its hands. With this he struck the floor violently, giving it from tradition to fable and romance, becoming more marvel- such heavy blows, that the noise in the cave was occasioned lous at each step from its original simplicity, is not ill exem- by the motion of the air. The King, greatly affrighted, and plified in the account of the “ Fated Chamber” of Don Rod- astonished, began to conjure this terrible vision, promising that erick, as given by his namesake, the historian of Toledo, con- he would return without doing any injury in the cave, after he trasted with subsequent and more romantic accounts of the had obtained a sight of what was contained in it. The statue same subterranean discovery. I give the Archbishop of Tole- ceased to strike the floor, and the King, with his followers, do's tale in the words of Nonius, who seems to intimate somewhat assured, and recovering their courage, proceeded into (though very modestly) that the fatale palatium, of which so the hall; and on the left of the statue they found this inscrip much had been said, was only the ruins of a Roman amphi- tion on the wall, “Unfortunate King, thou hast entered here in theatre.

evil hour.' On the right side of the wall these words were in"Extra muros, septentrionem versus, vestigia magni olim scribed, ' By strange nations thou shalt be dispossessed, and thy theatri sparsa visuntur. Auctor est Rodericus, Toletanus subjects foully degraded.' On the shoulders of the statue other Archiepiscopus ante Arabum in Hispanias irruptionem, hic words were written, which said, I call upon the Arabs.' fatale palatium fuisse ; quod invicti vectes æterna ferri robora And upon his breast was written, 'I do my office.' At the claudebant, ne reseratum Hispaniæ excidium adferret; quod entrance of the hall there was placed a round bowl, from which in fatis non vulgus solum, sed et prudentissimi quique crede- a great noise, like the fall of waters, proceeded. They found bant. Sed Roderici ultimi Gothorum Regis animum infelix no other thing in the hall: and when the King, sorrowful and curiositas subiit, sciendi quid sub tot vetitis claustris observa- greatly affected, had scarcely turned about to leave the cavern, retur; ingentes ibi superiorum regum opes et arcanos thesau- the statue again commenced his accustomed blows upon the ros servari ratus. Seras et pessulos perfringi curat, invitis floor. After they had mutually promised to conceal what they omnibus ; nihil præter arculam repertum, et in ea linteum, had seen, they again closed the tower, and blocked up the gate quo explicato novæ et insolentes hominum facies habitusque of the cavern with earth, that no memory might remain in the apparnere, cum inscriptione Latina, Hispania ercidium ab world of such a portentous and evil-boding prodigy. The enilla gente imminere ; Vultus habitusque Maurorum erant. suing midnight they heard great cries and clamor from the Quamobrem ex Africa tantam cladem instare regi cæterisque cave, resounding like the noise of battle, and the ground persuasum ; nec falso at Hispaniæ annales etiamnum que- shaking with a tremendous roar; the whole edifice of the runtur." - Hispania Ludovic. Nonij. cap. lix.

old tower fell to the ground, by which they were greatly But, about the term of the expulsion of the Moors from affrighted, the vision which they had bebeld appearing to them Grenada, we find, in the Historia Verdadeyra del Rey Don

as a dream. Rodrigo," a (pretended) translation from the Arabic of the “The King having left the tower, ordered wise men to es. sage Alcayde Abulcacim Tarif Abentarique, a legend which plain what the inscriptions signified ; and having consulted puts to shame the modesty of the historian Roderick, with his upon and studied their meaning, they declared that the statue chest and prophetic picture. The custom of ascribing a pre- of bronze, with the motion which it made with its battle-axe, tended Moorish original to these legendary histories, is ridiculed signified Time; and that its office, alluded to in the inscription by Cervantes, who affects to translate the History of the Knight on its breast, was, that he never rests a single moment. The of the Woful Figure, from the Arabic of the sage Cid Hamet words on the shoulders, 'I call upon the Arabs,' they expoundBenengeli. As I have been indebted to the Historia Verdadeyed, that, in time, Spain would be conquered by the Arabs. ra for some of the imagery employed in the text, the following The words upon the left wall signified the destruction of King literal translation from the work itself may gratify the inquisi- | Rodrigo; those on the right, the dreadful calamities which tive reader :

were to fall upon the Spaniards and Goths, and that the on"One mile on the east side of the city of Toledo, among fortunate King would be dispossessed of all his states. Finally, some rocks, was situated an ancient tower, of a magnificent the letters on the portal indicated, that good would betide to structure, though much dilapidated by time, which consumes the conquerors; and evil to the conquered, of which experience all : four estadoes (i. e. four times a man's height) below it, proved the truth."--Historia Verdadeyra de Rey Don Rodthere was a cave with a very narrow entrance, and a gate cut rigo. Quinta impression. Madrid, 1654, iv.

p.

23. out of the solid rock, lined with a strong covering of iron, and fastened with many locks; above the gate some Greek letters are engraved, which, although abbreviuted, and of doubtful meaning, were thus interpreted, according to the exposition of

NOTE G. learned men :- The King who opens this cave, and can discover the wonders, will discover both good and evil things.'—

The Tecbir war-cry and the Lelie's yell.-P. 274. Many Kings desired to know the mystery of this tower, and The Tecbir (derived from the words Alla acbar, God is most sought to find out the manner with much care; but when they mighty) was the original war-cry of the Saracens. It is celeopened the gate, such a tremendous noise arose in the cave, brated by Hughes in the Siege of Damascus :that it appeared as if the earth was bursting; many of those present sickened with fear, and others lost their lives. In order “We heard the Tecbir; so these Arabs call to prevent such great perils (as they supposed a dangerous en- Their shout of onset, when, with loud appeal chantment was contained within), they secured the gate with They challange Heaven, as if demanding conquest."

"The Lelie, well known to the Christians during the cru- by the Spaniards, in which castanets are always used. Mozo sades, in the shout of Alla illa Alla, the Mahomedan con- and muchacha are equivalent to our phrase of lad and lass. fession of faith. It is twice used in poetry by my friend Mr. W. Stewart Rose, in the romance of Partenopex, and in the Crusade of St. Lewis.

NOTE K.

While trumpets rang, and heralds cried "Castile!—P. 278. NOTE H.

The heralds, at the coronation of a Spanish monarch, proBy Heaven, the Moors prevail! the Christians yield!-

claim his name three times, and repeat three times the word Their coward leader gives for flight the sign!

Castilla, Castilla, Castilla ; which, with all other ceremonies, The scepter'd craven mounts to quit the field

was carefully copied in the mock inauguration of Joseph BonaIs not yon steed Orelia ?— Yes, 'tis mine!-P. 275. parte. Count Julian, the father of the injured Florinda, with the connivance and assistance of Oppas, Archbishop of Toledo, invited, in 713, the Saracens into Spain. A considerable army

NOTE L. arrived under the command of Tarik, or Tarif, who bequeathed

High blazed the war, and long, and far, and wide.-P. 278. the well-known name of Gibraltar (Gibel al Tarik, or the mountain of Tarik) to the place of his landing. He was joined Those who were disposed to believe that mere virtue and by Count Julian, ravaged Andalusia, and took Seville. In 714, energy are able of themselves to work forth the salvation of an they returned with a still greater force, and Roderick marched oppressed people, surprised in a moment of confidence, deprived into Andalusia at the head of a great army, to give them of their officers, armies, and fortresses, who had every means battle. The field was chosen near Xeres, and Mariana gives of resistance to seek in the very moment when they were to be the following account of the action:

made use of, and whom the numerous treasons among the ** Both armies being drawn up, the King, according to the higher orders deprived of confidence in their natural leaders, custom of the Gothic kings when they went to battle, appeared those who entertained this enthusiastic but delusive opinion in an ivory chariot, clothed in cloth of gold, encouraging his may be pardoned for expressing their disappointment at the men; Tarif, on the other side, did the same. The armies, protracted warfare in the Peninsula. There are, however, thus prepared, waited only for the signal to fall on; the Goths another class of persons, who, having themselves the highest gave the charge, their drums and trumpets sounding, and the dread or veneration, or something allied to both, for the power Moors received it with the noise of kettle-drums. Such were of the modern Attila, will nevertheless give the heroical Spanthe shouts and cries on both sides, that the mountains and iards little or no credit for the long, stubborn, and unsubdued valleys seemed to meet. First, they began with slings, darts, resistance of three years to a power before whom their former javelins, and lances, then came to the swords; a long time the well-prepared, well-armed, and numerous adversaries fell in the battle was dubious; but the Moors seemed to have the worst, course of as many months. While these gentlemen plead for till D. Oppas, the archbishop, having to that time concealed deference to Bonaparte, and crave his treachery, in the heat of the fight, with a great body of his

“Respect for his great place, and bid the devil followers went over to the infidels. He joined Count Julian,

Be duly honor'd for his burning throne," with whom was a great number of Goths, and both together fell upon the flank of our army. Our men, terrified with that it may not be altogether unreasonable to claim some modifiun paralleled treachery, and tired with fighting, could no longer cation of censure upon those who have been long and to a sustain that charge, but were easily put to flight. The King great extent successfully resisting this great enemy of manperformed the part not only of a wise general, but of a resolute kind. That the energy of Spain has not uniformly been soldier, relieving the weakest, bringing on fresh men in place of directed by conduct equal to its vigor, has been too obvious; those that were tired, and stopping those that turned their that her armies, under their complicated disadvantages, have backs. At length, seeing no hopes left, he alighted out of his shared the fate of such as were defeated after taking the field cbariot for fear of being taken, and mounting on a horse called with every possible advantage of arms and discipline, is surely Orelia, he withdrew out of the battle. The Goths, who still not to be wondered at. But that a nation, under the circum stood, missing him, were most part put to the sword, the rest stances of repeated discomfiture, internal treason, and the misbetook themselves to flight. The camp was immediately en- management incident to a temporary and hastily adopted gortered, and the baggage taken. What number was killed was ernment, should have wasted, by its siubborn, uniform, and not known: I suppose they were so many it was hard to count prolonged resistance, myriads after myriads of those soldiers them; for this single battle robbed Spain of all its glory, and in who had overrun the world—that some of its provinces should, it perished the renowned name of the Goths. The King's horse, like Galicia, after being abandoned by their allies, and overrun apper garment, and buskins, covered with pearls and precious by their enemies, have recovered their freedom by their own stones, were found on the bank of the river Guadelite, and anassisted exertions; that others, like Catalonia, undismayed there being no news of him afterwards, it was supposed he was by the treason which betrayed some fortresses, and the force drowned passing the river."-MARIANA's History of Spain, which subdued others, should not only have continued their book vi. chap. 9.

resistance, but have attained over their victorious enemy a Orelia, the courser of Don Roderick, mentioned in the text, superiority, which is even now enabling them to besiege and and in the above quotation, was celebrated for her speed and retake the places of strength which had been wrested from form. She is mentioned repeatedly in Spanish romance, and them, is a tale hitherto untold in the revolutionary war. To also by Cervantes.

say that such a people cannot be subdued, would be presumption similar to that of those who protested that Spain could not defend herself for a year, or Portugal for a month;

but that a resistance which has been continued for so long a NOTE I.

space, when the usurper, except during the short-lived AusWhen for the light bolero ready stand

trian campaign, had no other enemies on the continent, should The mozo blithe, with gay muchacha met.-P. 276.

be now less successful, when repeated defeats have broken the

reputation of the French armies, and when they are likely (it The bolero is a very light and active dance, much practised would seem almost in desperation) to seek occupation elsewith. In the latter contest this has been proved ; for Zarago Esq. 1809. The Right Honorable R. C. Vaughan is now British Minister za contained, at the time, bodies of men from almost all parts at Washington. 18 ..

where, is a prophecy as improbable as ungracious. And while day by day; and no other cannon-balls than those which were we are in the humor of severely censuring our allies, gallant shot into the town, and which they collected and fired back and devoted as they have shown themselves in the cause of upon the enemy.". national liberty, because they may not instantly adopt those In the midst of these horrors and privations, the pestilence measures which we in our wisdom may deem essential to suc- broke out in Zaragoza. To various causes, enumerated by the cess, it might be well if we endeavored first to resolve the pre- annalist, he adds, “scantiness of food, crowded quarters, untvious questions,– Ist, Whether we do not at this moment know sual exertion of body, anxiety of mind, and the impossibility much less of the Spanish armies than those of Portugal, which of recruiting their exhausted strength by needful rest, in a city were so promptly condemned as totally inadequate to assist in which was almost incessantly bombarded, and where etery the preservation of their country ? 22, Whether, independ- hour their sleep was broken by the tremendous explosion of ently of any right we have to offer more than advice and mines. There was now no respite, either by day or night, for assistance to our independent allies, we can expect that they this devoted city ; even the natural order of light and darkness should renounce entirely the national pride, which is insepar- was destroyed in Zaragoza; by day it was involved in a red able from patriotism, and at once condescend not only to be sulphureous atmosphere of smoke, which hid the face of saved by our assistance, but to be saved in our own way? heaven; by night, the fire of cannons and mortars, and the 3d, Whether, if it be an object (as undoubtedly it is a main flames of burning houses, kept it in a state of terrific illuminaone) that the Spanish troops should be trained under British tion. discipline, to the flexibility of movement, and power of rapid “When once the pestilence had begun, it was impossible to concert and combination, which is essential to modern war; check its progress, or confine it to one quarter of the city. Hos such a consummation is likely to be produced by abusing them pitals were immediately established, ---there were above thirty in newspapers and periodical publications ? Lastly, since the of them; as soon as one was destroyed by the bombardment, undoubted authority of British officers makes us now ac- the patients were removed to another, and thus the infection quainted with part of the horrors that attend invasion, and was carried to every part of Zaragoza. Famine aggravated which the providence of God, the valor of our navy, and per- the evil; the city had probably not been sufficiently provided haps the very efforts of these Spaniards, have hitherto diverted at the commencement of the siege, and of the provisions which from us, it may be modestly questioned whether we ought to it contained, much was destroyed in the daily rain which the be too forward to estimate and condemn the feeling of tem- mines and bombs effected. Had the Zaragozans and their garporary stupefaction which they create ; lest, in so doing, we rison proceeded according to military rules, they would have should resemble the worthy clergy man who, while he had him- surrendered before the end of January ; their batteries had then self never snuffed a candle with his fingers, was disposed se- been demolished, there were open breaches in many parts of verely to criticise the conduct of a martyr, who winced a little their weak walls, and the enemy were already within the city. among his flames.

On the 30th, above sixty houses were blown up, and the French obtained possession of the monasteries of the Angustines and Las Monicas, which adjoined each other, two of the

last defensible places left. The enemy forced their way into NOTE M.

the church ; every column, every chapel, every altar, became

a point of defence, which was repeatedly attacked, taken and They won not Zaragoza, but her children's bloody tomb.

retaken ; the pavement was covered with blood, the aisles and P. 279.

body of the church strewed with the dead, who were trampled The interesting account of Mr. Vaughan has made most under foot by the combatants. In the midst of this conflict, readers acquainted with the first siege of Zaragoza. The last the roof, shattered by repeated bombs, fell in ; the few who and fatal siege of that gallant and devoted city is detailed with were not crushed, after a short pause, which this tremendous great eloquence and precision in the “ Edinburgh Annual Re- shock, and their own unexpected escape, occasioned, renewed gister" for 1809,--a work in which the affairs of Spain have the fight with rekindled fury; fresh parties of the enemy pourbeen treated of with attention corresponding to their deep in- ed in; monks, and citizens, and soldiers, came to the defence, terest, and to the peculiar sources of information open to the and the contest was continued upon the ruins, and the bodies historian. The following are a few brief extracts from this of the dead and the dying."splendid historical narrative :

Yet, seventeen days after sustaining these extremities, did "A breach was soon made in the mud walls, and then, as in the heroic inbabitants of Zaragoza continue their defence; nor the former siege, the war was carried on in the streets and did they then surrender until their despair had extracted from houses ; but the French had been taught by experience, that the French generals a capitulation, more honorable than has in this species of warfare the Zaragozans derived a superiority been granted to fortresses of the first order. from the feeling and principle which inspired them, and the Who shall venture to refuse the Zaragozans the eulogium canse for which they fought. The only means of conquering conferred upon them by the eloquence of Wordsworth !-Zaragoza was to destroy it house by house, and street by street; “Most gloriously have the citizens of Zaragoza proved that and upon this system of destruction they proceeded. Three the true army of Spain, in a contest of this nature, is the companies of miners, and eight companies of sappers, carried whole people. The same city has also exemplified a melanon this subterraneous war ; the Spaniards, it is said, attempted choly, yea, a dismal truth,-yet consolatory and full of joy,to oppose them by countermines; these were operations to that when a people are called suddenly to fight for their liberty, which they were wholly unused, and, according to the French and are sorely pressed upon, their best field of battle is the statement, their miners were every day discovered and suffoca- floors upon which their children have played; the chambers ted. Meantime, the bombardment was incessantly kept up. where the family of each man has slept (his own or his neigh"Within the last 48 hours,' said Palafox in a letter to his friend bors'); upon or under the roofs by which they have been shelGeneral Doyle, 6000 shells have been thrown in. Two-thirds tered ; in the gardens of their recreation; in the street, or in of the town are in ruins, but we shall perish under the ruins of the market-place; before the altars of their temples, and among the remaining third rather than surrender.' In the course of their congregated dwellings, blazing or uprooted. the siege, above 17,000 bombs were thrown at the town; the “The government of Spain must never forget Zaragoza for stock of powder with which Zaragoza had been stored was ex- a moment. Nothing is wanting to produce the same effects hausted; they had none at last but what they manufactured everywhere, but a leading mind, such as that city was blessed 1 See Narrative of the Siege of Zaragoza, by Richard Charles Vanghan,

of Spain. The narrative of those two sieges should be tbe

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