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THE

GEOGRAPHICAL CATECHISM

OF

Pennsylvania, and the Western States;

DESIGNED AS A

GUIDE AND POCKET COMPANION,

FOR

Travellers and Emigrants,

TO

PENNSYLVANIA, OHIO, INDIANA, ILLINOIS,

MICHIGAN AND MISSOURI;

CONTAINING

A GEOGRAPHICAL AND EARLY HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THESE
SLVBRAL STATES, FROM THEIR FIRST SETTLEMENT

UP TO THE PRESENT TIME.

BY I. DANIEL RUPP, ESQ.

Teacher and Translator.

Philadelphia:
NEW-YORK, LORD & co. POIL'D., BONSAL & DESILVER. PITTSBURG,
KAY & co. CINCINNATI, C. P. BARNES. HARRISBURG, J.
WINEBRENNER. STEUBENVILLE, J. TURN-

BULL. LOUISVILLE, J. RICE.

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Entered, according to an Act of Congress, in the year 1836, by

JOHN WINEBRENNER, V. D. M.
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Lastern
District of Pennsylvania.

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PREFACI.

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That a work like the present is useful and important needs no proof. The author has long been impressed that a Geographical Catechism of Pennsylvania and of the Western tes, would be very acceptable and useful; and has, at the solicitation of some of his friends, (who knew that he had travelled considerably in the “ Far West" some six years ago, and collected much geographical knowledge by making personal observations and enquiries from those who resided for years in the several western states, compiled this work. When he was in the west, in 1829 and 1830, he took accurate notes; however, on consulting these now, though correct at the time when taken, and comparing them with works recently published, he found they were of little use-much like a garment made for a young and growing giant, "too short and not long enough,” after a few year's growth; for the changes since that time have been both rapid and wide. Hence in presenting this book, it cannot be expected that he should be so presumptuous as to claim general originality, though he claims accuracy; for he can assure the public that he has used every exertion to have the work correct by comparing it with the latest publications,

In compiling this work the author had before him Darby's and Dwights' Gazetteer of the United States; Daven port's Gazetteer; Gordan's Gazetteer of Pennsylvania; Hazzard's Register; Mrs. Eaton's Geography of Pennsylvania ; Flint's Geography; Goodrick's Geography; Com.

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mercial Atlas; Mitchell's and Himnan's Guide and Compendium of Canals and Railroads; Kilbourn's Gazetteer of Ohio; Illinois Gazetteer and Emigrants' Guide by J. M. Peck, A. M. Willet's and Dana's Sketches of the West.

As to the plan of the work, the descriptions of each state and the statistical facts, &c., are arranged under two general heads; Physical Geography and Political Geography.

The first comprising a description of the boundaries, square miles, acres, mountains, valleys, rivers, harbors, bays, soil, surface, geology, minerals, mineral and medi cal springs, caves, natural curiosities, productions, climate, &c.

The second gives a synopsis of the constitution of each of the states described, population, divisions into counties alphabetically arranged, chief towns, internal improvements, viz: bridges, turnpikes, canals and railroads; agriculture, commerce, manufactures, education, colleges, academies, common schools, lyceums, religion, maintainance of the poor, penitentiary system, banks, revenue, early history, principal stage routes, &r.

To avoid the usual marks of quotation, let it suffice to say; that he has availed himself of the above named works, especially Flint's and Peck's works-often used the very words of others when they fully expressed his views better than he could have hoped to express them himself.

How far the Author has succeeded in his attempts to render this work useful and acceptable, he can with cheerfulness rely upon the enlightened candor of the public.

Those who desire more extensive information, can profitably consult the works cited; particularly Flint and Peck on the West.

1. D. R. Refuge, near Mechanicsburg,

Crimberland County, Pa.

PENNSYLVANIA.

Q. Whence is the name Pennsylvania derived? A. It is derived from the surname of William Penn, and sylva, woods; and means, literally, Penn's woods. This was a very appropriate name; for few, if any, regions of equal extent, and in one continuous body, ever bore, in a state of nature, a more dense forest.

Q. How is Pennsylvania bounded ?

A. The northwestern corner, for the distance of 39 miles, is bounded by lake Erie, and north by New York, for a distance of 230 miles; the Delaware river separating it from New York and New Jersey, bounds it on the east 230 miles; from the Delaware river, by a circular line, around New Castle county, Delaware, to the N. E. limits of Cecil county, Maryland, 24 miles; on the S. by Maryland, 203 miles, and by Virginia 69 miles; and on the west by Virginia to the Ohio river, 64 miles; and by the state of Ohio to lake Erie, 91 miles; having an entire outline of 961 miles.

Q. What is the shape of Pennsylvania ?

A. It is almost a perfect parallelogram; three of its sides being marked by parallels of latitude and à meridian. It extends from latitude 39 deg. 43 min. to 43 deg. 16 min. north, and from 2 deg. 20 min. east, to 3 deg. 36 min. west from Washington. Its greatest length is 315 miles; greatest breadth 176; general breadth 153.

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