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in which the ships sailed, they were left in want of many necessaries, such as linen and other articles of that kind. It was judged that great inconvenience might be felt if they were obliged to wait till they could send to this country for them, and accordingly a considerable quantity of such articles were sent out in anticipation of their wants.
It so happened, that about the time when these articles arrived, Las Cases wrote a letter to Europe, which of course came under the inspection of Sir Hudson Lowe, who found that it contained an order for some of those very articles which had been sent out. Sir Hudson Lowe then wrote to Las Cases to inform him that he had those articles which he had ordered, and which were much at his service, and observed, that it would not, perhaps, be necessary to send the letter, or that he might now omit that order. Las Cases returned an answer full of reproaches to Sir Hudson Lowe, for his presumption in reading a letter directed to a lady, and for offering him articles out of a common stock, when he knew that he had been solely supported by the Emperor. Thus was Şir Hudson Lowe treated for his endeavours to accommodate these intractable people, and such was the only foundation for this part of the charge.
The temporary residence in Mr. Balcombe's cottage is complained of as being ni propre ni commode,' neither clean nor convenient; but it is omitted that this was a residence chosen by Buonaparte himself, and that he insisted on living there in preference to the best house in James Town, which Sir G. Cockburn had prepared for him.
The permanent residence appointed for him at Longwood is next abused. It is too hot, and too cold, and too dry, and too damp; it is too wild and open by nature, and too much narrowed ånd restricted by the governor's precautions. But why is it so cautiously concealed that the choice of this situation was made with the most delicate regard to Buonaparte's wishes, and that he him. self at first concurred in the selection ? The great plain (of whose wildness, aridity, and want of shelter he now complains) was its principal recommendation, because it was the only part of the island in which exercise on horseback or in a carriage (which Buonaparte represented as necessary to his health) could be conveniently had, and Sir G. Cockburn, on a representation from Buonaparte to this effect, not only fixed him at Longwood, but provided him with horses and a carriage to take the air. If he had been placed in one of the shady dingles of the island, we should have heard violent complaints, that by cutting him off from his favourite and necessary exercise, we were endeavouring to shorten his life.
Nay, indeed, he does say, that for the not permitting him to range over the whole island, there can be butone motive, namely,
to prevent his enjoying that exercise, the privation of which must, in the opinion of medical men, shorten the life of the Emperor.'
Here again the truth breaks out through the misrepresentation, and it is evident, that nothing will satisfy him but the uncontrolled liberty of ranging the whole island, and the consequent facilities of intrigue, and perhaps of escape.
He complains of the climate of Longwood in terms so inconsistent that he refutes himself-our readers will have already seen by the extract from Governor Beatson's work,* that it is the most fa. vourable temperature of the whole island, and it appears from the Meteorological Journals, which were accurately kept in the years 1812 and 1813, and which are quoted by Major Barnes, that the medium heat at James-town was 74, and that at Longwood only 66, (p. 123,) which is nearer the mean temperature of Marseilles than
any other place we have been able to find in atmospherical tables now before us. And Major Barnes further states, that Longwood is undoubtedly one of the most healthy parts of St. Helena, (p. 35,) a climate which is unquestionably one of the most temperate and salubrious in the universe.—(p. 121.)
We shall conclude upon this point, by quoting the account of the choosing of Buonaparte's residence by Major Barnes.
On the fifteenth day of October, 1815, arrived in James's Bay, His Majesty's ship Northumberland, bearing the fag of Rear Admiral Sir George Cockburn, K. C. B. having on board General Napoleon Buonaparte and his suite, consisting of Marshal and Countess Bertrand and three children, General and Countess Montholon and child, General Gourgaud, Count Las Cases and his son, and eight servants. The Icarus brig of war, wbich arrived a few days before, announced his approach, and one of the best houses in the town was prepared to receive him ; on the evening of the seventeenth, after sunset, he landed, and was conducted to his quarters, and the next morning early, accompanied by the admiral and General Bertrand, rode into the country to see the place destined for his future residence.
• Long Wood House, the official country-seat of the lieutenant-governor, was selected for this purpose, being in every respect the most eligible situation on the island : Buonaparte, it was said, did not seem to tbink so, but this happening to be a minor consideration, had no effect on the determination of government. On their return Sir George took Napoleon to the Briars, the residence of William Balcombe, Esq. a small but pleasant estate about a mile and a half from town; with this place he was much pleased, and particularly requested be might be permitted to remain at it until Long Wood was ready for his accommodation ; bis wish was complied with, and apartments were immediately prepared for himself, Las Cases, senior and junior, and a few attendants, which they occupied nearly eight weeks.
During this period the most indefatigable exertions were made by Sir George Cockburn, to improve and enlarge the premises at Long
* ART. VU. No. xxvü,
Wood; and it is almost incredible with what rapidity a spacious and comfortable house was erected ; residences were also as quickly provided for the persons of his establishment, and at the expiration of two months the whole party were removed to their respective abodes.
• The boundary which limits Buonaparte's excursions is a circle round Long Wood, twelve miles in circunference: nearly the whole is level ground, well adapted for exercise on foot, in a carriage, or on horseback,'-p. 174–7.
In return for all this supererogative kindness, Sir G. Cockburn and Sir Hudson Lowe are told that their conduct has been guided by a rancorous design against the life of the person whom they were labouring to oblige!
Buonaparte next finds that the house at Longwood is only a barn, unfit to be inhabited; but he adus, every new building would prolong the inconvenience of the presence of workmen.-(p. 59.)
We reply, that if his wayward Majesty will neither be content with the accommodation which satisfied the Lieutenant-Governor of the island, nor yet permit alterations to be made, we have no pity for him ; but it appears that here again there are concealment and misrepresentation. The house, it is well known, though not regularly built, was agreeable and commodious even when inhabited by the Lieutenant Governor; when it was hired for Buonaparte, all the means which the island or the squadron afforded, were employed, as we have seen, by Sir G. Cockburn in enlarging and rendering it, as far as could be, satisfactory to Buonaparte, and Lord Bathurst distinctly stated that, at first, he was satisfied: but when he found that Longwood, in addition to its being the best countryhouse on the island, (except the Governor's,) and to its having a space for walking, riding, or driving, had the further advantages of being easily watched, and of being difficult of access from the coast, he suddenly altered his favourable opinion of the place. The Governor's house then became the great object of his desire, not merely because he might be there less securely guarded, but because it was the Governor's; the same impcrious spirit which induced him to attempt to usurp Sir George Cockburn's cabin in the Northumberland, makes him long for the Plantation House; because it is the residence of the first man in the island; and though he complains of the heat of Longwood, and that Plantation House is of a higher mean temperature by four or five degrees, he makes serious complaints that from residing at this house he was expressly restricted.
Upon all this, we have a very different complaint to allege--we think that too much attention has been paid to Buonaparte's whims in several particulars. His opinion should not have been asked as to his residence; no expense should have been incurred in enlarging
and beautifying a house which had been considered as sufficient for a British officer; and above all, he should not have had an offer, which it seems Sir Hudson Lowe made, to erect a house for him in any other part of the island which he should prefer. Anxious that the whole of this case should be fully understood, we shall, at the risk of being prolix, quote Lord Bathurst's account of these transactions.
• It was now said, that the residence pitched upon for General Buonaparte was unpleasant and unwbolesome. I can only say, that this was not the general account of that place. It had formerly been the House of the Lieutenant-Governor, and it was not usual for Lieutenant-Governors to choose the most unpleasant and unwholesome spots. Neither bad this been the former opinion of General Buonaparte himself. When the General had first been sent there, it was left to the discretion of Sir G, Cockburn to fix on a residence for him, with only one exception, namely, the house of the Governor. That choice was to be directed by a view to the safe custody, and as far as was consistent witb that, by the consideration due to bis confort. Soon after his landing, General Buonaparte rode out with Sir George Cockbum, till be reached Longwood, with which, at first sight, he was so much captivated, that he wished to remain there, and not to go back to the town. He was told that it would be impossible so soon to remove the Lieutenant-Governor's family. He then wished a tent to be erected, which it was also represented would much incommode the LieutenantGovernor, but he was assured that the occupants sbould be removed as soon as possible. As they returned they came to a house prettily situated, which belonged to Mr. Balcombe, near which a detached room had been built. General Buonaparte expressed a wish to occupy tba! room, and after Sir G. Cockburn bad in vain endeavoured to dissuade him from it, he took up his abode there for the time. It was but two days after, however, that his attendants complained of this barsh usage, as they termed it, in placing the Emperor in a single room. This was the manner in which the compliance of Sir G. Cockburn was received. So many alterations were made at Longwood, that General Buonaparte rem ned in that room two months.
Constant improvements or alterations suggested by himself or his suite delayed his removal ; fa the fact was that he was unwilling to remove from Mr. Balcombe's, on account of the facility of communication with the town. During his residence there, he was circumscribed to a small garden, beyond wbich be never moved without a guard; be did not, however, at that time, make any complaint; but he now, for the first tine, complained of restrictions on his liberty, when he was allowed to range within a circuit of eight miles if he pleased, unattended. When the prisoners were first sent to St. Helena, orders were given to send out a frame for the purpose of constructing a house for General Buonaparte. When the materials arrived, Sir H. Lowe wrote to the General, whether he would like to have a new house erected, or additions made to the old one. He received no answer; in two or three weeks he went to the General to en
deavour to obtain a decision from him. The General at last answered, that “if he were to answer bim officially, he should say build a new house ;' but as that must take five or six years, and as he knew that in two or three years either the Administration in this country would be overturned, or a change would take place in the Government of France, and in either case he should be released, he was privately of opinion that additions should be made to Longwood.” In compliance with this suggestion Sir Hudson Lowe proceeded to make alterations in the present house. General Buonaparte then objected to this, though it was done by his own desire, and for the purpose of lodging his attendants. I do not object to General Buonaparte's choice either of the new house or the old one, or between alterations and no alterations, but I object to this that every attempt to render bis residence convenient is made the foundation of a charge against the Governor, and that he watches the moment when an attention is paid to his wishes, to make that very attention a source of complaint.
Nothing of this should be done, no change should be made, no further expense incurred, and Buonaparte should be taught to understand that Longwood, Longwood as it is, and nothing but Long, wood, is to be his residence for the remainder of his days. He will not be satisfied with it, we are aware of that: but what would satisfy him?-he had St. Cloud and Fontainebleu, and yet he could not rest without the Escurial and Schönbrunn. If he had been contented with the palaces of the ancient sovereigns of France, he would not now be reduced to make comparisons between the houses of the Governor and Deputy Governor of St. Helena-nay, if he had been satisfied with his castle at Porto Ferrajo, and his villa at San Martino, he would not now be afflicted with the cold warmth and dry wet which he has discovered at Longwood; and we think we may venture to assure him that, even though the administration should be changed, his situation would not be altered, and that he would find Lord Holland, if he became Secretary of State, acting, to the best of his abilities, on the principles of Lord Bathurst.
He says, that Sir Hudson Lowe has aggravated his unfortunate situation.'-He is mistaken: -Sir Hudson Lowe seems only to have executed regulations which he found established, and which are proper and necessary. But it is the mind of the man himself which is getting more exasperated—his hopes are declining his patience is wearing out—the vigilance of the Governor affords no prospect of escape,--and it is therefore that from day to day he feels his situation more irksome;-every month of peace in Europe is an age of misery to him, because it increases the chances of solid and universal tranquillity.
But we really think that Sir Hudson Lowe would be perfectly justified in taking some measures of additional precaution when we perceive that Buonaparte fancies he is in a condition to tamper