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nishing objects, that one is riveted to the spot, unable to decide whither to direct the step or fix the attention. These ruins extend from each bank of the Nile to the sides of the enclosing mountains : the objects which most powerfully attract the attention on the eastern side are the magnificent Temple of Karnac, and the remains of the Temple of Luxor; the latter of which, Mr. Legh says, mark the southern extremity of the walls of the city on that side of the river; Pococke, however, found no signs of walls round Thebes.? On the opposite or western bank, are the Memnonium, the two colossal statues, and the remains of Médinet-Abou. The Necropolis, or celebrated caverns, known as the sepulchres of the ancient kings of Thebes, are excavations in the mountains, covered with sculptures and paintings, still in the highest degree of preservation. Of these, Mr. Legh gives no description, which indeed without engravings would have been of little use; but we are told that the hasty sketch of the ruins of Thebes, to be found in the Travels of Denon, and the minute description of the paintings with which Mr. Hamilton's book is enriched, may be consulted for the details of this wonderful spot.' Mr. Hamilton has indeed given a most curious and interesting description of the paintings and sculptures of the ruins of Thebes ; but as to Denon's sketches, we can only admire the ingenuity of the painter, who could contrive to catch the outline of so many objects while galloping through them; even though the complaisant enthusiasm of the French soldiers supplied him with their knees instead of a table, and whole corps formed to afford him shade from a burning sun delicate sensibility,' he exclaimed, which makes me happy in being their companion, and proud in being a Frenchman! His copies, however, of the paintings and hieroglyphics in the tombs of the kings' were taken more at his ease, and consequently are more correct than his hasty sketches.' But for the most ample, laborious, and accurate details of these ancient ruins, we are indebted to the learned and indefatigable Pococke; though enough still remains for future travellers to add to his descriptions : and we confess that we are rather disappointed to find that the united labours of Mr. Legh and Mr. Smelt could supply no more than one little page for the plain of Thebes; and that one single measurement of the remnant of a statue of red granite, lying among the ruins of the Memnonium,
whose dimensions across the shoulders were twenty-five feet,' was sufficient to satisfy their curiosity, surrounded as they were by whole colonnades of gigantic columns, some of them seventy feet high-by temples extending a mile in length-and by fragments of colossal statues, whose dimensions almost exceed belief. Nay we even fear that this single measure is taken from Denon, who mentions a huge fragment thrown down near the two Memnonian statues, which measured twenty-five feet across the shoulders ;'-but as the French foot exceeds that of the English by nearly four-fifths of an inch, Mr. Legh, if he copied Denon, ought to have set down the measure at 262 English feet. He would have done well not to trust to any measurement or description but his own; where no two authors are found to agree, it is of the utmost importance to have the testimony of a third; and the apology is scarcely admissi. ble for passing too hastily over places famous in antiquity," because Mr. Hamilton, M. Denon, or any other traveller, however celebrated, has gone over them before. Were such a rule of conduct to be strictly followed, the reader must sit down contented with ihe single description of the first traveller, however inaccurate.
Pococke bears testimony to the correctness of Diodorus, in his description of Thebes and the stupendous temples of Karnac and Luxor; Mr. Hamilton, however, thinks him little entitled to the praise of accuracy. Among the ruins of Luxor, Pococke measured a statue of one single stone sixty feet high; but he found no traces of the statue of Osymandyas, whose foot (said to be 103 feet long) bore this inscription :- I am the king of kings, Osymandyas—if any one would know how great I am, and where I lie, let him exceed the works that I have done.' Whether the prostrate fragment mentioned by Mr. Legh was a part of this statue, or of that of Memnon, or neither, is left for the speculation of future travellers. Denon, who pronounces all the descriptions hitherto given of those wonderful monuments to have tended to confuse rather than illustrate, seems to think that it belonged to the statue of Memnon, and that all the travellers for the last 2,000 years bave been deceived in the object of their curiosity; as appears from the inscriptions. These are cut into the legs of the northernmost of two colossal figures, found in the midst of the plain near MédinetAbou, in a sitting posture; they are in various languages, and record the names of many illustrious travellers of antiquity, who bad come thither to hear the sounds emitted by the statue when struck by the first rays of the sun; at the same time attesting the fact. These inscriptions have been copied with great labour by Dr. Pococke, and some of them are to be found in Mr. Hamilton's 'Egyptiaca,' where it is observed that the author looked in vain for the name of Strabo, who has given, from personal inspeclion, a particular account of the Memnonian statue, which, in spite of the attestations, Cambyses is said to have previously thrown down. Denon, however, following Herodotus and Strabo, maintains that the two sitting figures are the mother and son of Osymandyas. Of the difficulty arising from the numerous testimonies on the leg, of the supposed Memnon, he easily gets rid : In the age of úladrian, (he says,) enlightened by the beams of philosophy, Sabina, the wife of this emperor, who was herself a learned woman, (a Roman précieuse we suppose,) was desirous, as well as the savans who accompanied her, to hear those sounds which no cause, physical or political, could any longer produce : but the pride of perpetuating their names, by inscribing them on antiquities of this kind, was sufficient to give rise to the first names; and the very natural desire of associating himself to this species of renown, would induce every succeeding traveller to add to his own; such is, without doubt, the cause of those innumerable inscriptions of names, of all dates, and in all languages.'
Norden also seemed to think, that the huge fragment of a colossal statue must have been a part of the vocal statue of Memnon: and because, says this honest Dane in the simplicity of his heart, that most authors have related the wonder of Memnon's statue rendering a sound at the rising of the sun,--to satisfy my curiosity, I struck the remains of this colossal figure with a key; but, being all solid, I found it as dumb as any block of granite buried in the earth.'
Our present travellers passed upwards with a fair wind from Thebes, reserving the examination of the ancient towns of Esné, Eleithias, Etfou (Apollinopolis Magna) and Koum Ombos, for their return; and on the 11th February reached Essouan, having performed a journey of 600 miles from Cairo, on the thirtieth day from their departurema rate of travelling not exactly calculated for examining fully and accurately so interesting a country ; but as no part of their object appears to have been that of making drawings, or collecting subjects of natural history, the mind probably had become to a certain degree sated with the constant suc: cession of lemples resembling each other in the plan and execution, and differing chiefly in magnitude. This seems to have been the case with Denon's feelings, who exclaims rather petulantly among the ruins of Thebes, “Suill temples, nothing but temples ! no walls, quays, bridges, baths, or theatres !' He searched, he says, in vain, for a single edifice of public utility or convenience—he found nothing but temples, whose walls were covered with obscure emblems, and with hieroglyphics, which attested the ascendancy of the priesthood.
At Essouan there was no Turkish garrison; and an Arab Shekha was governor of the town. From him they learned that the difficulties encountered by former travellers beyond the Cataracts, from the disturbed state of Nubia, no longer existed; that the Mamelukes were at a great distance, and the Barâbras at peace with the Pashaw.of Egypt. Pococke, Niebuhr, Browne, Hamilton, were all stopped at the Cataracts. Norden is the only European who ventured above them, and the aga of Essouan endeavoured to dis
suade him from the attempt, assuring him that he and his party would all be destroyed; and the boundary of the French expedition in Egypt was marked on a granite rock a little above the Cataracts. The pillage and desolation and massacre which accompanied the progress of the French arms in Upper Egypt were manfully resisted by the inhabitants of the interesting little isle of Philæ, who, when they could no longer prevent the approach of the enemy, quitted the island in despair, threw themselves into the Nile, and swam to the opposite shore. Such indeed was the horror at the cruelties committed by the French, that Denon acknowledges * mothers were seen drowning their children which they could not carry away, and mutilating their daughters to save them from the violence of the victors. We cannot be surprised, therefore, after what we have just seen, that the natives of Philæ should appear to our travellers less civilized than their neighbours.
The few days passed by Mr. Legh at Essouan were employed in visiting the islands of Elephantina, Philæ, and the Cataracts. Elephantina (he says) is celebrated for its beauty, and certainly contains within itself every thing to make it one of the most enchanting spots in the world: woods, gardens, canals, mills, rivers and rocks, combine to make it picturesque.'
Eight temples or sanctuaries are crowded together on the island of Philæ, though its whole length does not exceed a thousand feet, nor its breadth four hundred. Mr. Legb thinks, from the present state of these temples, that the system of building among the ancient Egyptians was first to construct great masses, and afterwards to labour for ages in finishing the details of the decorations, beginning with the sculpture of the hieroglyphics, and then passing to the stucco and painting. He tells us also that the granite quarries at the foot of the mountains still bear the marks of the chisel and the wedge;
and that the unfinished obelisks, columns, and sarcophagi, which are to be seen in great profusion, show the unwearied labour and mighty schemes of the ancient inhabitants.'
The Cataracts of the Nile have been represented by the ancients in the most exaggerated colours ; unless indeed, which is not impossible, the granite barrier which occasions them, has been worn down in the lapse of two thousand years. Denon says the effect on the surface of the water was so little visible, that it could not be expressed in the drawing. Norden estimates the fall at four feet, and Pococke at three; the latter indeed, says, I asked them (his guides) when we should come to the Cataraci ? and to my great surprise they told me, that was the Cataract.'—* But,' observes Mr. Legh, there are modern travellers who seem to have listened rather to the stories of the ancients, than to the evidence of their
own senses; and Cicero is still quoted to prove that the inhabitants in the neighbourhood of the Cataract are deafened by its noise. In confirmation of the fact, it has been lately asserted, that the natives of that partare remarkably dull of hearing.'. The allusion we suppose is to Mr. Hamilton, who, after noticing Cicero's observation, says, 'several persons with whom we conversed, assured us of this fact ;'-and, he adds, we certainly observed that they were particularly. dull of hearing.'
The view, however, of the barrier placed by nature between Nubia and Egypt, is described as in the highest degree magnificent.
Passing upwards from Egypt, you leave the delicious gardens of the island of Elephantina, which divides the Nile into nearly two equal streams; and on the left, the romantic and ruined town of Essouan strongly reminded us of the old Gothic castles in England. Beyond, the two chains of primitive mountains lying on each side the Nile, cross the bed of the river, and form innumerable rocky points or islands to impede its course. The wild disorder of the granite rocks, which present every variety of grotesque shape, the absence of all cultivation, the murtour of the water, and ihe savage and desolate character of the whole scene, form a picture which exceeds all power of description. -p. 54.
In fact, from the moment that the Cataracts are passed, both the country and its inhabitants have a character totally distinct from that of Egypt, its low sandy banks, its Copts, Arabs, Turks and Jews. The natives of this upper region are Barâbras or Berebbers, or Berberins, the same who inhabit Mount Atlas and the interior parts of Barbary, to which they have given their name; a frugal, harmless, and honest people, subsisting chiefly on dates, millet, and a few leguminous plants: they are rigid Mahomedans. For the first eighteen miles, the mountains are described as hemming in the Nile, leaving but few small patches that could possibly be cultivated, and these were generally planted with dates. At Siala it was deemed expedient to wait on the Douab Cacheff, who was encamped about a mile and a half from the river, forming a sort of advanced guard of the Nubians; they found the men in wigwams; the women and children apart in tents; the whole body about 400; the horses and camels feeding around them. The Cacheff received them kindly; made no sort of objection to their proceeding up the river, and told them he would send an express to Dehr, to inform Hassan Cacheff of their intended visit to his capital. He offered them milk, flour and butter, invited them to eat out of the same bowl with him, the strongest mark of hospitality and friendship, and presented them with a sheep, in return for some coffee and tobacco.
Three miles beyond this, at Deghimeer, the mountains recede