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floor systemg. The steel bars should be twisted, as in the Ransome construction, or better, they sbould be crooked or grooved so as to take a firm hold of the concrete. Where cement-mortar alone is used the adhesion to plain wires will be sufficiently high to warrant the use, but in concrete the adhesion to plain surfaces will be found insufficient.

URING the past ten years or more the houses of the working. As to this construction being “absolutely fireproof," it is difficult classes have been attracting a great deal of attention both in to see how it can be any more fireproof than the concrete of which England, on the Continent and here. Each new contribution it is composed. If this concrete material be a cement, mortar and adds somewhat to our knowledge of the subject, and each expericrushed stone or gravel, it is far from being “absolutely fireproof.” ment tried teaches some lesson. Generally, however, circumstances

vary so much in different countries that the experience of one does THE WORLD'S GREAT FIRES.

not, to any great extent, benefit another.

The latest contribution to the housing problem is a volume conC. CROSBY, late Presi- taining plans, elevations and descriptive letter-press by Messrs. Crandent of the National Fire-field & Potter. For English uses these plans are excellent and the

protection Association, has descriptions are sufficiently clear to give even an amateur a thorough compiled a very interesting list understanding. The plans follow established English types and the of the world's great fires. In de elevations are good examples of the use of common material. They scribing some of the most impor-are, however, wholly unsuited to our climate, our customs and our tant disasters, he says: – people. Whether our people would be better off if they could learn

to be content with and to like these things is a social question of "London was nearly destroyed considerable complication. by fire in 798; again in 982, 1212, The authors deplore the high cost of buildings- owing to price of and 1666. The latter fire is labor, or material, and to stringent building-laws; but they estimate known in history as the “Great their buildings at id. per cubic foot, which does not seem high to us. Fire"; it burned over a terri- High wages are by no means an unmixed blessing to the working tory of 436 acres, including 400 man. They bring increased cost for pretty much all he requires, streets; 13,200 buildings and shelter, food and clothing, and by putting large sums of money in his property-value upward of $53, hands lead him to think that he can afford expensive amusements,

000,000 were destroyed. Edin- gay hats for his wife, and such like things, and need not practise burgh was nearly destroyed by fire in 1700. Lisbon was burned economy, as must the man in a slightly higher class. in 1707. Venice was destroyed by fire in 1106 and again in In housing the poor near cities the separate dwelling is preferred 1577. Berlin was destroyed in 1405. Berne in 1634, and again to the tenement, and the present book is concerned with small, indein 1680. Hamburg was nearly destroyed by fire in 1842; 4,219 pendent houses in a block and with two-fiat houses. The problem buildings were burned, and 100 people lost their lives; property presupposes a large area to deal with, and the authors suggest value destroyed, $35,000,000. Copenhagen was burned in 1728 ; making small yards, back and front, and keeping the centre as an 1,650 houses destroyed ; again in 1795, and 1,563 houses burned. enclosed play-ground and garden, with a service-road running Stockholm in 1751, with 1,000 houses destroyed. Moscow in 1752, through. A good plan, but not novel, and, as shown in the book, visited by a large fire ; 18,000 houses destroyed. Again in 1812; capable of being improved. this time the fire set by Russians in order to prevent the French

The construction of these houses cannot furnish us examples, but occupation of the city; 38,000 houses were destroyed, and over it might at least suggest the possibility of improvement in building. $150,000,000 of value.

laws which should encourage fireproof-construction even outside of “ Constantinople has been the scene of numerous and costly fires ;

fire-limits. in 1729 a great fire destroyed 12,000 buildings and nearly 6,000

The walls are either 9 inches or 44 inches, the latter sometimes people. In 1745 another great fire lasted five days ; again in rough-cast for greater protection against weather, and the roofs January, 1750, 10,000 buildings destroyed. 'In April, the same year, slate, probably laid on battens. The carrying of the party-walls another fire, with $15,000,000 of property destroyed. Again, later above the roof-line is a serious difficulty in such a row of tiny houses in the year, a fire destroyed 10,000 houses ; in 1756, 15,000 houses (most of them about fifteen feet wide and one-and-one-half stories were destroyed and 100 lives lost. In 1782, 10,000 houses were

high), for it adds to the expense and to the likelihood of leaks. It burned ; in 1791, between March and July, serious fires destroyed certainly seems as if some better method of fireproofing between 32,000 houses, and nearly the same number were destroyed again in houses might be devised — as, for example, bedding a plate on the 1798. In 1816, 12,000 houses and 3,000 shops were destroyed. wall, and putting on small nailing-strips bedded in cement to take In 1870 Pera, á suburb of Constantinople, was nearly destroyed, the slate. 7,000 buildings and over $25,000,000 property-value being consumed.

The dimensions of rooms are, on the whole, a little smaller than “ Smyrna had great fires in 1763, 1792, and 1841, destroying from what is considered the minimum here — and our minimum is looked 2,000 to 12,000 buildings at each fire. Great fires have occurred in at askance by our fastidious workingman. India, China, and Japan; in many cases large cities were entirely In the designing of the houses there are three or four things which destroyed. In Quebec, in 1845, 1,650 buildings were destroyed, and make our problem wholly different. First. — Heating. No one the same number in May and June following; and in 1866, 2,500 would dream of cooking at an open fireplace, or of heating rooms buildings and 17 churches were destroyed. St. John, N. B., 1837 ; thus.. Second. - Plumbing could not be done in a one-story outnearly all the business portion was destroyed. In 1877 the great building. Third. — We could not omit cellars. Fourth. — Staircases fire,” over 200 acres burned, and ten miles of street; about $13,000,- in the centre accessible only from rooms would not do. Fifth. - A 000 of property-value. St. John's, Newfoundland, in 1846 was half-story on the second floor (what the English call the first) our nearly destroyed, and $50,000,000 of property-value burned ; again workman considers very poor accommodation. The first four are a big fire in 1896. Montreal in 1850 had a great fire ; 250 buildings really vital and make these English plans quite useless for us. destroyed ; in 1852 about 1,200 buildings were destroyed. Various To consider the plans more in detail

. The bedrooms seem to be cities in South America and West Indies have been destroyed by the poorest features. Here one would consider that a bed, a bureau, fire; in some cases property-values of $30,000,000 and upward were a wash-stand and a chair were a necessity, and that where closets destroyed; a large loss of life resulted also.

could not be afforded there must be space for a wardrobe, or at least “ The United States has a record of destruction of property by some hanging-space. To accommodate these, 7'6" x 11' has been fire not equalled by any other country. Charlestown, Mass., in 1796, found to be about the minimum. In these plans one finds in almost $300,000; in 1838, 1,158 buildings. Savannah, Ga., in 1820, 463 every house a room no more than 7' x 7', and in many cases even this buildings and $4,000,000 value. New York, in 1835, 530 buildings, space is reduced by raising part of the floor for head-room on the 52 acres burned over, and $15,000,000 of property destroyed; in staircase. The only possible way of using the room on Plan A 1845, 300 acres burned over, $7,500,000 value, 35 lives lost. Pitts- would be to make a bed on the bulkhead over the stairs, which would burgh, Pa., in 1845, 100 buildings ; $1,000,000 property-value. St. have to be about thirty inches above the floor. In some of the Louis, Mo., in 1849, 15 buildings; $3,000,000 value ; in 1851, 2,500 larger houses, on the double-tenement basis, that is, one family on buildings destroyed. Philadelphia, Pa., in 1850, 400 buildings. Saneach floor; the ground-floor suite consists of parlor, living-room and Francisco, in 1851, 2,500 buildings, and a number of lives lost; scullery, with only one bedroom; and the second-floor tenement of property-value, $10,000,000. Portland, Me., in 1866, over one-half parlor, living-room and two bedrooms, one of these opening out the city; 200 acres burned over, and 1,743 buildings destroyed. of the parlor. This would not be considered good planning here. Chicago in 1871, known as the “Great Fire"; 2,124 acres nearly Further, in a tenement of this dimension (575 floor feet) there should covered by buildings entirely burned over, including 17,430 buildings ; be more room for stores, clothes, etc. many lives were lost, and property-value of upwards of $106,000,000 The general remarks on planning are chiefly mere elementary was destroyed. Boston, Mass., in 1872; 65 acres of the mercantile principles — such as that staircases should not be dark, that rooms section burned, including 776 buildings ; nearly all of brick-and-stone should have window-area equal to a tenth of the floor-area and that construction; property-value, $75,000,000."

at least half should open, that water-closet and pantry should not be

adjacent, and that the coal-bin should be readily accessible from the THE OREGON FORESTS. Oregon has three forest-reserves — the outside. The plans do not always conform to even these elementary Cascade Range Reserve, area 4,492, 800 acres ; the Bull Run, area 142, rules. There are few new suggestions : that of sinking a tub in the 080 acres, and the Ashland, area 1,560 acres, or an aggregate area of

" Houses for the Working Classes in Urban Districts." By Sidney White 4,663,440 acres. – N. Y. Evening Póst.

Cranfield and Henry Ingle Potter. Publisher, B. T. Batsford, 94 High Holborn.

ILLUSTRATIONS

THREE PLATES.

MESSRS. N.

concrete of the scullery floor does not recommend itself. With us even luxury, and would rather spend their money in that than live the class that rent the cheapest houses do not appreciate the tub, with close economy and put more in the savings-bank. To meet this, and if they did would not use such an arrangement.

a class of house has been built which is roomy, fitted with heat and The more detailed description of the various sets of plans are plumbing, showy and tawdry. It is not built to last, but with a view interesting — sometimes suggestive. The smallest plans with a to selling to the tenant, who often finds himself possessed of a buildfrontage of 11 feet and an area of 375 feet, seem impossibly small, ing which deteriorates so rapidly as to make repairs a heavy annual and yet there are four rooms and a scullery. To be sure, the stairs item. Often repairs are neglected until the value of the house is and coals are in the centre, water-closet and pantry adjoin, and in almost obliterated. the modified plan, which gives five rooms, one bedroom is of the bulk There is another condition of our circumstances which changes head type previously mentioned. When, however, one considers the problem very materially. Our people all want to own both land how comfortable neatness and care can make a steamer state-room, and house rather than rent them. "Urban land is too valuable to be one wonders if the tiny house well arranged is not really as well able covered with such small houses as we have been considering. The to give true comfort as a larger one, providing always that these workman, therefore, will find his house in a suburban district and he bedrooms of 100 feet have but two occupants at the outside.

will want a detached house and not one in a block. On the other So much depends in these small places on the old adage, “A place hand the owner of the city land cannot get a fair return unless he for everything and everything in its place.” A living-room or bed can get a large rent. He will, therefore, turn to the many-storied room intelligently planned to accommodate the necessary articles, tenement. The separate house and the tenement are, therefore, our when so used and neatly ordered, may be more comfortable and liv- problems. able than a room twice as large which has been ill-planned, or which For the cheapest kind of independent house the semi-detached is is kept in slovenly fashion. The lesson of neatness is all-important probably the best. This can readily be so planned as to give privacy for the tenant of one of these miniature houses.

to each family and to group the outbuildings and arrange their surGroup B houses are slightly larger and give entries, otherwise they roundings so as to be to their mutual advantage. Such buildings are no improvement on the smaller plan. The bulkhead bedroom is should be of brick, cement or plaster, and roofed with slate or some evidently a hobby of the authors', as it is again and again suggested fireproof material. If the prejudice against attic rooms could be as an improvement enabling one to get two bedrooms in a space fit overcome, a single story with light walls and a large gambrel roof only for one.

would afford excellent accommodation. Party-walls would, of course, Group C shows plans arranged with the common device of an be brick. irregular party-wall" giving each house alternately increased width, When all is said and done, direct contact with the working-man front and rear. This would be a very appreciable item in cost, and intercourse with him is the best way to find out what he wants especially where it must be carried through the roof.

and the best way to get him to accept suggestions. Without this, In Group D most of the objectionable features of the preceding theories, plans, even actual buildings, are of little use. plans have been removed (except the favorite bulkhead bedroom), but one plan (an existing type) has five chimney-stacks for each pair of houses and an irregular party-wall. This would seem extravagant in a house of 15 feet frontage, containing but five rooms.

D4 is a type generally condemned here, central plumbing opening on a narrow area, but where the building is but two stories the chief objection is removed. Wit us this plan has been used for six or eight story apartments. Do is, perhaps, on the whole the best plan shown. It full and adequate description of the buildings, including a statement

[Contributors of drawings are requested to send also plans and a is compact, free from breaks in party or external walls, and not open of cost.] to the objections pointed out in the other plans. The area is 944 feet, about the same as B4 and most of the C group, but gives far

A COMPETITIVE DESIGN FOR THE LADY CHAPEL OF ST. PATRICK'S better accommodation. This double house is estimated at £85, about

CATHEDRAL, NEW YORK, N. Y.: $400; with us the cubic contents (20,414 feet) could not be contained

LE BRUN & SONS, ARCHITECTS, NEW YORK, N. Y. in wooden walls for less than six cents a foot - our building would have to have a cellar, which would add nearly one-third to cubage; N order to minimize the labor of the competitors and at the same without cellar it would cost $1,200, and with cellar at least $1,600. time lighten the difficulties of examination and comparison, the Then, the method of construction in England would be impossible Archbishop's professional adviser, Professor Ware, furnished here. A wall two bricks thick, plastered without furring, would not the competitors with identical outline drawings of the present Cathekeep out our driving rains unless kept constantly painted, nor would a dral, printed in light-gray ink on Whatman paper, the portions of slate roof laid on battens protect from either heat or cold, nor would the east end where the new design was to be drawn in being left it keep out drifting snow. On all such lines we must buy our own blank. Both the competitors and the expert found the device of experience. These plans and methods of construction may answer such great advantage that it is to be hoped that in any similar cases admirably in England, but they would be absolutely out of the ques- it will always be adopted. tion here. There is, however, no reason why we should continue The only disadvantage the method has is in cases of reproduction, build cheap houses of inflammable material - we could build light where only one printing is possible, and we speak of the matter to walls of various fireproof and cheap materials which would be strong account for the somewhat coarse and sketchy character of the lines and dry, but the majority of our city building requirements, in the which represent the untouched old work, as they interfere with the rigidity of their laws as to brick buildings, distinctly encourage wood more delicate rendering of the Lady Chapel portions of the drawings where it is permitted. This is bad policy from every point-of-view. rather more than they should. To the competitors, Professor Ware It encourages cheap buildings, made to sell and not to last, unsightly made the following report: – buildings which ruin a neighborhood, inflammable buildings which threaten one another and the neighboring city as well.

“ The design selected for the Lady Chapel of the Cathedral of St. Group E plans are of the area-lit type — never advisable if it can Patrick proves to be the work of Mr. Charles T. Mathews, of 150 be avoided, but sometimes a necessary evil where lots are deep and Fifth Avenue, New York City. must be narrow to avoid extravagance.

"Owing to some delays at the Custom-house, the drawings were not Group F shows double tenements; a form very popular here, but not ready for the Archbishop's examination until Wednesday, the 25th to be recommended where the single house is possible. The smallest of April. In order to preserve as far as possible a perfect incognito, plan F1, with scullery in a half-lit entry, is below the standard of the French drawings were lettered after their arrival in this country, anything which would rent here. Group G are similar, and repre- and the descriptive paper accompanying them translated and typesent a type which with us would be made seven or eight stories, and written. fitted with better stairs, lift and better plumbing, and would be better “ His Grace sailed for Europe on Sunday, the 29th, but he had time planned, to avoid rooms without doors on an entry:

before he went to examine the drawings, and, while disclaiming any It may seem from what has been written that the book is without wish to control the decision, he indicated four of them which to his merit and without applicability to our country, but there are certain own mind seemed preferable. The final decision, however, he comlessons to be learned — not so much by the owners and builders of mitted entirely to Messrs. Eugene, Edward and Thomas H. Kelly, such houses as by the tenants, and this will be a difficult lesson to the sons of the late Mrs. Eugene Kelly and the executors of her will. teach. A people who make good wages and earn money with com “Of the fourteen designs submitted, two were somewhat exceptional parative ease find their chief enjoyment in spending it, and if they in character, one of them having the shape of a Greek cross

, the prefer to do this they have their reward. As long, however, as this other that of a letter T. This was set crosswise on the plot of ground remains their point-of-view, it is no use to attempt to give the work-facing upon 51st Street. Of the remaining twelve, four showed a nave ing people very cheap and economical houses. One is inclined to without aisles, four a nave with aisles or side-chapels, and of the think that the disregard of economy is a widespread habit, due to the other four, the plan of one had the shape of a circle, one of a decagon, easy circumstances of a new and rapidly expanding country, and one of an octagon and one of a hexagon. In seven of the designs which it is very difficult to shake off.

the straight east end of the Cathedral was not disturbed, in seven it In France and in England a gentleman with $15,000 or $20,000 a was reconstructed so as to give at the east end of the chancel a wide year will be as careful of all his expenditures as the clerk supporting aisle running around the apse, forming a sort of chevet. In width his family on $1,500, not so much because he must, as because he and height these designs varied as much as the somewhat restricted prefers to get as much as possible in the way of actual return for his space and the conditions imposed would permit, some rivalling the money. The same man here considers that he has a substantial re Cathedral in height, or even overtopping it, others taking a distinctly turn in the fact that he lives without care. This same spirit per- subordinate place. The approximate estimates varied accordingly vades to a certain extent our working-classes — they want comfort, 'from less than $200,000 to more than $400,000, and if the minimum

I

prices for all the different items were added together and this sum stance that the State furnished the timber free to the citizens who compared with the total of the maximum prices, the total range wanted it for building-operations, was undoubtedly favorable to the would extend from less than $150,000 to more than half a million. general adoption of the style of construction we encounter in these But most of the figures ranged between $225,000 and $275,000. pretty house-fronts.

“ In point of architectural character there was less to choose, for The tall building with the cosy-looking oriel enlivening its front while two or three of them were of exceptional interest, and two or contains (80 we are told by a sign) a sewing machine and bicyclethree others hardly met the requirements of the case, the rest were shop, a rather rude anachronism, reminding the traveller that we singularly uniform in architectural merit, and in point of draughts- stand at the end of the nineteenth century, Franconian backward. manship there was little ground for discrimination among them. ness notwithstanding. Would not Ruskin's sensitive soul have been Moreover, while the French drawings clearly betrayed themselves filled with disgust at the sight of this sign! The small house to the by marked peculiarities of treatment, there was nothing to show left of the archway has a façade decked with bright frescos, such as which came from England or from Canada, nor was it possible to meet the tourist's gaze frequently in South German towns. These guess correctly, as it proved, as to the authors of the others.

frescos have either been recently renovated, or else are of modern “On examining the drawings, it appeared, what was perbaps to be origin altogether. expected, that those with a single nave, without aisles, seemed on the The Renaissance fountain in the middle of the little square whole best to meet the purposes of Mrs. Kelly's bequest and the con matches the rest of the charming, architectural group admirably. ditions of the site. It was also plain that the designs which contem: It was carved in stone and erected by a Nuremberg guide-master plated the enlargement and completion of the east end of the Cathedral A. D. 1583, costing 703 florins, or about three hundred dollars, acwere, other things being equal, much to be preferred. Of those cording to the town-archives. It is gratifying to know that the eye which fulfilled these conditions, Mr. Mathews's scheme was clearly of the state-government is watchful regarding the preservation of the best, both from the simplicity and elegance of its plan and from those splendid old houses and will not permit their being torn the character of the external treatment and the admirable way in down to make room for such ugly modern piles as that visible to the which its outlines combined with those of the Cathedral itself, a left in our plate. point to which attention had been directed in the instructions. The large way in which the Cathedral and chapel were made to open up A COMPETITIVE DESIGN FOR THE LADY CHAPEL OF ST. PATRICK'S together was also a point in its favor, though this was a point to

CATHEDRAL, NEW YORK, N. Y.: THREE PLATES. MR. GEORGE which some of the other competitors had paid special attention.

B. POST, ARCHITECT, NEW YORK, N. Y. These considerations seemed to me conclusive, and I had no hesitation in accepting and confirming this judgment. On referring to the memorandum which Archbishop Corrigan had made, it was satisfactory to find that Mr. Mathews's design was one of those which he had specially approved.

“I am instructed to thank the competitors for the personal interest which they have evidently taken in the work, for without it the drawings could hardly have reached so uniform and so unusual an

THE SERPENT MOUND TO BE A Park. — The Serpent Mound, the excellence as they exhibit.”

most famous of the works of the mound-builders of Ohio, is soon to become the property of the Ohio Archeological and Historical Society. Now it is the property of Harvard University. Secretary Randall of the Ohio Society received notification recently that the Trustees of

Harvard University had adopted a resolution signifying their willing[The following named illustrations may be found by refer.

ness to transfer the control of the famous park to the Ohio organization. once to our advertising pages.]

A deed will be drawn up in a few days. Ten years ago the clubwomen of Boston purchased the property in question for the sum of $5,000 and

presented it to the Peabody Museum, the Trustees of which transferred AGRICULTURAL

EXPOSITION,

it to Harvard University. More than $3,000 has been expended in imBUFFALO, N. Y.

provements, but the Eastern institution has reached the conclusion that the park should be under the control of Ohio people. A corre

spondence was opened with Mr. Randall, who, after ascertaining that METALWORK, - NO. 22 WEST 20TH ST., NEW YORK, N. Y. the society which he represents has the right to acquire such property,

accepted the offer of the Trustees. The conditions of the transfer [Additional Illustrations in the International Edition.)

require the society to maintain the mound and its surroundings as a public park, and to erect a suitable monument or tablet inscribed with the record of the preservation and the transfer of the property. Columbus (Ohio) Press-Post.

NOTES SCHLPIACS

THE

BUILDING:

PAN-AMERICAN

--X:

THE

HOUSE NO. 7 WEST 56TH STREET, NEW YORK, N. Y. MR. J. H.

MORE Towns AWHEEL. - One of the most extraordinary spectacles DUNCAN, ARCHITECT, NEW YORK, N. Y.

in the world has recently been witnessed in Mix County, S. D. Six

large towns, including Edgerton, Old Platte, Castalia, Academy, Colvin (Gelatine Print.]

and Jasper, have been torn up by the roots. Every house and business

structure in all these towns has been “snaked off” its foundation, OLD CASTLE, MILTENBERG-ON-THE-MAIN,

mounted on wheels, hitched to twenty-four, and in some instance forty, horse teams and started on the long trek across the prairie toward

ENTRANCE TO

GERMANY.

Platte and Geddes. These are new towns on the line of the Milwaukee [Gelatine Print.)

Railway, of which the Yankton and Tyndall branch, now in the course

of construction, is the first railway-line the county has ever had. THERE are few stretches of country containing as many odd When the railway was surveyed, instead of hitting any of the fine and picturesque little towns as the district in Southwestern Ger towns then in existence, it followed the rich lowlands in the middle of many called Franconia. Not yet invaded by the noisy locomotive, the county. The towns surveyed on the line of the road were named nor yet dotted with mills and factory-buildings, these little towns, respectively Platte, Geddes, Lake Andes, Wagner and Avon. People frequently hemmed in their expansion between mountain-sides and

living in the old towns have been fighting bard to induce the company streams, have preserved their mediæval, romantic character from the

to change the route, but, failing in this, they decided to move, bag and

Within levelling influence of progressing civilization to such a degree that baggage, houses, business blocks and all, to the new towns.

a week where have been villages of from one thousand to two thousand they afford an ample and most attractive field for his researches to

population there will be nothing but a lot of poles in the ground, surthe student, as well as valuable models to architect and artisan.

rounded by ragged stone foundations. The growth of Platte within a A charming bit from one of these Franconian towns (such as week discounts any fairy tale. All the old buildings from the old would bave delighted the heart of John Ruskin, the hater of rail town of Platte, many miles away, have been hauled in and set on lots in roads and modern improvements) is shown in our plate. It repre

Main Street. Two churches are in course of erection, and an operasents the arched entrance-gate, whence leads a billy path up to

house was among the structures commenced. Three hundred men and Miltenberg Castle, in Unterfranken, Bavaria, abont thirty miles west teams are grading the streets. The impression created in the mind of of Würzburg. The old castle, perched high upon the hill above

visitors is that somebody has taken a contract to build a city in twenty.

four hours. The town-site company reserved the best corner lot in the the town-houses, used to serve as a hunting-castle for the Electors of Mayence, to whom it has belonged since A. D. 986. To architects, the pleted within sixty days. A Michigan man accepted the offer by tele

place for any man who would put up a sixty-room hotel, to be com. two houses flanking the archway on the right hand, in half-timbered graph, and bis advance guard is now at work. The hotel is to be of construction, with their exquisitely quaint façades and bigh gables, brick and stone, electrically lighted and thoroughly modern. An arteshould prove especially attractive. Over the cellar-archway of the sian well, sunk 800 feet deep, is throwing a stream big enough to supply taller one is inscribed the number 1594, probably the date of the ori a town of 5,000 people. The immediately available supplies of lumber, gin of the two houses. The fact that these buildings dating from so

stone, brick, steel and building materials were exhausted recently, and late an epoch show so pronounced a mediæval character cannot sur telegrams were rushed everywhere giving orders. In one instance a prise the student when he considers how tenaciously the builders in

four-story frame structure 60' x 40' was hauled eleven miles on an ordi

nary wagon, with the gearing ingeniously arranged, by a forty-horse the Franconian country clung to the Gothic style, a locality noted

The building will be placed on a foundation in the new town, for a most peculiar amalgamation of Gothic and Renaissance, called

and the plastered walls were not cracked in transit. Gamblers and the “Julius” style, which flourished during the first quarter of the other questionable characters have made their appearance in large seventeenth century.

numbers, but the town has already organized a police force, and there The wealth of timber of the country, together with the circum is little disorder. — Cincinnati Enquirer.

team.

S. J. PARKUILL & Co., Printers, Boston, U. S. A.

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ADVERTISERS' TRADE SUPPLEMENT.

No. 219.

SATURDAY, AUGUST 4, 1900.

VOLUWE LXIX.

No. 1284,

THE BRIDGE • TRUSTS.”

Another strong reason for the bridge com- to keep the good friendship of the architect.

bination is found in the necessity imposed After putting up as strong a defence as It is well for fair-minded people, and most upon the concerns having large works to meet possible, so far as the quality of the paint was people desire to be reasonable in their views the obstacles placed in their way by the concerned, we found that both the owner of of public affairs, to consider what may prop: bridge-brokers. There are not a few so- the factory and the architect were determined erly be said in favor of any combination of called bridge companies or firms which main- to make somebody stand the expense of the kind commonly denominated as trusts. tain no manufacturing plants, but act simply repainting the roof. Not all of these great combinations that have as parasites on those concerns which do have We thereupon set out to find where the been formed during the past two years are such plants. The methods of the bridge. painters had bought the Dixon paint for the mere stock-watering schemes, although many broker are thus described :

job. We found that they had purchased five of them, it must be admitted, are.

The

Without so much as a blacksmith shop gallons of Dixon's Silica-Graphite Paint from American Bridge Company, recently formed, behind him, the broker has entered his bid a local dealer, who carried it in stock, and is an instance of a combination for which

upon every piece of bridge construction for that the balance of the paint used on the job some very good reasons are presented.

which bids were advertised; and it has been was a paint called the “ X. & Y.,” of which This combination was not formed burriedly. frequently the case that his bid bas been the it was judged they used about forty gallons. It was a long time under consideration. The lowest, and he has obtained the contract. The matter is now nicely adjusted ; and concerns which have entered it were not knowing the condition which has existed in the painters are going to repaint the roof at weak or unsuccessful, nor were they owned a majority of the big shops, and the difficulty their own expense, and Dixon is relieved of by men who were anxious to sell out their with which the plants were kept busy, he has any responsibility in connection with the job, interests and retire from business. It was taken advantage of it, and after obtaining and we retain the friendship of the architect, not a case where over-production had glutted the contract he has sublet it to the builders at and also the friendship of the hardware firm the market. The construction of steel bridges a price below the cost of turning out the who have been handling our paint in the city and buildings is not a business which can be material. The builder has been compelled to where this occurred, and who sold the five carried on like a nail-factory or a cotton-mill, accept the work and the broker's figures for gallons mentioned above. that may accumulate a large stock of manu- it, or close up his plant. The new combina- As our representative puts it: “ This is one factured articles for which there is no imme- tion will “ freeze out ” the broker.

of the cases where the guilty parties came diate sale.

This does not mean that all competition in near sticking the innocent, but did n't.” In the work of the bridge companies the steel bridge-work is to be abolished. There We bave of course witheld the names of contract must in every case precede the be will still be plenty of it, but it will not be so the architect and painters, and the name of ginning of work upon any structure, and in easy for competitors to force the carrying on the town, as these are not necessary in pointalmost every case an open competition is of business at a loss, as formerly. The con- ing the moral. invited by the person or corporation which solidation of the business of buying steel for Specification of Paint.

Architects, conseeks to provide itself with such a piece of construction-work should enable a large sav. sulting engineers, owners and persons interconstruction. Let us see what has happened ing to be effected, and we do not see why it is ested in the subject of protective paint for in such cases hitherto.

not permissible to expect a real public benefit steel structures will receive a handsome card The building of the East Hartford bridge from the formation of the American Bridge illustrating several eighteen-story steel strucacross the Connecticut is a useful instance. Company. - Hartford (Conn.), Times.

tures upon which Dixon's Silica-Graphite In that case there were a dozen or more

Paint has been used, if they will send their bidders, each one of whom submitted plans

A CASE IN POINT.

address to the Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., for the bridge which it proposed to supply, An architect and consulting engineer has Jersey City, N. J. The card also contains and each of these sets of plans cost several been specifying Dixon's Silica-Graphite Paint suggestions for specification of the paint, and hundred dollars. Then each bidder was re- for some little time. One of these specifica- its well-known durability has led to its speciquired to deposit a certified check of a spec- tions was for a new roof on a factory. About fication and use upon many immense steel ified amount, to be held until the competition seven or eight months after the roof was viaducts, bridges and manufacturing plants was completed. In this way more than painted two coats, the architect received word all over the world. $200,000 of cash capital was locked up for from the owner of the factory that the paint several weeks. It is probable that the actual had all worn off the roof, and the tin was

The Glidden Varnish Co., of Cleveland, cost of this competition to the bridge com- rusting; he insisted on having it painted are building a $50,000 addition to their panies was not less than $25,000. Practically again without expense to himself.

Works, which, with the present capacity, the whole actual cost of the bridge was The painters were a well-known firm and will enable them to turn out as much varnish equalled by the amount expended by the in good standing, and they stated that they as the largest varnish plant in the world. companies seeking the contract. The same had simply put on the paint that had been This Company has come to the front very thing happens whenever a large number of specified, and if it did not last, it was not fast during the last few years, and their fabidders enter into any competition for this their fault.

mous specialities - Surfacene, M. P. Special class of work. It is needless to argue that The architect then came to us to have the Coach, and Jap-a-lac — have a world-wide this is a wasteful system. A combination in- matter fixed, and we opened correspondence reputation. cluding all, or nearly all, the bidders could with him in the endeavor to try and avert the The new addition will be utilized princihave afforded to take the Hartford bridge necessity of sending the owner of the factory pally for making Jap-a-lac, the new wood contract at a much lower price than any one twenty-five gallons of paint free of charge to finish, one of the most elastic and durable of them could safely offer.

repaint the roof; at the same time we desired I varnishes ever offered to the trade.

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GRAPHITE FOR AUTOMOBILES.

GRAPHITE, which plays an important part in the mechanical arts of the world, is found very useful in reducing friction in automobiles.

A very finely powdered graphite, when introduced into the cylinders of either steam or gas automobiles, very largely assists the vil which is usually employed for the purpose of lubrication.

It seems to be agreed by all engineers that no vegetable or animal oil should be used for the lubrication of engine cylinders. Mineral oil only should be used, but even the best mineral oil in the cylinders of gas-engines chars under very high beat, due to the combustion of gases. The heat in a gas-engine cylinder is said to be from 1,200 to 2,000 degrees F., and graphite only is able to bear this extreme heat.

Special graphite lubricants are prepared for the gears of both electric, steam and gas motors. For the driving chains on steam or gas automobiles, graphite in some form should always be used, as it saves power and at the same time so thoroughly lubricates the links that it will prevent the chains from breaking.

When used for the chain, the graphite should not be used with any grease, as the sticky grease causes the dust and dirt to adhere to the chain, thereby practically shortening the chain and making it unnecessarily tight. The graphite should be used with a nice quality of vaseline or should be mixed with gasoline or turpentine, and applied to the chain. The gasoline or turpentine will evaporate, leaving a thin coating of graphite on the chain.

Those interested in the subject of graphite lubrication should write to the JOSEPH DIXON CRUCIBLE CO.,

JERSEY CITY, N. J. (Continued on page 3.)

Builders' Hardware

embraces door and window trim of all kinds; our line
covers every grade and is the largest in the trade. It in-
cludes staple goods of all kinds and numerous mechanical

novelties and specialties. *
The Hardware of Ornament

comprises decorative metal-work for doors, windows and
cabinets; our collection of designs and patterns of this
class is by far the largest in the world, and of the highest

technical excellence*
*Technical literature on this.subject furnished to Architects on request.

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