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floor systems. The steel bars should be twisted, as in the Ransome construction, or better, they should be crooked or grooved so as to take a firm hold of the concrete. Where cement-mortar alone is used the adhesion to plain wires will be sufficiently high to warrant the use, but in concrete the adhesion to plain surfaces will be found insufficient.

As to this construction being "absolutely fireproof," it is difficult to see how it can be any more fireproof than the concrete of which it is composed. If this concrete material be a cement, mortar and crushed stone or gravel, it is far from being "absolutely fireproof."

THE WORLD'S GREAT FIRES.

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"London was nearly destroyed by fire in 798; again in 982, 1212, and 1666. The latter fire is known in history as the "Great Fire"; it burned over a territory of 436 acres, including 400 streets; 13,200 buildings and property-value upward of $53,000,000 were destroyed. Edinburgh was nearly destroyed by fire in 1700. Lisbon was burned in 1707. Venice was destroyed by fire in 1106 and again in 1577. Berlin was destroyed in 1405. Berne in 1634, and again in 1680. Hamburg was nearly destroyed by fire in 1842; 4,219 buildings were burned, and 100 people lost their lives; property value destroyed, $35,000,000. Copenhagen was burned in 1728; 1,650 houses destroyed; again in 1795, and 1,563 houses burned. Stockholm in 1751, with 1,000 houses destroyed. Moscow in 1752, visited by a large fire; 18,000 houses destroyed. Again in 1812; this time the fire set by Russians in order to prevent the French occupation of the city; 38,000 houses were destroyed, and over $150,000,000 of value.

"Constantinople has been the scene of numerous and costly fires; in 1729 a great fire destroyed 12,000 buildings and nearly 6,000 people. In 1745 another great fire lasted five days; again in January, 1750, 10,000 buildings destroyed. In April, the same year, another fire, with $15,000,000 of property destroyed. Again, later in the year, a fire destroyed 10,000 houses; in 1756, 15,000 houses were destroyed and 100 lives lost. In 1782, 10,000 houses were burned; in 1791, between March and July, serious fires destroyed 32,000 houses, and nearly the same number were destroyed again in 1798. In 1816, 12,000 houses and 3,000 shops were destroyed. In 1870 Pera, a suburb of Constantinople, was nearly destroyed, 7,000 buildings and over $25,000,000 property-value being consumed. "Smyrna had great fires in 1763, 1792, and 1841, destroying from 2,000 to 12,000 buildings at each fire. Great fires have occurred in India, China, and Japan; in many cases large cities were entirely destroyed. In Quebec, in 1845, 1,650 buildings were destroyed, and the same number in May and June following; and in 1866, 2,500 buildings and 17 churches were destroyed. St. John, N. B., 1837; nearly all the business portion was destroyed. In 1877 the "great fire," over 200 acres burned, and ten miles of street; about $13,000,000 of property-value. St. John's, Newfoundland, in 1846 was nearly destroyed, and $50,000,000 of property-value burned; again a big fire in 1896. Montreal in 1850 had a great fire; 250 buildings destroyed; in 1852 about 1,200 buildings were destroyed. Various cities in South America and West Indies have been destroyed by fire; in some cases property-values of $30,000,000 and upward were destroyed; a large loss of life resulted also.

"The United States has a record of destruction of property by fire not equalled by any other country. Charlestown, Mass., in 1796, $300,000; in 1838, 1,158 buildings. Savannah, Ga., in 1820, 463 buildings and $4,000,000 value. New York, in 1835, 530 buildings, 52 acres burned over, and $15,000,000 of property destroyed; in 1845, 300 acres burned over, $7,500,000 value, 35 lives lost. Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1845, 100 buildings; $1,000,000 property-value. St. Louis, Mo., in 1849, 15 buildings; $3,000,000 value; in 1851, 2,500 buildings destroyed. Philadelphia, Pa., in 1850, 400 buildings. San Francisco, in 1851, 2,500 buildings, and a number of lives lost; property-value, $10,000,000. Portland, Me., in 1866, over one-half the city; 200 acres burned over, and 1,743 buildings destroyed. Chicago in 1871, known as the "Great Fire"; 2,124 acres nearly covered by buildings entirely burned over, including 17,430 buildings; many lives were lost, and property-value of upwards of $106,000,000 was destroyed. Boston, Mass., in 1872; 65 acres of the mercantile section burned, including 776 buildings; nearly all of brick-and-stone construction; property-value, $75,000,000."

THE OREGON FORESTS. Oregon has three forest-reserves - the Cascade Range Reserve, area 4,492,800 acres; the Bull Run, area 142,080 acres, and the Ashland, area 1,560 acres, or an aggregate area of 4,653,440 acres. - N. Y. Evening Post.

BOOKS

PAPERS

D

URING the past ten years or more the houses of the workingclasses have been attracting a great deal of attention both in England, on the Continent and here. Each new contribution adds somewhat to our knowledge of the subject, and each experiment tried teaches some lesson. Generally, however, circumstances vary so much in different countries that the experience of one does not, to any great extent, benefit another.

The latest contribution to the housing problem is a volume containing plans, elevations and descriptive letter-press by Messrs. Cranfield & Potter. For English uses these plans are excellent and the descriptions are sufficiently clear to give even an amateur a thorough understanding. The plans follow established English types and the elevations are good examples of the use of common material. They are, however, wholly unsuited to our climate, our customs and our people. Whether our people would be better off if they could learn to be content with and to like these things is a social question of considerable complication.

The authors deplore the high cost of buildings- owing to price of labor, or material, and to stringent building-laws; but they estimate their buildings at 1d. per cubic foot, which does not seem high to us. High wages are by no means an unmixed blessing to the working man. They bring increased cost for pretty much all he requires, shelter, food and clothing, and by putting large sums of money in his hands lead him to think that he can afford expensive amusements, gay hats for his wife, and such like things, and need not practise economy, as must the man in a slightly higher class.

In housing the poor near cities the separate dwelling is preferred to the tenement, and the present book is concerned with small, independent houses in a block and with two-flat houses. The problem presupposes a large area to deal with, and the authors suggest making small yards, back and front, and keeping the centre as an enclosed play-ground and garden, with a service-road running through. A good plan, but not and, as shown in the book, capable of being improved.

The construction of these houses cannot furnish us examples, but it might at least suggest the possibility of improvement in building. laws which should encourage fireproof-construction even outside of fire-limits.

The walls are either 9 inches or 4 inches, the latter sometimes rough-cast for greater protection against weather, and the roofs slate, probably laid on battens. The carrying of the party-walls above the roof-line is a serious difficulty in such a row of tiny houses (most of them about fifteen feet wide and one-and-one-half stories high), for it adds to the expense and to the likelihood of leaks. It certainly seems as if some better method of fireproofing between houses might be devised as, for example, bedding a plate on the wall, and putting on small nailing-strips bedded in cement to take the slate.

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The dimensions of rooms are, on the whole, a little smaller than what is considered the minimum here- and our minimum is looked at askance by our fastidious workingman.

In the designing of the houses there are three or four things which make our problem wholly different. First. Heating. No one would dream of cooking at an open fireplace, or of heating rooms thus. Second.-Plumbing could not be done in a one-story outFourth. building. Third. We could not omit cellars. Staircases in the centre accessible only from rooms would not do. Fifth.-A half-story on the second floor (what the English call the first) our workman considers very poor accommodation. The first four are really vital and make these English plans quite useless for us.

To consider the plans more in detail. The bedrooms seem to be the poorest features. Here one would consider that a bed, a bureau, a wash-stand and a chair were a necessity, and that where closets could not be afforded there must be space for a wardrobe, or at least some hanging-space. To accommodate these, 7' 6" x 11' has been found to be about the minimum. In these plans one finds in almost every house a room no more than 7' x 7', and in many cases even this space is reduced by raising part of the floor for head-room on the staircase. The only possible way of using the room on Plan A would be to make a bed on the bulkhead over the stairs, which would have to be about thirty inches above the floor. In some of the larger houses, on the double-tenement basis, that is, one family on each floor; the ground-floor suite consists of parlor, living-room and scullery, with only one bedroom; and the second-floor tenement of parlor, living-room and two bedrooms, one of these opening out of the parlor. This would not be considered good planning here. Further, in a tenement of this dimension (575 floor feet) there should be more room for stores, clothes, etc.

The general remarks on planning are chiefly mere elementary principles such as that staircases should not be dark, that rooms should have window-area equal to a tenth of the floor-area and that at least half should open, that water-closet and pantry should not be adjacent, and that the coal-bin should be readily accessible from the outside. The plans do not always conform to even these elementary rules. There are few new suggestions: that of sinking a tub in the

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"Houses for the Working Classes in Urban Districts." By Sidney White Cranfield and Henry Ingle Potter. Publisher, B. T. Batsford, 94 High Holborn.

concrete of the scullery floor does not recommend itself. With us the class that rent the cheapest houses do not appreciate the tub, and if they did would not use such an arrangement.

The more detailed description of the various sets of plans are interesting sometimes suggestive. The smallest plans with a frontage of 11 feet and an area of 375 feet, seem impossibly small, and yet there are four rooms and a scullery. To be sure, the stairs and coals are in the centre, water-closet and pantry adjoin, and in the modified plan, which gives five rooms, one bedroom is of the bulkhead type previously mentioned. When, however, one considers how comfortable neatness and care can make a steamer state-room, one wonders if the tiny house well arranged is not really as well able to give true comfort as a larger one, providing always that these bedrooms of 100 feet have but two occupants at the outside.

So much depends in these small places on the old adage, “A place for everything and everything in its place." A living-room or bedroom intelligently planned to accommodate the necessary articles, when so used and neatly ordered, may be more comfortable and livable than a room twice as large which has been ill-planned, or which is kept in slovenly fashion. The lesson of neatness is all-important for the tenant of one of these miniature houses.

Group B houses are slightly larger and give entries, otherwise they are no improvement on the smaller plan. The bulkhead bedroom is evidently a hobby of the authors', as it is again and again suggested as an improvement enabling one to get two bedrooms in a space fit only for one.

Group C shows plans arranged with the common device of an irregular party-wall giving each house alternately increased width, front and rear. This would be a very appreciable item in cost, especially where it must be carried through the roof.

In Group D most of the objectionable features of the preceding plans have been removed (except the favorite bulkhead bedroom), but one plan (an existing type) has five chimney-stacks for each pair of houses and an irregular party-wall. This would seem extravagant in a house of 15 feet frontage, containing but five rooms. ᎠᏎ is a type generally condemned here, central plumbing opening on a narrow area, but where the building is but two stories the chief objection is removed. With us this plan has been used for six or eigh story apartments. D is, perhaps, on the whole the best plan shown. It is compact, free from breaks in party or external walls, and not open to the objections pointed out in the other plans. The area is 944 feet, about the same as B and most of the C group, but gives far better accommodation. This double house is estimated at £85, about $400; with us the cubic contents (20,414 feet) could not be contained in wooden walls for less than six cents a foot-our building would have to have a cellar, which would add nearly one-third to cubage; without cellar it would cost $1,200, and with cellar at least $1,600. Then, the method of construction in England would be impossible here. A wall two bricks thick, plastered without furring, would not keep out our driving rains unless kept constantly painted, nor would a slate roof laid on battens protect from either heat or cold, nor would it keep out drifting snow. On all such lines we must buy our own experience. These plans and methods of construction may answer admirably in England, but they would be absolutely out of the question here. There is, however, no reason why we should continue to build cheap houses of inflammable material - we could build light walls of various fireproof and cheap materials which would be strong and dry, but the majority of our city building requirements, in the rigidity of their laws as to brick buildings, distinctly encourage wood where it is permitted. This is bad policy from every point-of-view. It encourages cheap buildings, made to sell and not to last, unsightly buildings which ruin a neighborhood, inflammable buildings which threaten one another and the neighboring city as well.

Group E plans are of the area-lit type - never advisable if it can be avoided, but sometimes a necessary evil where lots are deep and must be narrow to avoid extravagance.

Group F shows double tenements; a form very popular here, but not to be recommended where the single house is possible. The smallest plan F, with scullery in a half-lit entry, is below the standard of anything which would rent here. Group G are similar, and represent a type which with us would be made seven or eight stories, and fitted with better stairs, lift and better plumbing, and would be better planned, to avoid rooms without doors on an entry.

It may seem from what has been written that the book is without merit and without applicability to our country, but there are certain lessons to be learned-not so much by the owners and builders of such houses as by the tenants, and this will be a difficult lesson to teach. A people who make good wages and earn money with comparative ease find their chief enjoyment in spending it, and if they prefer to do this they have their reward. As long, however, as this remains their point-of-view, it is no use to attempt to give the working people very cheap and economical houses. One is inclined to think that the disregard of economy is a widespread habit, due to the easy circumstances of a new and rapidly expanding country, and which it is very difficult to shake off.

In France and in England a gentleman with $15,000 or $20,000 a year will be as careful of all his expenditures as the clerk supporting his family on $1,500, not so much because he must, as because he prefers to get as much as possible in the way of actual return for his The same man here considers that he has a substantial remoney. turn in the fact that he lives without care. This same spirit pervades to a certain extent our working-classes they want comfort,

even luxury, and would rather spend their money in that than live with close economy and put more in the savings-bank. To meet this, a class of house has been built which is roomy, fitted with heat and plumbing, showy and tawdry. It is not built to last, but with a view to selling to the tenant, who often finds himself possessed of a building which deteriorates so rapidly as to make repairs a heavy annual item. Often repairs are neglected until the value of the house is almost obliterated.

There is another condition of our circumstances which changes the problem very materially. Our people all want to own both land and house rather than rent them. Urban land is too valuable to be covered with such small houses as we have been considering. The workman, therefore, will find his house in a suburban district and he will want a detached house and not one in a block. On the other hand the owner of the city land cannot get a fair return unless he can get a large rent. He will, therefore, turn to the many-storied tenement. The separate house and the tenement are, therefore, our problems.

For the cheapest kind of independent house the semi-detached is probably the best. This can readily be so planned as to give privacy to each family and to group the outbuildings and arrange their surroundings so as to be to their mutual advantage. Such buildings should be of brick, cement or plaster, and roofed with slate or some fireproof material. If the prejudice against attic rooms could be overcome, a single story with light walls and a large gambrel roof would afford excellent accommodation. Party-walls would, of course, be brick.

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IN

'N order to minimize the labor of the competitors and at the same time lighten the difficulties of examination and comparison, the Archbishop's professional adviser, Professor Ware, furnished the competitors with identical outline drawings of the present Cathedral, printed in light-gray ink on Whatman paper, the portions of the east end where the new design was to be drawn in being left blank. Both the competitors and the expert found the device of such great advantage that it is to be hoped that in any similar cases it will always be adopted.

The only disadvantage the method has is in cases of reproduction, where only one printing is possible, and we speak of the matter to account for the somewhat coarse and sketchy character of the lines which represent the untouched old work, as they interfere with the more delicate rendering of the Lady Chapel portions of the drawings rather more than they should. To the competitors, Professor Ware made the following report:

"The design selected for the Lady Chapel of the Cathedral of St. Patrick proves to be the work of Mr. Charles T. Mathews, of 150 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

"Owing to some delays at the Custom-house, the drawings were not ready for the Archbishop's examination until Wednesday, the 25th of April. In order to preserve as far as possible a perfect incognito, the French drawings were lettered after their arrival in this country, and the descriptive paper accompanying them translated and typewritten.

"His Grace sailed for Europe on Sunday, the 29th, but he had time before he went to examine the drawings, and, while disclaiming any wish to control the decision, he indicated four of them which to his own mind seemed preferable. The final decision, however, he committed entirely to Messrs. Eugene, Edward and Thomas H. Kelly, the sons of the late Mrs. Eugene Kelly and the executors of her will. "Of the fourteen designs submitted, two were somewhat exceptional in character, one of them having the shape of a Greek cross, the other that of a letter T. This was set crosswise on the plot of ground facing upon 51st Street. Of the remaining twelve, four showed a nave without aisles, four a nave with aisles or side-chapels, and of the other four, the plan of one had the shape of a circle, one of a decagon, one of an octagon and one of a hexagon. In seven of the designs the straight east end of the Cathedral was not disturbed, in seven it was reconstructed so as to give at the east end of the chancel a wide aisle running around the apse, forming a sort of chevet. In width and height these designs varied as much as the somewhat restricted space and the conditions imposed would permit, some rivalling the Cathedral in height, or even overtopping it, others taking a distinctly subordinate place. The approximate estimates varied accordingly from less than $200,000 to more than $400,000, and if the minimum

prices for all the different items were added together and this sum compared with the total of the maximum prices, the total range would extend from less than $150,000 to more than half a million. But most of the figures ranged between $225,000 and $275,000.

"In point of architectural character there was less to choose, for while two or three of them were of exceptional interest, and two or three others hardly met the requirements of the case, the rest were singularly uniform in architectural merit, and in point of draughtsmanship there was little ground for discrimination among them. Moreover, while the French drawings clearly betrayed themselves by marked peculiarities of treatment, there was nothing to show which came from England or from Canada, nor was it possible to guess correctly, as it proved, as to the authors of the others.

"On examining the drawings, it appeared, what was perhaps to be expected, that those with a single nave, without aisles, seemed on the whole best to meet the purposes of Mrs. Kelly's bequest and the conditions of the site. It was also plain that the designs which contemplated the enlargement and completion of the east end of the Cathedral were, other things being equal, much to be preferred. Of those which fulfilled these conditions, Mr. Mathews's scheme was clearly the best, both from the simplicity and elegance of its plan and from the character of the external treatment and the admirable way in which its outlines combined with those of the Cathedral itself, a point to which attention had been directed in the instructions. The large way in which the Cathedral and chapel were made to open up together was also a point in its favor, though this was a point to which some of the other competitors had paid special attention. These considerations seemed to me conclusive, and I had no hesitation in accepting and confirming this judgment. On referring to the memorandum which Archbishop Corrigan had made, it was satisfactory to find that Mr. Mathews's design was one of those which he had specially approved.

"I am instructed to thank the competitors for the personal interest which they have evidently taken in the work, for without it the drawings could hardly have reached so uniform and so unusual an excellence as they exhibit."

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THERE are few stretches of country containing as many odd and picturesque little towns as the district in Southwestern Germany called Franconia. Not yet invaded by the noisy locomotive, nor yet dotted with mills and factory-buildings, these little towns, frequently hemmed in their expansion between mountain-sides and streams, have preserved their mediæval, romantic character from the levelling influence of progressing civilization to such a degree that they afford an ample and most attractive field for his researches to the student, as well as valuable models to architect and artisan.

stance that the State furnished the timber free to the citizens who wanted it for building-operations, was undoubtedly favorable to the general adoption of the style of construction we encounter in these pretty house-fronts.

A charming bit from one of these Franconian towns (such as would have delighted the heart of John Ruskin, the hater of railroads and modern improvements) is shown in our plate. It represents the arched entrance-gate, whence leads a hilly path up to Miltenberg Castle, in Unterfranken, Bavaria, abont thirty miles west of Würzburg. The old castle, perched high upon the hill above the town-houses, used to serve as a hunting-castle for the Electors of Mayence, to whom it has belonged since A. D. 986. To architects, the two houses flanking the archway on the right hand, in half-timbered construction, with their exquisitely quaint façades and high gables, should prove especially attractive. Over the cellar-archway of the taller one is inscribed the number 1594, probably the date of the origin of the two houses. The fact that these buildings dating from so late an epoch show so pronounced a mediæval character cannot surprise the student when he considers how tenaciously the builders in the Franconian country clung to the Gothic style, a locality noted for a most peculiar amalgamation of Gothic and Renaissance, called the "Julius" style, which flourished during the first quarter of the seventeenth century.

The wealth of timber of the country, together with the circum

The tall building with the cosy-looking oriel enlivening its front contains (so we are told by a sign) a sewing-machine and bicycleshop, a rather rude anachronism, reminding the traveller that we stand at the end of the nineteenth century, Franconian backwardness notwithstanding. Would not Ruskin's sensitive soul have been filled with disgust at the sight of this sign! The small house to the left of the archway has a façade decked with bright frescos, such as meet the tourist's gaze frequently in South German towns. These frescos have either been recently renovated, or else are of modern origin altogether.

The Renaissance fountain in the middle of the little square matches the rest of the charming architectural group admirably. It was carved in stone and erected by a Nuremberg guide-master A. D. 1583, costing 703 florins, or about three hundred dollars, according to the town-archives. It is gratifying to know that the eye of the state-government is watchful regarding the preservation of those splendid old houses and will not permit their being torn down to make room for such ugly modern piles as that visible to the left in our plate.

MORE TOWNS AWHEEL.MR. J. H.

A COMPETITIVE DESIGN for the LADY CHAPEL OF ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL, NEW YORK, N. Y.: THREE PLATES. MR. GEORGE B. POST, ARCHITECT, NEW YORK, N. Y.

NOTES

CHPPINGS

THE SERPENT MOUND TO BE A PARK.-The Serpent Mound, the most famous of the works of the mound-builders of Ohio, is soon to become the property of the Ohio Archæological and Historical Society. Now it is the property of Harvard University. Secretary Randall of the Ohio Society received notification recently that the Trustees of Harvard University had adopted a resolution signifying their willingness to transfer the control of the famous park to the Ohio organization. A deed will be drawn up in a few days. Ten years ago the clubwomen of Boston purchased the property in question for the sum of $5,000 and presented it to the Peabody Museum, the Trustees of which transferred it to Harvard University. More than $3,000 has been expended in improvements, but the Eastern institution has reached the conclusion that the park should be under the control of Ohio people. A correspondence was opened with Mr. Randall, who, after ascertaining that the society which he represents has the right to acquire such property, accepted the offer of the Trustees. The conditions of the transfer require the society to maintain the mound and its surroundings as a public park, and to erect a suitable monument or tablet inscribed with the record of the preservation and the transfer of the property. Columbus (Ohio) Press-Post.

One of the most extraordinary spectacles in the world has recently been witnessed in Mix County, S. D. Six large towns, including Edgerton, Old Platte, Castalia, Academy, Colvin and Jasper, have been torn up by the roots. Every house and business structure in all these towns has been "snaked off" its foundation, mounted on wheels, hitched to twenty-four, and in some instance forty, horse teams and started on the long trek across the prairie toward Platte and Geddes. These are new towns on the line of the Milwaukee Railway, of which the Yankton and Tyndall branch, now in the course of construction, is the first railway-line the county has ever had. When the railway was surveyed, instead of hitting any of the fine towns then in existence, it followed the rich lowlands in the middle of the county. The towns surveyed on the line of the road were named respectively Platte, Geddes, Lake Andes, Wagner and Avon. People living in the old towns have been fighting hard to induce the company to change the route, but, failing in this, they decided to move, bag and baggage, houses, business blocks and all, to the new towns. Within a week where have been villages of from one thousand to two thousand population there will be nothing but a lot of poles in the ground, surrounded by ragged stone foundations. The growth of Platte within a week discounts any fairy tale. All the old buildings from the old town of Platte, many miles away, have been hauled in and set on lots in Main Street. Two churches are in course of erection, and an operahouse was among the structures commenced. Three hundred men and teams are grading the streets. The impression created in the mind of visitors is that somebody has taken a contract to build a city in twentyfour hours. The town-site company reserved the best corner lot in the place for any man who would put up a sixty-room hotel, to be comgraph, and bis advance guard is now at work. The hotel is to be of pleted within sixty days. A Michigan man accepted the offer by telebrick and stone, electrically lighted and thoroughly modern. An artesian well, sunk 800 feet deep, is throwing a stream big enough to supply a town of 5,000 people. The immediately available supplies of lumber, stone, brick, steel and building-materials were exhausted recently, and telegrams were rushed everywhere giving orders. In one instance a four-story frame structure 60' x 40' was hauled eleven miles on an ordinary wagon, with the gearing ingeniously arranged, by a forty-horse team. The building will be placed on a foundation in the new town, and the plastered walls were not cracked in transit. Gamblers and other questionable characters have made their appearance in large numbers, but the town has already organized a police force, and there is little disorder. — Cincinnati Enquirer.

S. J. PARKHILL & Co., Printers, Boston, U. S. A

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No. 219.

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AND BUILDING NEWS

1831

131

31

ADVERTISERS' TRADE SUPPLEMENT.

SATURDAY, AUGUST 4, 1900.

THE BRIDGE "TRUSTS."

It is well for fair-minded people, and most people desire to be reasonable in their views of public affairs, to consider what may properly be said in favor of any combination of the kind commonly denominated as trusts. Not all of these great combinations that have been formed during the past two years are mere stock-watering schemes, although many of them, it must be admitted, are. The American Bridge Company, recently formed, is an instance of a combination for which some very good reasons are presented.

Another strong reason for the bridge com- to keep the good friendship of the architect. bination is found in the necessity imposed After putting up as strong a defence as upon the concerns having large works to meet possible, so far as the quality of the paint was the obstacles placed in their way by the concerned, we found that both the owner of bridge-brokers. There are not a few so- the factory and the architect were determined called bridge companies or firms which main- to make somebody stand the expense of tain no manufacturing plants, but act simply repainting the roof. as parasites on those concerns which do have such plants. The methods of the bridgebroker are thus described:

We thereupon set out to find where the painters had bought the Dixon paint for the job. We found that they had purchased five Without so much as a blacksmith shop gallons of Dixon's Silica-Graphite Paint from behind him, the broker has entered his bid a local dealer, who carried it in stock, and upon every piece of bridge construction for that the balance of the paint used on the job which bids were advertised; and it has been was a paint called the "X. & Y.," of which This combination was not formed hurriedly. frequently the case that his bid has been the it was judged they used about forty gallons. It was a long time under consideration. The lowest, and he has obtained the contract. concerns which have entered it were not Knowing the condition which has existed in weak or unsuccessful, nor were they owned a majority of the big shops, and the difficulty by men who were anxious to sell out their with which the plants were kept busy, he has interests and retire from business. It was taken advantage of it, and after obtaining not a case where over-production had glutted the contract he has sublet it to the builders at the market. The construction of steel bridges a price below the cost of turning out the and buildings is not a business which can be material. The builder has been compelled to carried on like a nail-factory or a cotton-mill, accept the work and the broker's figures for that may accumulate a large stock of manu- it, or close up his plant. The new combinafactured articles for which there is no imme- tion will "freeze out" the broker. diate sale.

The matter is now nicely adjusted; and the painters are going to repaint the roof at their own expense, and Dixon is relieved of any responsibility in connection with the job, and we retain the friendship of the architect, and also the friendship of the hardware firm who have been handling our paint in the city where this occurred, and who sold the five gallons mentioned above.

As our representative puts it: "This is one of the cases where the guilty parties came near sticking the innocent, but did n't."

We have of course witheld the names of

the architect and painters, and the name of the town, as these are not necessary in pointing the moral.

This does not mean that all competition in In the work of the bridge companies the steel bridge-work is to be abolished. There contract must in every case precede the be- will still be plenty of it, but it will not be so ginning of work upon any structure, and in easy for competitors to force the carrying on almost every case an open competition is of business at a loss, as formerly. The coninvited by the person or corporation which solidation of the business of buying steel for seeks to provide itself with such a piece of construction-work should enable a large savconstruction. Let us see what has happened ing to be effected, and we do not see why it is not permissible to expect a real public benefit from the formation of the American Bridge Company. - Hartford (Conn.), Times.

in such cases hitherto.

A CASE IN POINT.

The building of the East Hartford bridge
across the Connecticut is a useful instance.
In that case there were a dozen or more
bidders, each one of whom submitted plans
for the bridge which it proposed to supply, AN architect and consulting engineer has
and each of these sets of plans cost several been specifying Dixon's Silica-Graphite Paint
hundred dollars. Then each bidder was re- for some little time. One of these specifica-
quired to deposit a certified check of a spec- tions was for a new roof on a factory. About
ified amount, to be held until the competition seven or eight months after the roof was
was completed. In this way more than painted two coats, the architect received word
$200,000 of cash capital was locked up for from the owner of the factory that the paint
several weeks. It is probable that the actual had all worn off the roof, and the tin was
cost of this competition to the bridge com- rusting; he insisted on having it painted
panies was not less than $25,000. Practically again without expense to himself.
the whole actual cost of the bridge was The painters were a well-known firm and
equalled by the amount expended by the in good standing, and they stated that they
companies seeking the contract. The same had simply put on the paint that had been
thing happens whenever a large number of specified, and if it did not last, it was not
bidders enter into any competition for this their fault.
class of work. It is needless to argue that
this is a wasteful system. A combination in-
cluding all, or nearly all, the bidders could
have afforded to take the Hartford bridge
contract at a much lower price than any one
of them could safely offer.

The architect then came to us to have the matter fixed, and we opened correspondence with him in the endeavor to try and avert the necessity of sending the owner of the factory twenty-five gallons of paint free of charge to repaint the roof; at the same time we desired

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VOLUME LXIX.
No. 1284.

Specification of Paint. Architects, consulting engineers, owners and persons interested in the subject of protective paint for steel structures will receive a handsome card illustrating several eighteen-story steel structures upon which Dixon's Silica-Graphite Paint has been used, if they will send their address to the Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Jersey City, N. J. The card also contains suggestions for specification of the paint, and its well-known durability has led to its specification and use upon many immense steel viaducts, bridges and manufacturing plants all over the world.

THE Glidden Varnish Co., of Cleveland, are building a $50,000 addition to their Works, which, with the present capacity, will enable them to turn out as much varnish as the largest varnish plant in the world.

This Company has come to the front very fast during the last few years, and their famous specialities - Surfacene, M. P. Special Coach, and Jap-a-lac-have a world-wide reputation.

The new addition will be utilized principally for making Jap-a-lac, the new wood finish, one of the most elastic and durable varnishes ever offered to the trade.

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Special graphite lubricants are prepared for the gears of both electric, steam and gas motors. For the driving chains on steam or gas automobiles, graphite in some form should always be used, as it saves power and at the same time so thoroughly lubricates the links that it will prevent the chains from breaking.

When used for the chain, the graphite should not be used with any grease, as the sticky grease causes the dust and dirt to adhere to the chain, thereby practically shortening the chain and making it unnecessarily tight. The graphite should be used with a nice quality of vaseline or should be mixed with gasoline or turpentine, and applied to the chain. The gasoline or turpentine will evaporate, leaving a thin coating of graphite on the chain.

Those interested in the subject of graphite lubrication should write to the

JOSEPH DIXON CRUCIBLE CO., JERSEY CITY, N. J. (Continued on page 3.)

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PAT'D Nov 2.1091.

July 20 Aug 11.1001.

LE

YALE

The Yale & Towne Mfg. Co.

The Yale Lock

in its original form revolutionized the art of lock-making;

in its latest form, with Paracentric Key,

it marks the highest standard of secu

rity. It is made in hundreds of styles and for every possible use. The Genuine all bear our Trefoil Trade Mark.*

TOWNE

PARACENTRE

YALE

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Illustrating the Yale Pin-Tumbler Mechanism.

Builders' Hardware

embraces door and window trim of all kinds; our line covers every grade and is the largest in the trade. It includes staple goods of all kinds and numerous mechanical novelties and specialties.*

The Hardware of Ornament

comprises decorative metal-work for doors, windows and cabinets; our collection of designs and patterns of this class is by far the largest in the world, and of the highest technical excellence*

*Technical literature on this.subject furnished to Architects on request. General Offices:

9, 11 and 13 Murray Street, New York City.

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