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was the highest, and apparently, the only bid made, and the a French citizen or not, who knowingly employs a foreigner iron was sold to him. Later, a corporation, the Girard Iron not provided with a certificate of immatriculation, or who, emand Metal Company, heard of the transaction, and protested; ploying a person known to be a foreigner, fails to ascertain and, finally, the contract with Barrett was set aside, and the whether he possesses the required certificate, is also liable to iron sold to the Girard Company, for about seventeen thousand punishment. dollars. Meanwhile, Samuel, who had received the four thousand dollars from Barrett, bad forgotten to divide it with bis

LEON GUILLET gives, in Le Génie Civil, a wellpartner, Blakey, and the latter sued to recover his share, but

written account of the new “ aluminothermic"

processes has just been defeated, on the ground that the law will not for reducing metals from their oxides, welding rails and interfere in the quarrels of parties to a dishonest or improper pipes, and so on. Every one who has experimented with flashtransaction.

lights knows that aluminium, in fine powder, is explosive when

mixed with a highly oxidized substance, like chlorate of potash, HE two Greeley statues in New York, one in front of the or even when diffused in the air, but every one does not know

Tribune Building, and the other in Broadway, at Thirty- that the temperature developed in the combustion of aluminium

third Street, have been the subject of an interesting law is extremely high. It is this circumstance which makes alusuit. After the death of Mr. Greeley, Mr. Whitelaw Reid, minium valuable in metallurgy. If some aluminium, in powder who succeeded him as editor of the Tribune, consulted with or small grains, is mixed with iron ore, and ignited, an active other friends of the deceased in regard to the erection of a

combustion takes place, and a button of iron is formed in the suitable memorial. A committee was appointed, subscriptions crucible used for the operation, covered with a scoria of alusolicited, and a few thousand dollars raised. At this point the mina. The same effect is produced with chromium, and many panic of 1873 occurred, and the committee discontinued its other metals, and, as there is a commercial demand for certain labors. Meanwhile, Mr. Reid had received, as a personal of these, the process is likely to be found useful in manufacturmatter, two sums of one thousand dollars each, to be used in ing them. In practice, a mixture of aluminium and metallic his discretion for the purpose of doing honor to Mr. Greeley's oxide is not easily ignited, and a primer is used, consisting of memory, and the Tribune had invited small subscriptions, and aluminium powder mixed with five times its weight of pulhad received, in all, about nine hundred dollars. In 1881, verized binoxide of barium. A little of this priming powder, when the committee had been eight years idle, Mr. Reid, with which is highly explosive, and must be handled cautiously, is out calling for the money still in the hands of its treasurer, scattered on top of the mixture of aluminium grains and metallic took the two thousand dollars which had been put in his hands, oxide which it is desired to reduce, and which is first placed in to be used in his discretion, and the nine hundred dollars sent

plumbago crucible, lined with magnesia, and a lighted match to the Tribune, and, adding nearly eleven thousand dollars out is then thrown on it. The priming powder takes fire, with a of his own pocket, contracted with Mr. J. Q. A. Ward for the slight explosion, and, in burning, kindles the less inflammable statue now standing in front of the Tribune building. In 1887, mixture under it ; and the combustion goes on until the mineral when the original committee bad given no sign of life for four-is reduced. The slag obtained in the ordinary working of the teen years, one of its members, Mr. Niles, attempted to get it aluminothermic process consists of an intensely hard corundum, together again. Only one other member, General Cochrane, or emery, so much harder than ordinary emery that even the responded to his call. Both of them, according to the evidence, diamond does not scratch it; but there seems to be no reason approved the action taken six years before by Mr. Reid in why, with pure materials, it could not be obtained in transregard to the funds in his own hands, but thought it necessary parent crystals, colored in the same way, and with the same to do something with the money which the committee had substances, as natural rubies and sapphires. It is said that the collected fourteen years previously, and which, naturally, could slag crystallizes, but in crystals so small that they are useless now neither be returned to the donors, nor applied to any other in jewelry; but it might not be difficult to increase their size. purpose. Mr. J. Q. Howard was added to the committee, and Meanwhile, the simple mixture of aluminium grains and irontwo years later, in 1889, a contract was made by these three, ore affords a means for producing high temperatures which is as an “ Executive Committee,” with Mr. Alexander Doyle, for of great value. By surrounding the ends of a broken rail the erection of the statue now standing at Thirty-third Street. with a sheet-iron case, tamped with sand, bringing the ends The work was duly carried out, but Mr. Doyle understood that together with clamps, and pouring in the molten contents of a he was entitled to receive, as a part of his pay, the subscrip- crucible filled with the aluminium-iron mixture and lighted tions which had been placed in the hands of Mr. Reid, and with a little priming-powder and a match, the metal can be used by him in connection with the Ward statue. Mr. Reid welded together again so strongly that the rail will break thought differently, and Mr. Ward brought suit for the 'money. again elsewhere, rather than at the joint; and, particularly in The case has now been decided, after three trials, by the Court railway management, a heating material so portable and so of Appeals, in favor of Mr. Reid. The questions involved are

efficient will have many applications. so technical that a layman could hardly venture to form an opinion about the matter, and we can only regret that Mr.

T is a matter for sincere regret that the great Paris ExposiDoyle should bave been put to so much expense in the unsuc


tion of 1900, now closed, has not been financially successful. cessful prosecution of what he undoubtedly believed to be an It was not expected that the sale of entrance-tickets would honest claim.

cover the expenses, the indirect profit from the sale of postage

stamps, railway transportation and so on being counted upon MERICAN and English architects are occasionally called to make up the balance; but, this year, the sale of tickets has

upon to do work in France, and it may be well for them been small, and, presumably, the indirect receipts have been

to be reminded that the statutes of France place restric- proportionately so. At the last Exposition, in 1889, twenty tions upon them in such cases. The declared policy of the million admission tickets are said to have been sold, bringing French law is “to protect French workmen against the com- in about four million dollars. How many have been sold this petition of foreign workmen on French soil, in the same year is not yet known, but less than half of those issued have way that the customs laws protect the national industry against been disposed of, and, owing to the peculiar manner in which the invasion of products of foreign origin.” With this view, they were issued to subscribers, in blocks with a lottery-ticket it is now required that every foreigner who arrives in France attachment, the price has been regulated by competition among with the intention of carrying on there any profession, com the subscribers, and has, we think, never gone above thirteen merce or industry shall, within a week after his arrival, file, at or fourteen cents, while the great majority of the tickets have the mairie of the commune in which he resides, a declaration been sold for five or six cents each. This, of itself, would af. of his purpose, and receive a certificate of “immatriculation.” fect the receipts disastrously, and the extremely hot weather This certificate must be shown when required, and if the in Paris in July, the alarm caused by the fall of the bridge over foreigner changes his residence, he must, within two days after the Avenue de Suffren in May, and the political disturbances his arrival at his new abode, bring it to the mairie at his new caused by foreign wars, seem to have combined to keep visitors residence, to be inspected and stamped. Even if he only in away from Paris. The result will probably deter the Parisians tends to stay in France a short time, the same formalities must from holding any more expositions for many years to come, be gone through, and, if he makes repeated professional visits, but they should have the credit of having carried out this one a new certificate must be obtained at each visit. Any infrac- with an energy and magnificence, and in a spirit of fairness and tion of these laws is punished with fines, or imprisonment, ac courtesy to all persons concerned, which deserve grateful recording to the gravity of the offence, and any person, whether membrance.




unrolls itself through a length of five kilometres, over irregularities of the site which rise billock above hillock.

The museum of Bologna is one of the most important in Italy, not only because of the number of paintings which it contains, but also and especially because it encloses the richest collection of paintings of the Bolognese school, derived from the churches and convents suppressed at the end of the last century. And finally, it possesses Raphael's “St. Cecilia,” which is not only the finest painting by the master of Urbino, but one of the most beautiful paintings in the world.

The University, which contains five faculties and enrolls some five hundred students, is one of the most ancient scholastic monuments; after the famous University of Salerno, it is the one which has had the longest existence, as it was founded in 1119. It was in this university that Galvani made the great discovery which opened the age of electricity. It was also at the University of Bologna that, in 1315, the first corpse was dissected by Mondini. At certain epochs the courses of this institution were attended by ten thousand students. To-day the_surgical clinic of Bologna is the first in rank in the kingdom. Before and during the Renaissance, several chairs at this university were occupied by women, who taught with much success philosophy, law, anatomy and mathematics. In the fourteenth century, Novella, celebrated for her talent as much as for her beauty, succeeded to her father, and, according to the chronicles of the times, was obliged to lecture behind a curtain in order that the charm which her beauty exercised over the audience might not distract


Palazzo, Fava.

OLOGNA still contains a considerable number of churches whose



merits are quite secondary, an enumeration of which would have

little interest, particularly at a distance. But we must point out the Church of the Madonna di San Luca, situated at about an hour's

Doorlof the Two Giants : Palazzo Bargellini,


them from her discourse. In the closing years of the last century, Clotilde Tambroni taught Greek here, and it was at the same time that Gaetana Agnesi gave instruction in mathematics at Milan.

To architects Bologna offers a wide field of studies because of the unusual number of palaces which adorn it, belonging to different epochs and presenting peculiarities of the most varied and most opposed styles. The Palazzo Albergati, built after the designs of Baldassare Peruzzi, dates from the commencement of the sixteenth century. It is quite simple, and the sobriety of its lines, which do pot escape a certain harshness, give it a clear and luminous air. The facade of the Palazzo Bevilacqua, a work attributed to Bramantino, is grand and imposing, with an exterior skin of hard stone, cut to a diamond face, which covers it like a cuirass. But what is most particularly deserving of remark about this building is the portico of the quadrangular court-yard, which consists of two orders of canellated Corinthian columns, supporting full-centred arches, in the style affected by Bramantino.

The architecture of the Palazzo Fava is distinguished for its originality of design, the first story being supported by arches resting on square piers crowned by short, stumpy capitals in the Byzan

tine style; we find also a reminiscence of this style in the ornaments Palazzo Malvezzi-Campeggi. Andrea and Giacomo Marchesi, Architects.

which bound the arcades. The windows, also full-centred, are in

perfect harmony with the portico which bears the first story. The distance from the city, as it presents the peculiarity that one ap

rooms of this first story are enriched with paintings by the three proaches to it by a portico which, on setting out from the city, Carracci, and represent the principal scenes of " The Æneid.” The 1 Continued from No. 1295, page 21.

Palazzo Malvezzi-Campeggi, with certain differences in the ornament, See American Architect for October 20.

is conceived in the same style as the one just mentioned, but the

arcades of the windows are designed with a greater purity and have a slight tendency toward the pointed form, rests upon corbels without the Byzantine affectations; the columns are of the Doric overbanging the ground floor. It is one of the most imposing and

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order. This palace also has a very remarkable court-yard. The most severely simple of the works of architecture of the early cen. Palazzo Malvezzi-Medici shows us all the characteristics of the turies left in Bologna. In passing, we might notice the doorway seventeenth century, with a lower row of windows crowned by curved of the two giants" in the Palazzo Bargellini, as well as the modern

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mouldings, while the upper row is treated with right-lined tympana. | savings-bank building and the Palazzo Petruzzi, built after the The “House of the Carracci” takes us several centuries back into the designs of Andrea Marchesi. The Palazzo Publico, whose construcpast, to the time when Gothic architecture was being married to tion was begun in the thirteenth century and fiuished two centuries the Roman. The single story, the arches of whose twin windows 'later, is one of the rare buildings in Bologna where the pointed arch

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Statue of Murat in the Certosa. Vincenzo Vela, Sculptor.

Palazzo del Podesta : XIII Century. Facade by B. Fioravanti. and the square tower crowned with crenellations which surmounts Finally, I ought to mention, before stopping, the two monuments it.

which attract attention at Bologna through their singularity; these One must not pass through the public place without casting a are the tower of the Asinelli and the Garisenda tower, which rear

The Garisenda and Asinelli Towers. XII Century.

glance at the colossal “ Neplune," by Giovanni di Bologna, which themselves side by side like two sisters, and which offer, like the ornaments the fountain, and upon the equestrian statue of Victor tower of Pisa, the peculiarity of not being erect upon their bases. Emmanuel, by the Sculptor Monteverde, to-day a senator. Amongst | The tower of the Asinelli, built in 1105 by the family which bore the monuments which relate to modern history should also be men this name, is 89 metres in height and has an inclination out of the

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perpendicular of 1.16 metres. After the terrible earthquake of 1779,

DIFFUSION OF LIGHT.-I. this inclination had not varied. There was found, however, a slight increase in the inclination by a new observation taken in 1813. The WO public tests of the diffusion of light were given at the Walker Garisenda, built in 1110, measures only 49 metres in height, and its

Building of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, inclination was, in 1762, 2.59 metres to the east and .97 metre to

on the 11th and 12th of September, 1900. the south. In 1815, it was observed that this inclination had in The representatives were present of all the different types of creased by 48 centimetres. This phenomenon, apparently due to the glass now available for this purpose which were tested, having been sinking of the soil, is of very ancient date, as Dante alludes to it in specially asked to make any suggestion or to take any exception to a song in his “ Inferno."


the methods adopted. None was made.

The conclusions which may be deduced from these tests, with a The following extract from the Boston Transcript makes a proper

window twelve inches square serving as the sole source of light in addendum to M. Mereu's brief record of the famous women of

a large ball with dark ceiling, are: Bologna:

First. — Windows of the customary height, but of one-third the “In the University of Bologna, from the Middle Ages down, women

width commonly adopted, when glazed with ribbed or suitable prishave been allowed to occupy professional chairs. It is pleasant to

matic glass, will give on a bright day as much effective light as the learn that in this city the intellectual qualities of women had full and full width of window glazed with plane glass ; on a cloudy day or in effectual recognition. The first of the women professors of whom a position where the light from the sky is derived from a limited we have any knowledge is Bettisia Gozzadini, who was born about area, even a greater ratio. the beginning of the thirteenth century. Our knowledge of this

Second. — Windows of the type common now in mills, workshops remarkáble woman is rather bazy, and some authors have even

or schoolrooms, now fitted with plane glass, if reglazed in the upper questioned her existence. Litta, in his work entitled Celebrated half only with ribbed or prismatic glass, will yield on a bright day Families,' in treating of the tradition relating to Gozzadini, writes:

more than fifty per cent excess of effective light, or on dark days • She would never dress as a woman, nor use the needle, but devoted

a larger ratio. If reglazed down to, but not including, the lower herself wholly to the study of law and became most learned. She panes (in which we advise plane-glass), the increase in effective lectured in the public studio (or University) and frequently in the light will be much greater. public squares, on account of the immense number of listeners.'

Third. — Whether or not the increase of effective light will be as “ Tradition has preserved the memory of another woman whose great in a room now fully lighted by the customary number of winbeauty appears to have been as great as her intellectual qualities. dows of plane-glass as in this ball lighted with a single twelve-inch Novella, the daughter of the jurisconsult Giovanni d'Andrea, was

window has not yet been determined, but it has been proved in mill born in 1312, and while still a young woman was accustomed to give practice that the light is much improved in quality and is rendered lectures at the University in the place of her father, when illness or

much more effective, both near to and far away from the windows. other pressing matters prevented him from attending. But according

In reviewing the photographs presented by Mr. Norton, a very to one account, she appeared in the professor's chair with her face great contrast will be observed between the very dark, even black, covered by a veil, so as not to distract the attention of her hearers

impression from the plane-glass and the very white impression of by her extraordinary beauty. Another account relates that she sat

the diffused light from the ribbed or prismatic forms. This impresbehind a curtain which concealed her charms from the young men

sion must be taken with some reservation, bearing in mind thai bat who listened to her lectures on law.

one window twelve inches square was used to light a large hall. “It is recorded that Dorothea, daughter of Giovanni Bocchi, If photographs were taken in a room already well lighted by numerlecturer in moral philosophy and practical medicine, continued to

ous windows of plane-glass, then in the same room with the win. teach publicly the students of her father, and there was a very great be lessened, but the change in the impression would yet be a true

dows reglazed for diffusion, the contrast of white and black would concourse of them. “ A record is also mentioned of two women of the fourteenth

measure of the increase in the effective light in the different parts of

the room. century, very learned in Greek and in Latin. Bettina Sangiorgi

We have as yet had no opportunity to take such phototaught Greek, and Viovanni Bianchetti

, a woman," writes Ghirar: graphs, but hope to be given one. If any of our members near dacci, illustrious for her splendid virtues, who, besides being pos

Boston should decide to reglaze the upper sash in a room now sessed of beauty and grace, not only spoke elegantly in the Latin fairly ligbted with plane-glass, a notice is requested before begintongue, but likewise, to the great surprise of many, reasoned in the ning, in order that Mr. Norton may take photometric measurements German and Bohemian languages.'

of the light under present conditions and after the change. “Laura Maria Caterina Bassi was born in Bologna in 1711, and

At the meeting September 11th, the following remarks were made received the laurea in 1732 — at the age of twenty-one. She was

by me: immediately placed upon the list of professors. She was the theme

Prismatic forms of glass and ribbed glass have been working a of all conversation; the private diaries and journals and letters of

diffusion of ligbt ever since they were made use of for glazing. The the citizens were filled with her glory and greatness. She was called prismatic glass used has been mostly in fancy forms, but the ribbed to assist at every conversazione, and to maintain philosophic theses, glass has been used in the doors and windows of lavatories and other such as those she maintained in the Aldrovandi palace in the pres places, instead of transparent glass, to my own knowledge, more ence of Cardinal Acquavira. In her twenty-seventh year she married

than forty years. Wherever such use has occurred light has been Giuseppe Veratti, professor of physics. She continued to occupy for the diffusion or deflection of light for more than fifty years in

diffused or deflected. Prismatic forms of glass have been in use her chair of universal philosophy, and after a time took up the subject in which her husband was interested.

the decks of ships, especially over cabins. Here is one of the forms “Maria Gaetana Agnesi at ten years of age knew Latin and Greek

of prismatic glass, which has been used as well enough to enable her to translate a mythology. Her book

a paper-weight by Mr. George Hayes, of Analytic Institutions, which was quite remarkable for the time, was

New York, builder of skylights, for twentypublished in 1748. It obtained for her the chair of analytic geometry

eight years, having been previously in use in the University, to which she was called by Pope Benedict XIV,

over a ship's cabin. himself a Lambertini of Bologna. She taught there for more than

It follows that, if any claims for lettersforty-eight years.

patent for the diffusion or deflection of “Another whose renown is widespread was Anna Morandi Man

light by the use of any type or form of priszolini, who obtained a chair of anatomy in the University in 1760,

matic glass have ever been granted, such with the charge of modelling anatomical preparations in wax. Her

claims or patents are now of no effect and work in this line brought her much fame, and she was sought after

Fig. 1.

may be wholly disregarded in a general by the faculties of other universities. But she remained steadfast to

dealing with this question. Special designs Bologna, and died there in 1774.

may be registered or patented as designs or forms capable of being “The eighteenth century was a period when the women lecturers applied to the deflection or diffusion of light, and also methods of of Bologna flourished. The fame of the three just recorded animated framing or glazing; but these claims may be set aside as of no general many another to follow in their paths. Among those who made a

effect or importance. name were Maria dalle Donne and Clotilde Tambroni, both Bolog

My own attention was called to this matter in the year 1883, nese. The latter was elected professor of Greek literature in 1792,

when I inspected a large number of the modern English cottonand was deprived of her chair five years after because she would not

mills. I found them glazed with rough plate-glass of rather poor take the oath to the French Republican authorities.

In 1800 she quality, the common glass of England being very inferior to our was restored to her place, which sbe occupied for eight years.”

own, from lack of an abundant supply of sand of good quality. On asking the reason, I was told that the light within was more uniform

and better. To my surprise this appeared to be true. The interior THAMES-MUD FUEL. — A new fuel has been patented in London. of the mill had the aspect of diffused light. was also claimed Thames mud, street-sweepings and London sewage are treated chemi that the extra thickness of the glass also served a useful purpose in cally and compressed into briquettes which burn rapidly, leaving 25 per maintaining more uniform conditions of temperature. cent of firm ash. Street-sweepings, with 5 per cent of cheap chemicals,

This fact led me to reason on the subject. I looked into the con

struction of the Fresnel lens, in which, as you are aware, a combinaare also sterilized and made into blocks for the same purpose. A fuel

tion of lenses and curved surfaces concentrates the rays of light in closely resembling coal, the manufacture of which costs less than $2

a single, far-reaching beam. I reasoned that if by one set of angles per ton, and which burns satisfactorily, has also been made. The rapid

or curves the rays of light could be concentrated, then by reversal, increase in the price of British coal has stimulated the wits of the light could be diffused. I consulted the principal glass-makers and inventors over there .- Exchange.

experts, suggesting the manufacture of panes of glass with one face

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