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Entered at the Post-Office at Boston as second-class matter.

because the “expected economies,” to be effected by the conJULY 14, 1900.

solidation, have failed to materialize. The announced economies have been effected surely enough, works have been closed, workmen have been discharged, and clerks and officials have been callously turned adrift on the world, but it has none the less proved impossible to earn dividends on the vast issues of

so-called stock, and though we are ready to commiserate any SUMMARY: The American Bridge Company a serviceable Ally of Archi.

innocent holders of such stock, we still welcome these antects and Builders. — Trusts that have not realized “Ex nouncements as presaging the ultimate downfall of these pected Economies." - Lower Prices a Necessity for Pro-. gigantic industrial swindles. Legitimate combinations created ducers no less than for Consumers. - Passenger Galleries for by the joining of actually operating plants and the adjunction Steamboat Piers. - Fires on Railway Trains and how to provide against them. - Official Residence for the French Am

of actual capital and live assets are well enough because they bassador to be built in Washington. The Equestrian

are not unnatural, but these huge stock-gambling affairs, with Statues of Washington and Lafayette unveiled last week in their uttered millions of watered stock, are quite different Paris. — Archæological Researches in British Honduras. . 9

matters, and are distinct perils to the commercial life of the A PLEA FOR RAIN-BATHS IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. – I.



country in all its parts. ILLUSTRATIONS:

A Competitive Design for the New York Stock Exchange SIDE from those trusts that have already passed their divi

Building. — Plans and Sections of the same Building. — Two
Dwelling-houses, Baltimore, Md. — Apartment-house.

dends, there are others that show an indication of return. The Italiau Building: Paris Exposition of 1900.— The Belgian

ing sanity; that give evidence that they have discovered Building. Paris Exposition of 1900.

that their cynical disregard of the right of mankind to live is Additional: House of Mr. F. L. V. Hoppin, Architect, No. 118

only likely to bring about their own undoing; that are already East 22d St., New York, N. Y. - Main Entrance: Judson Memorial Church, Washington Square, New York, N. Y.

finding that in order to earn anything — quite setting out of Clerk's Office: Court-house of the Appellate Division, New the question the earning of dividends on the watered stock – York, N. Y.- Restoration at Ordsall Hall, near Manchester, something must be done other than the mere arbitrary markEng.: Four Plates.


ing up of prices. The sudden marking up of prices without NOTES AND CLIPPINGS.


warning may produce a large temporary profit through catch

ing those already bound by contracts unprovided for; but, aside HE building interests have never had placed before them a

from the immorality of this method of robbery, it is the most more straightforward document or one more entitled to

ill-advised course that officials charged with producing a perbelief and respect than that which has just been issued by manent income could adopt. During the last week there the new combination of iron and steel working plants that is to

have been meetings between the members of the two great operate henceforth under the style of the American Bridge iron and steel trusts to consider the matter of prices, and Company. When Abram S. Hewitt, as a director, puts his

a price of twenty-five dollars a ton for steel billets was dame to the official statement that it is to be the policy of the agreed on, but in spite of this agreement one of the memnewly consolidated concerns that “no advance in prices will be bers later sold a large order at twenty-two dollars, an occurmade, but the cost of production will be reduced to an absolute

rence that seems to show that these trusts are not very strongly minimum," and that it will, hence, “be in a position to furnish

held together. More significant than this is the statement all classes of bridge and structural work at an absolute mini- made by the selling-member that it was his conviction that mum of cost [to the consumer) and in the very shortest possi- prices had got to come down to the lowest possible limit if ble time,” these assertions may safely be accepted by every one

business was to be hoped for,” and we will add to this our conwithout questioning. When Charles M. Davis is to have

viction that they not only have got to come down, but must be charge of the operating department, architects and builders kept down if any one is to derive a continuous income from the can rest satisfied with the proper and expeditious making of operations of the plants involved. Prosperity is to be gained estimates and delivery of material on time and in good order, and maintained only by encouraging activity in the fields where When the great Pencoyd Works, with its annual capacity of the plant's output is consumed; it cannot be encouraged through two hundred thousand tons, is only one out of the two dozen checking it by the application of factitious high prices. plants in the combination, architects can feel secure that even the largest contracts can be handled with as much speed and

HE terrible calamity that transpired in New York harbor certainty as are humanly possible, and when J. P. Morgan & last week has had the effect of turning attention sharply Co., Kidder, Peabody & Co., and August Belmont & Co. are


to the happy-go-lucky method under which a vast freight interested in financing the consolidation, every one can accept traffic is conducted in one of the world's greatest seaports, and it as a certainty that the new combination is formed to stay, the newspapers have followed columns filled with the harrowand that it will be possible for it to furnish material to the ing details of the disaster with other columns equally filled building fraternity at " an absolute minimum of cost." The with advice as to needed and possible improvements offered by capacity to do so is beyond question and we earnestly believe editors, reporters and correspondents. One of the latter, a that the existence of the will to do so is equally entitled to Philadelphia architect, comes forward with a patented scheme belief. The American Bridge Company has but to live up which occupies the pier-heads with seventeen-story fireproof to the letter of its announcement and it will find that architects buildings, the lower stories used as freight sheds, the upper as and builders will throw into its hands all the business it can

tenements, with, over all, an esplanade ” running over the handle, and that from this business it can derive a fair and con-roof-tops and offering to cranks and would-be suicides greater tinuous mercantile profit that will enable it to hold together for facilities for a sensational exit from life than is afforded by an indefinite time.

the Brooklyn Bridge. Doubtless much will be done to miti

gate the existing dangers in the way of equipping piers with HIS bridge-building corporation, our readers will recall, is systems of pumps, pipe-lines, automatic sprinklers, and event

the only “trust " we have ever spoken of in terms of ap- ually the present combustible buildings will be replaced by

probation, as one of the chief objects for its formation was others that are fireproof. But the danger lies less in the the extermination of the unfair competition that the individual buildings than in the cargoes that are temporarily housed in plants suffered through the bidding of "bridge brokers" on them, which not only may be the cause of a fire through sponany and every job that came into the market, and inevitably taneous combustion, but owing to their very miscellaneous charproduced and maintained a state of unsettled prices which re acteristics and the manner in which they are prepared for shipduced most building-operations to mere games of chance. With ment are particularly liable to ignite through the agency of the new trust to rely on, architects can now talk with intend. spark, dropped match or cigar end. The discipline that can ing clients in such a way as to win their confidence, as no wet control those who regularly work about the piers and sheds, blanket is to an investor quite so wet as a confessed uncertainty sailors, longshoremen and stevedores, is ineffective as applied as to the probable cost of his undertaking. As to the many to passengers and individuals who may have occasion to visit, on other trusts, we confess to reading with pleasure that several of business, the piers or boats lying at them. It would seem that for them bave just announced that they must pass their dividends the use of these classes of occasional visitors a fireproof gallery


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above the floor of the piers would be a useful adjunct and one that into an ambassador, responds by a similar transmogrification could be added to existing piers without very great expense. of this country's official representative, our architects may exThe present system of landing passengers on the common pect shortly to have a chance to design an official residence for floor of the pier, over which to the exit they have to make our ambassador in Paris, but under an appropriation probably their way as best they can, dodging teams and truck loads of much larger than that the French Chamber has just voted, bales and boxes at the peril of their life, is, to say the least, and later there will be further employment in designing simi

No steamship company, apparently, would think lar houses for American democratic simplicity in London, Berof providing safe egress for its passengers, as its responsibility lin, Rome, Vienna and elsewhere. The possibilities that can ends with placing them safely on shore, but it is curious that be evolved from this beginning are interesting and it will be the thought that a match or cigar carelessly dropped by a pas- amusing to discover what scheming architect first succeeds in senger, startled out of his presence of mind by an angry impre- getting a bill before Congress nominating him as the architect cation from a hurrying longshoreman, might produce disaster, selected to design the first official home for an American amhas not led to the adoption of more civilized methods. As men bassador abroad. The French, unfortunately, have a rather will smoke in spite of rules and regulations, a special smoking- scorpful way of thinking that anything in the way of a statue room, where the hands at the noon hour or at each change of or a monument is good enough to set up in a foreign country, shift could draw a few of these consoling and refreshing whiffs, and they may have the same feeling as regards buildings, and would seem to be a reasonable provision to make, and one so, in place of erecting in Washington a building which will which would tend to prevent infractions of the rule against really add to the architectural adornment of the city, they may smoking.

entrust the work to some one of the designers who have created

the architectural nightmares that now house the Exposition of UT fire is not to be dreaded only when one is shut up in a 1900 in Paris.


building or on shipboard, and apparatus for the escape from, or the control of, fire is needed in other places than

HE people of this country, we are happy to say, seem inbuildings and ships. Those who have had to face a fire in a clined to pay attention to the eternal fitness of things and, passenger-car know what is almost the extreme limit of human when they undertake to respond in kind for any favor or helplessness, and for the safeguarding of the millions who travel honor done them by a foreign country, endeavor to entrust the by rail each year the railroads should be forced to provide ade execution of the symbol to hands that are really capable and quate safeguards in the way of portable extinguishers or appara- intelligences that are really cultivated. Proof of this is to be tus operated from the locomotive. One of the English roads is found in the equestrian statues of “Washington ” by Messrs. now, because of a wreck which occurred near a station, equipping French and Potter, and of “ Lafayette by Mr. Bartlett, that all its stations with fire-apparatus, and more than this, is adding have just been unveiled in Paris, the first the gift of the to the equipment of its engines a powerful fire-pump and a ser-Daughters of the Revolution, and the second paid for by conviceable length of hose, the needed water being obtained from

tributions from the school-children of the United States, the the tender or from any stream or well that may be accessible. general Government contributing appropriations more or less But in cases such as occurred on a Western road, where gas large, so that the statues do have some real significance as a that had leaked from a conveyor suddenly ignited and filled the token of national amity. Judged by the illustrations that have sleeper instantly with flame, an engineer might proceed for come to hand, the Washington group is the more satisfactory of miles without knowing he was drawing behind him a burning the two, though it has at the same time more of the elements car, for an engineer is normally looking out ahead and has no of the commonplace than has the other ; that is, it has more the eyes to give to the train behind him. For such cases as this air of a portrait-statue from the life, and has not the effect of and for the equally dangerous, but more common, mishaps of a being the result of a pure effort of the imagination - aided by train breaking in two, it would be well to enforce the general half remembrances of other statues, which is the main impresadoption of a device in use on one of the railways in India, a

sion one receives from the “ Lafayette.” Bartlett's work is device which is both adequate and so cheap that the most par- disappointing in that it seems to be largely made up of unrelasimonious directorate could hardly object to its adoption. The ted parts embodying too strong reminders of well-known pieces device is simply a mirror attached to the outside of the locomo- of equine sculpture elsewhere. Thus the crest, eyes and ears tive cab and adjusted at such an angle that in it is reflected the of the horse are distinct reminders of Frémiet's work, the foreentire length of the train behind, so that the engineer, without hand is the forehand of a horse of St. Mark’s, the tail is the leaning out of his window and turning his head to assure him. tail of the Colleoni, while the barrel and hindquarters are comself that his train is all right, can ascertain the fact by a glance

mon to many, and rather commonplace. But it is not easy to at the mirror so momentary as not to interfere with his outlook model a horse that will not, as distinctly as this, recall in more ahead.

or less of its parts statues already existing elsewhere. In the

pose selected for the Marquis, the sculptor has hardly been HE French Chamber of Deputies has just taken a step in

more fortunate. It is not a common one, so it is all the more unwhich interesting potentialities are involved, since it sets

fortunate that it should at once recall that of the statue of an example that, if followed, may have a material effect Etienne Marcel, only a few squares away behind the Hôtel in adding to the architectural interest of the city of Washing- de Ville. Considered together, these statues of Washington ton. The Chamber has voted a credit of something over two and Lafayette admirably present what Americans understand hundred and fifty thousand dollars for the purchase of a site

to be the different characters of the two men at the time their and the erection thereon of a suitable official residence for the destinies made them companions : Washington, self-reliant and French ambassador. In nothing is our political system more impressive, Lafayette, impressionable and tending to become democratic than in the manner in which our own officials are merely a hero-worshipper. housed, they being, with the exception of the President, left to house as best they can leased or purchased HE investigations into the archæology of Central America, private houses, and foreign officials, perhaps feeling called which have been carried on with zeal and success by on to adopt the fashion of the country, have done the same American expeditions, have been rather interfered with by thing, so you may find a foreign embassy housed in any sort the unwillingness of the Colonial Government to grant permisof a house, hotel or apartment. Some ambassadors temporarily sion for the study of the aboriginal remains in British Honduown the buildings they occupy, but none, we believe, has ever As much material is known to exist there, the lack of built one to suit his official needs. But if France set the ex- opportunity for examining and comparing the Maya or Aztec ample and the result prove to be officially satisfactory and ar- antiquities in this part of the country with those already studtistically interesting, other embassies are not unlikely to follow ied elsewhere is a serious bar to the intelligent elucidation of suit, and if each country should have its building designed in one of the most curious problems of ethnology and history ; the style in vogue at home, and if these official residences and the President of the British Archæological Association, should be built as neighbors in the same quarter or upon the the Marquis of Granby, with the coöperation of some of his same square, Washington may acquire a permanent exhibition personal friends, proposes to organize an expedition to make of " foreign pavilions,” which will lend a perpetually “ Mid-explorations in the ruined city of Tikal, about sixty miles west way” air to the neighborhood, and country visitors will regu- of Belize. Being exclusively British, this expedition will unlarly take it in as one of the sights that must not be overlooked. doubtedly have free access to the region in question, and the Then, too, as this country is jealously reciprocal in its inter results of its work will be available to the whole scientific national dealings, and, when a foreign minister is transformed 'world.



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A PLEA FOR RAIN - BATHS IN THE PUBLIC attained. Public schools located in the tenement districts, on the other SCHOOLS.1 - I.

hand, are very much benefited if some method of bathing the children during school hours is provided, for the largest percentage of the tenement-house population must go without a bath the year round. In the narrow, dark and ill-ventilated quarters which they call their “homes" opportunities are seldom afforded for thorough ablutions.

Some years ago, Dr. Hunter Stewart, of Edinburgh, read a paper entitled, “ Ventilation of Public Schools,” in which he suggested the establishment of “goap-and-water" baths in schools, assuring his audience that “the use of such would go far to purify their atmosphere.” Dr. Oscar Lassar, one of the earliest champions of the rain-bath, asserted that the air of theatres and audience-balls generally was polluted not so much by the products of gas-illumination and the respiratory process as by the noxious exhalations emanating from ill-kept skins, and intensified by the heat due to the crowding together of many persons.

The late Sir Edwin Chadwick, in advocating school-baths, said, Of the lessons that may be taught in the schools, the practice of cleanliness is of the highest order.” In a review of the progress of sanitation during the year 1888, he called attention to new bathing-apparatus especially applicable to schools by which a child may be completely washed in three minutes. “ Look at the comparative sanitary result of the washed children of a whole school,” he says,

as against the common one of the fouled-air and badly-washed Fig. 1. Woman's Douche-bath : From a Greek Vase.

children. Look at the service to the poor mother who has no means

of washing.” ANITARY science teaches that infectious diseases can best be

From Kotelmann's book on “School Hygiene" I quote as follows: prevented by the speedy and regular removal of all dirt and “If cleanliness does not prevail in the school-room, and the air

For one

waste refuse from the centres of population. This axiom ap is constantly being polluted by filth, no amount of ventilation will plies not only to our city streets and habitations, but also to the prove sufficient. Cleanliness should extend, in the first place, to the human body. One of the functions of the skin is to continually pupils themselves. Not only ought their bodies to be scrupulously secrete waste products from the body. During this process the outer

clean, but also their clothes and shoes. layers of the skin are continually cast off and renewed. The cloth “In connection with this matter, the school shower-baths introing which civilized human beings wear forms an obstruction to the duced by the city of Göttingen deserve more attention from higher immediate removal of the dead and cast-off matter, hence the skin institutions of learning than they have hitherto received. excretions are retained on the same longer than is desirable. The thing they promote the cleanliness of the skin; and for another, they waste matters form an incrustation on the skin, are then subject to learl the pupil to desire clean underclothing.”. decomposition, give off bad odors, and impair the proper function of These and similar observations agree entirely with those of the the skin. The chief reason for wearing underwear is to prevent the writer, and serve but to confirm the suggestions made in this essay. skin dirt from attaching to the outer clothes, but some of the dirt It is a deplorable fact that the children of the poorer classes of a remains in the undergarments until these are sent to the laundry. population, who form the largest attendance in the public schools, Bacteriologists have discovered in such clothes not only dirt and particularly in the elementary grades, often show an utter disregard layers of the skin, but also many bacteria and disease germs. It is for, and lack of, personal cleanliness. In the tenements the children obvious, then, that both the skin of persons and their underclothing usually have no facilities for bathing and keeping clean. They may need frequent cleaning, the one in the bath, the other in the wash. wash their faces and hands daily — and this usually, too, in a hasty

Among the chief causes of air contamination in school-rooms are, manner — but the feet are bathed only at rare intervals, and in many first, the lack of bodily cleanliness of many school-children, and cases the main body receives no ablution the entire year. In fact, second, dirt accumulated both in the pupils' underwear and also in observation shows that many poor children have not the desire for a their outer garments.

cleansing bath at regular intervals, for though we see them flocking Ventilation of rooms is usually understood to comprise means for

to the free floating-baths in summer time in cities situated on rivers the removal of foul air and for the introduction of a sufficient quantity

or near the seashore, they are attracted there solely by the wish to of purified air, warmed during the winter season, and admitted in enjoy the refreshing sensation of the bath or to practise swimming. such a way as to avoid any draught. I assert, however, without fear Assuming, therefore, that school-baths are desirable, if practicable, of contradiction, that in school-rooms the best system of ventilation the question arises : What form of bath should be used in schools ? must fail to remove entirely the odors arising from unwashed bodies

This is answered by considering the object in view, which is to afford and from unclean garments. It is a matter of common observation

the children inexpensive, quickly applied means for ablutions of the that the air of a class-room can be rendered much purer by a re whole body. For such a cleansing bath, warm water and soap are moval of the pupils during recess and by some energetic air-flushing required. The former loosens the outer incrustations of the skin, accomplished by opening all windows than by the best ventilating composed of dirt particles and epithelial cells, while the alkali of the system, and this for the obvious reason that two of the chief sources soap cuts the grease excretions and assists in removing them. of air pollution — the children themselves and their clothes — have Warm baths can be given in large swimming-basins, in tubs, and been removed. Therefore, it follows that the above, generally ac

finally by means of simple sprays or douches. Swimming-basins are cepted, definition of “ventilation ” is imperfect, that something more ill adapted for school-baths, for they are not only very costly to build is required than the mere introduction of pure air and the removal

and maintain, but are not intended for washing and ablutions, and of foul air. What we must do in ventilating rooms or audience-balls the common use of the water in swimming-basins involves the possiis to remove entirely, or to keep out, all direct sources of impurities bility of the transmission of infectious diseases. Warm tub-baths which contaminate the inside air. Applied to buildings in general,

are likewise unsuitable, for they are more expensive than sprays this means that plumbing fixtures, traps and pipes, which may con

both in first cost and in maintenance, they require much more space, tain sewer air, must be made free from defects or leaks, that gas

and a very much larger quantity of water. They also require more leaks likewise must be repaired, and that there must be no accumu

time in filling and in emptying, and more labor and attention to keep lations of organic waste matters, like garbage. In school-rooms, in

them clean. In the tub the bather is surrounded by dirty water, particular, it points to the desirability of frequent and thorough whereas in the rain-bath constantly fresh stream of water pours ablutions of the children. Incidentally, it shows that it is desirable down upon his body and at once flows off to the sewer. In fact, to remove from class-rooms the usual wardrobes for the overcoats, the same arguments which point to the superiority of the spray or head-coverings, umbrellas and rubber-shoes of the pupils. Even

rain baths for people's baths are applicable in their entirety to where such wardrobes are provided with special ventilating.flues, school-baths. I may reaso

sonably assume that some of the audience the odors from a large number of damp clothes are apt to assert

are acquainted with my former essays advocating the introduction themselves unpleasantly. It is vastly better to arrange the ward of the rain-bath. Not the least of the advantages of the douche over robes in the corridors outside of the class-rooms, or else to provide the tub bath is that it stimulates the action of the skin by the mespecial hat-and-coat rooms for pupils near the entrance-halls of the chanical effect of the drops of water, and hence renders children school. The ventilation system adopted for a school-house, what more active after the bath, more bright, more eager to learn, and ever it may be, can be a success only if all sources of noxious

makes them show interest in their studies; whereas a bath taken in emanations are done away with.

a tub has the contrary effect, being usually debilitating. The sprayThe purpose of my paper is to advocate the introduction and bath is both cleansing and stimulating, and if followed by a gradually establishment of “rain-baths” in the public schools. I do not wish colder douche subsequent catching cold may be prevented, and the to be understood as considering school-baths an absolute necessity in body is hardened against many forms of disease. all public schools. Some school-buildings are located in good neigh

The particular form of douche which I would recommend is the borhoods, and are attended by the children of people who are toler

shower of tepid water from an inclined overhead rose or sprinklerably well-to-do, and in whose homes cleanliness can be, and is usually, head, having a large number of perforations, each about three-thirty

seconds of an inch in diameter. The rain-bath is sometimes spoken 1 A paper by Wm. Paul Gerhard, C. E., Consulting Engineer for Sanitary Works, read at the May 7, 1900, meeting of the American Social Science Associa See the author's essays on “The Modern Rain-bath,” and on "Bathing and tion, held at Washington, D. C.

Different Forms of Baths."


of as a modern form of bath, while others aptly call it “the bath of and covered with a wooden lattice floor. Three large vertical the future." Dr. Oscar Lassar, in an essay, read at the meeting douches were installed and under each was placed a zinc pan, about at Cologne, held on September 18, 1888, of the Association of three-and-one-fourth feet in diameter, and about fifteen inches high, German Naturalists and Physicians, has drawn attention to the to which a waste-pipe was attached. The douches were arranged to fact that a Greek vase, recovered from the excavations at Volci, run simultaneously, three children being placed under each douche. an ancient Etruscan city located near the shores of the Tyrrhenean | The janitor controlled the mixing of the hot and cold water, and the Sea, which vase is now said to be in one of the Berlin Imperial children were not permitted to touch the valves. Two months after Museums, proves that the rain or spray baths were well known to the baths were put in operation, seventy-five per cent of the children the Greeks. In a description of the new public bath-house at bathed regularly, although the bathing was not made obligatory. Breslau, Prussia, Dr. Kabierske illustrates another Greek vase, on Later on, the greater advantage of the inclined douche was recog. which is represented a woman's bath, which shows clearly that the nized, and it was also found necessary to provide larger dressing. use of the inclined overhead douche was known to the ancient rooms, so that twice the number of children bathing could be nations. (See Fig. 1.)

accommodated. In this way the bathing of a class was quickly In taking the ground that the spray-bath is the best form of bath accomplished. for use in public schools, I do not wish to understood as under The success of the school-baths at Göttingen was so great that estimating the beneficial effect of swimming-baths. However good hygienists, school-teachers and principals, city architects and others, swimming as a form of athletic exercise may be, the school-house visited the new baths in great numbers. proper cannot be regarded as the place for practising such exercises. The idea at once became very popular, and in a very short time a

The advantages of school-baths are numerous. In the first place, large number of German cities provided spray-baths in some of their the school-children are offered the opportunity of a weekly cleansing- school-buildings. I will mention only a few of these out of a large bath, which in most cases they lack in their homes. The children number. In Weimar they were introduced in 1886, and soon out of are readily kept clean, and this in turn, as already indicated, is a 1,300 children 910 took the baths. In Madgeburg four schools have powerful help in keeping the air of the class-rooms free from dis- spray-baths; Königsberg bas two school-houses with baths. Berlin agreeable odors. In addition to the direct benefit derived from had in 1896 four school-baths, Breslau had four in 1887, and since bathing there is the indirect advantage resulting from the children then five more have been installed. Posen has one school-bath. being taught and brought up to appreciate cleanliness. In the early Frankfort-on-Main had in 1896 three, Hanover nine such baths, in summer days a dash of water from a cooler douche serves to refresh which about one hundred thousand baths were given in six years. the body and to reduce its temperature. Moreover, the bathing to Cologne has several schools so fitted up, and in Altona a large gether of many children necessarily bas the effect of making them school-house has a special spray-bath pavilion arranged in the centre more tidy as regards their undergarments. This, in turn, cannot court between the two wings of the school-building. More recently, help exerting a beneficial influence in the children's homes, for school-baths were erected in several of the schools of Zurich parents will naturally strive to keep their children cleaner and their (Switzerland), also in Copenhagen (Denmark), Christiania (Norway), garments neater wben they know that in undressing together, slovand in Paris. Wherever such school-baths were introduced, their enliness of the dress, or raggedness of the underclothes due to the success was almost instantaneous and so great that the Boards of mother's carelessness or inattention, may reflect unfavorably upon Education decided to include baths in the specifications for all new the children. To a certain extent the bathing of children in public school-buildings. At the annual meeting, in 1886, at Breslau, the schools will exert a beneficial and wholesome influence in fostering German Public Health Association passed resolutions endorsing and habits of cleanliness among the people generally. Above all, the recommending school-baths for public schools, modelled after those habit of taking baths at regular and frequent intervals, if cultivated first introduced at Göttingen. There is not a single instance on and taught during the period of early childhood, is bound to exert a record where the bathing arrangements placed in public schools wholesome influence upon the later periods of life.

were put out of use on account of a slim attendance. For all these reasons, school-baths may rightly be considered to be Soon after the year 1891, when the idea of people's rain-baths was a moral factor in the education of the young. The results even ex first agitated in the United States, a high-school building in Scrantend farther, and include the betterment of their home life and ton, Pa., was fitted up with spray-baths under the direction of Theo. surroundings.

P. Chandler, an architect of Philadelphia. Is it not a fact that, besides being a detriment to health, lack of In a report on “School Hygiene and School Houses," written by cleanliness gradually leads to loss of self-respect, to bad habits, Dr. A. G. Young, for the seventh annual report (1892) of the State vulgarity and vice? In a measure, school-baths even help to reduce Board of Health of Maine, the German school-baths are referred to the sharp contrasts which exist between the laboring classes and the as follows: well-to-do people.

" The advantages of the school-baths observed in European Experience teaches that a school-janitor can readily manage the schools are bodily cleanliness of the child, greater care on the part of bathing-apparatus and control the bathing of the boys, while the jani the parents in keeping the clothes of the school children neat and tor's wife may take charge of the bathroom for the girls. The hour clean, improvement of the condition of the school-room air, again in for bathing can be set so that it will not interfere with any im the physical health of the pupil and the increase in the mental fresh. portant studies, but it is well to bear in mind not to continue the ness and activity. There results, therefore, a physical, a moral and bathing during the last school-hour, in order not to expose the chil an intellectual gain. Moreover, from more than one of the towns dren to the danger of catching cold when they leave the school. A where school-baths have been opened comes the testimony that a good way to avoid this danger at all times is to have the tepid good reflex moral influence has been exerted upon the parents and douche followed by a cold douche of short duration, in order to close families of the pupils. up the pores of the skin and to harden the body in general.

“ The manifest advantages that have come from the establishment It

may be asked, are not school-baths unnecessary in those cities of school-baths in the old countries render it evident that their introor city districts where people's baths are maintained by the munici duction into some of our own city schools is an experiment worth pality? In answer, let me state that up to the present time there trying.” are not, in any city of the United States, a sufficient number of free In 1895, the writer published a brochure on “Bathing and the baths for the people. In the State of New York, for instance, a law Different Forms of Baths,” from which are quoted the following was passed in 1893 making the establishment of free people's baths paragraphs regarding school-baths : mandatory, yet no free baths have been added so far to those few " Experience teaches that the air of the school-rooms is badly conwhich existed prior to the passage of this legislative act, except in taminated by the emanations from the children's bodies and by the some of the smaller cities. In New York City some people's baths odor from their clothing. All attempts to improve the sanitary conare now under construction ; in Brooklyn no effort whatever has dition of schools will fail to accomplish their object thoroughly if been made lately to erect any free baths open all the year round. means are not provided to cleanse the bodies of the pupils. CleanAgain, experience in European cities, where it has been the custom liness of school-children will make the ventilation of school-rooms an to give free tickets for the public baths to the children of the public easier problem, and further than that, it will tend to increase the schools, has shown that neither the children nor the parents appre appreciation for cleanliness in the lower classes of population, and ciate the offer sufficiently.

thus indirectly stimulate bodily - and often moral — purity in the Before presenting a few illustrations of plans for school-baths, let home circle. me say a few words about how the establishment of spray-baths in “ The first one to suggest the advantages and the necessity for the public schools originated. History informs us that in ancient school-baths was, I believe, the late Dr. Alfred Carpenter, of Greece gymnasia and swimming-baths were often attached to Croydon, Eng. In his lectures on · Preventive Medicine in Relaschools. In modern times, a few of the schools in England were pro tion to Public Health,' delivered in 1877, he discussed the subject as vided, some with tub-baths, others with bathing-pools. At one of follows :the large Berlin gymnasiums (high school) there is a complete “. Every public elementary school ought to have a proper washswimming-bath, besides five tub-baths for preliminary cleaning. ing-place, so that the children might wash the whole of the body The credit of introducing spray-baths into the public schools belongs at least twice a week, as well as their hands and face. . . Is the to Professor Fluegge and Mayor Merkel, both of the university custom of wearing the same dirty garments day after day, getting town of Göttingen, in Germany.

daily more filthy, an unavoidable one? It is this custom which The first trial was made there in 1885 in one of the public schools makes the air of rooms so unwholesome in which the lower classes by fitting up in the basement a bath-room, 8 feet long by 16} feet wide, of children assemble, and which frequently produces the first seed of an adjoining apartment of the same size being used as a dressing. evil in the constitution, especially when they go into the room damp The walls were finished with cement, and the floors asphalted from the effect of a drizzling rain. Every one accustomed to a badly

ventilated school-room knows that it is the smell from damp and dirty 1Die Kultur-Aufgabe der Volksbaeder."

clothes which is the principal source of the offensive atmosphere.


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