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low. Every battell of the warriour is with confused noise and garments rouled in blood. Death reignes in the field, and is sure to have the day which side soever falls. In the meantime (O formidable!) the infernall fiends follow the Campe to catch after the soules of rude nefarious souldiers (such as are commonly men of the calling) who fight themselves fearlessly into the mouth of hell for revenge, a booty

a little revenue. How thicke and threefole doe they speed one another to destruction? A day of battel is a day of harvest for the devil.

All this while, the poore wife and tender children sit weeping together at home, having taken their late farewell of the harnessed husband and father (O it was a sad parting if you had seen it!) never looking to see his face againe, as indeed many and the most of them never doe; for anon comes Ely's messenger from the Camp saying, There is a great slaughter among the people, and your husband is dead, your father is dead, hee was slaine in an hot fight, hee was shot dead in the place & never spake a word more. Then the poore widow who fed yet upon a crumb of hope, teares her haire from her head, rends her cloths, wrings her hands, lifts up her voice to Heaven, and weeps like Rachell that would not bee comforted, her children hang about her crying and saying, O my father is slaine, my father is dead, I shall never see my father more; and so they cry and sob and sigh out their afflicted soules, and breake their hearts together. Alas, alas! this is yet but Warre thorow a Crevise. Beloved, doe not consider; There is many times fire without warre, and famine and pestie lence without warre, but war is never without them; and there are many times robberies without war, and murthering of passengers, ravishing of matrons, deflouring of virgins, cruelties and torments, and sometimes barbarous and inhumane practices without war, but war goes seldome or never without them.

Warre, it is malum complexum, a compound of Judgments, a mixt misery, the cup in the hand of the Lord, the wine whereof is red, and it is full of mixture. The Wine is indeed as red as blood, and the ingredients are fire, famine, pestilence, murthers, robberies, rapes, deflourings, cruelties, torment, with many other miseries, The voyce of melody ceaseth, relations that were lately the comfort and now become the griefe of the life of men; the high wayes are unoccupied, the travellers walke thorow by wayes, the Inhabitants of the villages cease, and the noise of the Archers is heard in the places of drawing water. Warre, it is the immediate hand of such whose tenderest mercies are cruelties, commonly therefore the last of Gods Stroakes upon them that will take no warning. But yet there is difference in warres; a warre in the borders of an enemy is held better than a warre in ones native Countrey; for commonly, the Land that is as the Garden of Eden before an enemy, behind them is like a desolate Wildernesse; and it is very wofull when people and land shall be wasted together. Or if it bee warre in our owne Land, yet a warre against a forreigne enemy invading, is farre better than a civill warre. It is grievous, but not admirable, to see an Egyptian and an Hebrew contending, but to see, as the Prophet sayth, Egyptians against Egyptians, and every one fighting against his brother, and against his neighbour, City against City, and Kingdome against Kingdome; or to see, as the same Prophet sayth, Manasseh against Ephraim and Ephraim against Manasseh, and both against Iudah; O, this is both lamentable and wonderfull! The mad souldier in the heat of his blood, and the depth of his Atheisme, may account it perhaps at first with Abner but a play to see Israelites catching of Israelites by the beard, and thrusting their swords into one anothers sides: but of all warres none so bloody, neither hath any play such bitternesse in the end.

It is a sad play, wherein not only mens goods, and bodies, and soules, doe commonly lye at stake, but wherein also even the very Conquerour is conquered, as one that played but for his owne money, and at such a desperate play, whose

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very gaines are loosings. No warres so cruell, so unnaturall, so desolating, as Civill warres. You have heard, Beloved, of the dreadfull German-warres; why if there bee any in our owne Countrey this day, I may call them Germanwarres, because they are the warres of Germans, even the bloody contentions of brethren; and when relations turne opposites, nothing more opposite. A Kingdom at warres with a forreigne enemy may stand, but a Kingdome divided against it selfe, can never; there can never bee prosperity within Ierusalems pallaces, if first there bee not peace within her wals. Unity and peace are a bond, and where that is broken, there must needs follow dissolution.

Samuel H. Emery, The Ministry of Taunton (Boston, 1853), I. 87-91.

9. Reasons for Emigrating to America

(1641)
By REVEREND WILLIAM CASTELL

An English curate much interested in the conversion of the Indians.

When a Kingdom beginneth to be over-burthened with a multitude of people (as England and Scotland now do) to have a convenient place where to send forth Colonies is no smal benefit: And such are the North-east and North-west parts of America, betweene the degrees of 25. and 45. of the North latitude, which, at this tinie doe even offer themselves unto us, to bee protected by us, against the knowne cruelty of the over-neare approaching Spaniard.

A very large tract of ground containing spacious, healthfull, pleasant, and fruitfull countries, not only apt, but already provided of all things necessary for mans sustentation, Corne, Grasse, and wholesome cattell [cattle] in good competencie; but Fish, Fowle, Fruits and Herbes in abundant variety.

If wee should looke no further, then [than] the South of Virginia, (which is our owne) wee shall find there all manner of provision for life; besides Merchantable Commodities, Silke, Vines, Cotton, Tobacco, Deer-skins, Goat-skins, rich Furre, and Beavers good store, Timber, Brasse, Iron, Pitch, Tarre, Rosin; and almost all things necessary for shipping, which if they shall bee employed that way; they who are sent away may (with Gods blessing) within short time in due recompence of their setting forth, returne this Kingdome store of silver and gold, pearles and precious stones; for undoubtedly (if there be not a generall mistake in all Authors, who have written of these places) such treasure is to bee had, if not there, yet in places not farre remote, where (as yet) the Spaniard hath nothing to doe. And

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