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inclines them more to marry, and makes them more healthful for generation, and affords them better means of having the necessaries to sustain life, as wholesome food, and cleanly dwelling, and apparel, the want of which, in other countries, is a high article in the burials of the common people.

Xenophon, in that Tract which is published at the end of the First Part of these Discourses, says, “That governments resemble their governors.” This maxim of his is certainly right; and from thence it follows, that the welfare of the American colonies will very much depend upon the conduct and behaviour of such as are sent to reside and govern there by the King's authority.

In former times, this part of policy has without doubt been very much neglected, there having generally been put at the head of these affairs abroad, indigent, ignorant, or extravagant persons, of which one sort made a prey, and the others, by their examples, corrupted the manners of the people.

Charles D'Avenant, Political & Commercial Works (London, 1771), II. 10-31 passim.

12. “A Land of Liberty" (1772)


A Boston physician, early interested in the colonial controversy. This piece is taken from his Boston Massacre oration.

You have my friends and countrymen often frustrated the designs of your enemies, by your unanimity and fortitude: It was your union and determined spirit which expelled those troops, who poluted your streets with INNOCENT BLOOD. -You have appointed this anniversary as a standing memorial of the BLOODY CONSEQUENCES OF PLACING AN ARMED FORCE IN A POPULOUS CITY, and of your deliverance from the dangers which then seemed to hang over your heads; and I am confident that you never will betray the least want of spirit when called upon to guard your freedom.-None but they who set a just value upon the blessings of Liberty are worthy to enjoy her-Your illustrious fathers were her zealous votaries —when the blasting frowns of tyranny drove her from public view, they clasped her in their arms, they cherished her in their generous bosoms, they brought her safe over the rough ocean, and fixed her seat in this then dreary wilderness; they nursed her infant age with the most tender care; for her sake, they patiently bore the severest hardships; for her support, they underwent the most rugged toils: In her defence, they boldly encountered the most alarming dangers; neither the ravenous beasts that ranged the woods for prey; nor the more furious savages of the wilderness; could damp their ardor !-Whilst with one hand, they broke the stubborn glebe; with the other, they grasped their weapons, ever ready to protect her from danger.—No sacrifice, not even their own blood, was esteemed too rich a libation for her altar! God prospered their valour, they preserved her brillancy unsullied, they enjoyed her whilst they lived, and dying, bequeathed the dear inherintance to your care. And as they left you this glorious legacy, they have undoubtedly transmitted to you, some portion of their noble spirit, to inspire you with virtue to merit her, and courage to preserve her; you surely cannot, with such examples before your eyes, as every page of the history of this country affords; suffer your liberties to be ravished from you by lawless force, or cajoled away by flattery and fraud.

The voice of your Fathers blood cries to you from the ground; MY SONS, SCORN TO BE SLAVES! In vain we met the frowns of tyrants—In vain, we left our native land-In vain, we crossed the boisterous ocean, found a new world, and prepared it for the happy residence of LIBERTY—In vain, we toiled-In vain, we fought-We bled in vain, if you, our offispring want valour to repel the assaults of her invaders! Stain not the glory of your worthy ancestors, but like them resolve, never to part with your birth-right; be wise in your deliberations, and determined in your exertions for the preservation of your liberties.-Follow not the dictates of passion, but enlist yourselves under the sacred banner of reason: Use


method in your power to secure your rights: At least prevent the curses of posterity from being heaped upon our memories.

If you with united zeal and fortitude oppose the torrent of oppression; if you feel the true fire of patriotism burning in your breasts; if you from your souls despise the most gaudy dress that slavery can wear; if you really prefer the lonely cottage (whilst blest with liberty) to gilded palaces surrounded with the ensigns of slavery; you may have the fullest assurance that tyranny with her whole accursed train will hide their hideous heads in confusion, shame and despair-If you perform your part, you must have the strongest confidence, that THE SAME ALMIGHTY BEING who protected your pious and venerable fore-fathers-who enabled them to turn a barren wilderness into a fruitful field, who so often made bare his arm for their salvation, will still be mindful of their offspring. May this ALMIGHTY BEING graciously

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preside in all our councils.—May he direct us to such measures as he himself shall approve, and be pleased to bless.-May we ever be a people favored of GOD.-May our land be a land of Liberty, the seat of virtue, the asylum of the oppressed, a name and a praise in the whole earth, until the last shock of time shall bury the empires of the world in one common undistinguished ruin!

Joseph Warren, An Oration (Boston, 1772), 16-18.

13. Theory of the State of Nature


(See note above, p. 268.)

Ist. Natural Rights of the Colonists as Men.

Among the Natural Rights of the Colonists are these First, a Right to Life; Secondly to Liberty; thirdly to Property; together with the Right to support and defend them in the best manner they can—Those are evident Branches of, rather than deductions from the Duty of Self Preservation, commonly called the first Law of Nature

All Men have a Right to remain in a State of Nature as long as they please: And in case of

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