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possession of the whole Indian country. Let now any soldier or politician consider the enormous endless expence of all this conduct, and then answer to what profitable purpose such measure leads, which may in a much better and juster way be obtained.

If our government considers this well, and will listen to those who are best versed in Indian affafrs, it will be convinced that honesty is the best policy; and that our dominion in America, will be best and surest founded in faith and justice, toward the remnant of these much injured natives of the country.

Thomas Pownall, Administration of the Colonies (London, 1768), 260-265.

7. Address to the Sons of Liberty


(See note above, p. 268.)



Revolving time hath brought about another anniversary of the repeal of the odious Stamp Act,-an act framed to divest us of our liberties and to bring us to slavery, poverty, and misery. The resolute stand made by the Sons of Liberty against the detestable policy had more effect in bringing on the repeal than any conviction in the Parliament of Great Britain of the injustice and iniquity of the act. It was repealed from principles of convenience to Old England, and accompanied with a declaration of their right to tax us; and since, the same Parliament have passed acts which, if obeyed in the Colonies, will be equally fatal. Although the people of Great Britain be only fellow-subjects, they have of late assumed a power to compel us to buy at their market such things as we want of European produce and manufacture; and, at the same time, have taxed many of the articles for the express purpose of a revenue; and, for the collection of the duties, have sent fleets, armies, commissioners, guardacostas, judges of admiralty, and a host of petty officers, whose insolence and rapacity are become intolerable. Our cities are garrisoned; the peace and order which heretofore dignified our streets are exchanged for the horrid blasphemies and outrages of soldiers; our trade is obstructed ; our vessels and cargoes, the effects of industry, violently seized; and, in a word, every species of injustice that a wicked and debauched Ministry could invent is now practised against the most sober, industrious, and loyal people that ever lived in society. The joint supplications of all the Colonies have been rejected; and letters and mandates, in terms of the highest affront and indignity, have been transmitted from little and insignificant servants of the Crown to his Majesty's grand and august sovereignties in America.

These things being so, it becomes us, my brethren, to walk worthy of our vocation, to use every lawful mean to frustrate the wicked designs of our enemies at home and abroad, and to unite against the evil and pernicious machinations of those who would destroy us. I judge that nothing can have a better tendency to this grand end than encouraging our own manufactures, and a total disuse of foreign superfluities.

When I consider the corruption of Great Britain, their load of debt, their intestine divisions, tumults, and riots, their scarcity of provisions, and the contempt in which they are held by the nations about them; and when I consider, on the other hand, the state of the American Colonies with regard to the various climates, soils, produce, rapid population, joined to the virtue of the inhabitants, I cannot but think that the conduct bf Old England towards us may be permitted by Divine Wisdom, and ordained by the insearchable providence of the Almighty, for hastening a period dreadful to Great Britain.


William V. Wells, Life of Samuel Adams (Boston, 1865), I. 247-248.

8. Old Militia Training Days (1769)


(Written 1867)

A Massachusetts man, biographer of Timothy Pickering, from whose reminiscences this piece was drawn.

The men were ordered to assemble at nine o'clock; and perhaps by ten they were all mustered. About this time also the officers might make their pompous entrance on the parade. . . The men were ordered to form; and by the time this was effected, and the various disputes among the men as to their places, according to each man's humor, and such like important matters, were adjusted, the clock might strike eleven.

Then the roll was called. . . . If the trainingfield was not also the place of parade, they wheeled their divisions and began their march majestically slow. And here the notable achievements of some intrepid soldiers must not be passed over in silence. Did any awkward or uncommon figure of a man come in sight of these heroes, by a sudden excursion they surprised, surrounded, and for a while buried him in fire and smoke; then, with self-approving shouts, and breasts glowing with the thoughts of their valorous deeds, they made a gallant retreat, and again joined the main body. But never did these undaunted souls breathe more heroic ardor, than when some harmless maid, some modest fair, drawn by the irresistible power of curiosity to see these public shows, made her appearance. Then they summoned all their courage, then they exerted all their fire, to fill with dire alarms her tender breast.

At length they arrived at the place of exercise, and were ... ready for business by half after eleven, or twelve, o'clock. Then, if any officer of the company had learnt the words of command for the manual exercise, they were given to the soldiers; and sometimes, perhaps, a posturemaster was set for their imitation. .. This sometimes was repeated; and by that time it was necessary to dismiss the men; which, after a volley or two, was accordingly done. Thus ended the forenoon.

The officers, &c., then retired to a tavern, where an elegant entertainment was prepared, and wine and punch went round. after three ... they were tolerably recruited; and by four the men might be again under arms, and were exercised as before. At five o'clock they might return to the parade, or to the officers' quarters, where the treat, random fire, and reiterated volleys finished the exercises of the day. One day was commonly spent in firing at a

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